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Sociedad Geológica de Chile: July 2011


Jeffrey Hedenquist Consultor Ottawa, Canada

after R. Goldfarb, from Groves et al. (2005)

Porphyry systems

No vertical exaggeration �

Upper crustal subvolcanic magma chamber formed at basementsupracrustal contact due to buoyancy ± rheology contrasts �
© Richards (2007), from Richards (2005)�

Sillitoe, 2010

Economic Geology

Cu) Singer et al.. Ag (Pb.Porphyry Cu-Au systems: * Intrusion centered. may have surficial expression epithermal Au. pers. obs. 2008. Zn. .

Sakurajima.Mt. !850 oC with HCl. SO2 . Kyushu: Eruption of ash + vapor High-temperature hypogene vapors.

White Island. Japan pH 1. pH ~0.6 Sampling of 770 C vapor with acidic gases Satsuma Iwojima..2 acidic stream.1 Hedenquist et al. SO2 Satsuma Iwojima. New Zealand: drowned fumaroles.1. Japan pH 0.7 -. 1994 dissolved rock . HCl. 2007 H2O.

Magmatic fluid: coupled vapor and brine from deep fluid Satsuma Iwojima White Island (low metals) (high metals) Cataclysmic eruption (bulk metals) .

SO2. H2S. SO2. pH~1 H2SO4. H2S: hypogene alteration 80% 20% 4 SO2 + 4 H2O => 3 H2SO4 + H2S H2O. HCl HCl. CO2.. . SO2 .Formation of advanced argillic alteration Lithocap formed by hypogene condensate.. !850 oC with HCl. NaCl. High-temperature hypogene vapors. CO2. HCl.

. NaCl. H2S steam-heated alteration . CO2. SO2. H2S.. HCl pH >2 pH <1 Lithocap formed by hypogene condensate 4 SO2 + 4 H2O => 3 H2SO4 + H2S HCl. . CO2. SO2. CO2. HCl.Formation of advanced argillic alteration CO2. H2S Steam-heated blanket H2S + 2 O2 = H2SO4 H2SO4. H2S hypogene alteration H2O.

Volcan Poás. Costa Rica . Costa Rica Volcan Poás. Costa Rica Volcan Poás.

Arribas. Japan Akaiwa high-sulfidation epithermal prospect. Japan A. unpub.Akaiwa high-sulfidation epithermal prospect. .

1944-1945 100 m The lava dome at Colima.Showa Shinzan. Mexico Unzen lava dome in Japan. Hokkaido: dacite dome. surrounded by pyroclastic deposits pyroclastic flows generated by dome collapse .

overlain by pyroclastic flow   Montserrat 1997* dome inflates from within Mt St Helens 2004 isolated spines emplaced along shear zones .Block and ash fall.

Colorado "  Structure-controlled feeder zone "  Lithology-controlled lithocap horizon Lithocap !  Horizontal to sub-horizontal body !  Residual silicic core (± ore). 1960 pH ~ >6 4-6 2 . 1960 Steven & Ratté.100s m Steven and Ratté. Summitville. determines location/direction and timing of collapses The character of the internal contacts are not clear and probably does not resemble this ! BUT : what must be the case.4 <2 . halo of advance argillic (AA) alteration Lithocap Mineralization Structurecontrolled 10 .Crater rim shear lobe collapse scar Shear lobe extrusion. is that large domes are at least in part constructed over an unconsolidated base.

Garcia. Colorado Mohong Hill quartz-alunite lithocap fluid:rock = 10:1 Lithologycontrolled in residual qtz host lithocap alteration Quartz-alunite quartz ± Al-silicate halo Gonzalez. 1959. 1956.Summitville. 1991 .

Alteration mineral stability fluid:rock = 10:1 shallow qtz-alun zone deep aluminosilicate zone diaspore pyrite gypsum alunite andalusite kaolinite pyrophyllite pyrrhotite hematite muscovite dickite Alteration mineral stability and zoning fluid:rock = 100:1 residual qtz core w/ py. H2S. H2O. HCl. S qtz-alun halo py diaspore pyrite gypsum alunite andalusite kaolinite pyrophyllite pyrrhotite deep aluminosilicate zone 150 C pH~1.. hence abundance of shallow.7 250 C ~1 300 C pH~2 W:R <10 W:R >10 Magmatic condensates more reactive at lower temperature. CO2. advanced argillic alter’tn SO2. NaCl .5 200 C ~0..

2003 Einaudi.Einaudi.0 H IC AT bas e-m tnyry-Cu poFUMAROLES + qz e t+ lit m ya fa etal vein s . Hedenquist and Inan. 2003 2 -2 -6 -10 -14 -18 3.0 1000/T (K) lo +p o po po i ro n 1. Hedenquist and Inan.0 100 T (oC) ion sat n e d con fur l u S HS epit herm al A RM cv HE OT dg R YD 300 500 800 arc magmas ph Por L bn + y p cp y p + t m h m GM MA 2.

2003 .Sillitoe and Hedenquist.