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1 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.

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LTE/EPS Overview
LTE/EPS Fundamentals Course
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Nokia Siemens Networks Academy
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Module Objectives
After completing this module, the participant should be able to:
Understand the reasons driving to the LTE/EPS project.
List the LTE/EPS main requirements.
Discuss the future of wireless communications.
Compare LTE/EPS capabilities with other mobile technologies.
Review the 3GPP specification work concerning LTE/EPS.
Identify the major steps in the Network Architecture Evolution
towards an LTE/EPS network.
Underline the LTE/EPS key features.
Briefly explain the basics of the LTE Air Interface.
Name the Standardisation bodies around LTE/EPS.
Introduce IMT-Advanced and LTE-Advanced
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Module Contents
Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
IMT-Advanced
LTE Summary
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Module Contents
Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
IMT-Advanced
LTE Summary
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A little bit of History
New technologies developed in the last 15
years in telecommunication brought available
transmission rates to a total new level.
Two systems have affected the life of nearly
everyone:
mobile communication via 2G network
like GSM
Wired & wireless data connectivity
(xDSL & WLAN IEEE 802.11/a/b/g
standards)
3G networks the first step towards a
convergence between both networks
Number of mobile subscribers worldwide has exceeded 4 billion by the end of 2008, that
means 60% penetration.
It is foreseen that by 2015, 5 billion people will be connected to Internet
The introduction of flat data rate pricing, high speed radio capabilities (HSPA) and
simple application installation have made that in certain operators the data volume has
exceeded the voice volume, assuming 12 Kbps data rate for a voice call.
WIRELINE & WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES EVOLUTION
Wireline Networks provide the highest data rates, although wireless networks are
continuously evolving.
The data rates offered by both types of networks have evolved in parallel. The difference
in terms of maximum data rates has been a constant: wireline networks offering 30 times
more bit rates than the corresponding state-of-the-art wireless solution.
Wireless networks must make data rates higher in order to match with the user
experience provided by a wireline network.
Wireless networks offer on the other hand the mobility advantage (connected
everywhere!)
A wireless solution can also provide low cost broadband coverage compared to new
wireline network, if there is not pre- existent infrastructure.
It makes wireless broadband access and attractive option for new growth market.

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The way to LTE: 3 main 3G limitations
1.- The maximum bit rates still are factor of 20 and more behind
the current state of the art systems like 802.11n and
802.16e/m. Even the support for higher mobility levels is not an
excuse for this.
2.- The latency of user plane traffic (UMTS: >30 ms) and of
resource assignment procedures (UMTS: >100 ms) is too big
to handle traffic with high bit rate variance efficiently.
3.- The terminal complexity for WCDMA or MC-CDMA systems
is quite high, making equipment expensive, resulting in poor
performing implementations of receivers and inhibiting the
implementation of other performance enhancements.
OPEN THE DISCUSSION
Based on the participants experience with 3G networks, initiate a brainstorm and collect
3G limitations and weak points.
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The way to the Long-Term Evolution (LTE): a 3GPP
driven initiative
LTE is 3GPP system for the years 2010 to 2020
and beyond.
It shall especially compete with WiMAX 802.16e/m
It must keep the support for high mobility users like
in GSM/UMTS networks
The architectural changes are big when comparing
to UMTS
First LTE commercial deployments are expected in
2010.
The work towards the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) was started in 2004 with the
definition of the targets.
It takes on average 5 years from setting the system targets to commercial deployments
using interoperable standards.
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LTE Drivers
Wireline Evolution:
pushes higher data rates
Wireless Data
extensively used:
Pushes more capacity
Flat Rate pricing:
pushes cost efficiency
Other Wireless
technologies:
Competition pushes new
capabilities
Driving to clear
LTE Targets
LTE Drivers:
1.- Wireline technologies keep improving, a similar evolution is required in the wireless
domain to make sure that the applications run smoothly independently of the access
network.
2.- More capacity demanded
3.- Operator cost must be reduced to maintain profitability when flat rate services are
offered.
4.- Other wireless technologies compiting with LTE (i.e. WiMAX promising high data
capabilities)
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What are the LTE challenges?
Best price, transparent flat rate
Full Internet
Click-bang responsiveness
reduce cost per bit
provide high data rate
provide low latency
The Users expectation ..leads to the operators challenges
Price per Mbyte has to be reduced
to remain profitable
User experience will have an
impact on ARPU
LTE: lower cost per bit and improved end user experience
UMTS HSPA I-HSPA LTE
Cost per MByte
HSPA LTE HSPA LTE
Throughput
Latency
F
a
c
t
o
r

1
0
F
a
c
t
o
r

2
-
3
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Reduction of network cost is necessary to remain
profitable
Source: Light Reading (adapted)
Traffic
Revenue
Revenues and Traffic
decoupled
T
r
a
f
f
i
c

v
o
l
u
m
e

/
b
i
t
Time
Profitability
Network
cost
Voice
dominated
Data
dominated
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Module Contents
Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
IMT-Advanced
LTE Summary
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LTE Main Requirements
Peak data rates to
exceed 100 Mbps in DL
/ 50 Mbps in UL
Low latency 10-20 ms
Enhanced consumer experience
Scalable bandwidth: from
1.4MHz up to 20 MHz
Easy to introduce on any
frequency band
OFDM technology
Spectral efficiency increased (2-4
times compared with HSPA
Rel6)
Flat Architecture, optimized PS
IP based interfaces
Decreased cost / GByte
Next step for
GSM/WCDMA/HSPA
Networks, but also for
cdma2000 operators
A true global roaming technology
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Schedule for 3GPP releases
year
UMTS Rel 99/4
UMTS Rel 99/4
UMTS Rel 5
UMTS Rel 5
UMTS Rel 6
UMTS Rel 6
UMTS Rel 7
UMTS Rel 7
2007 2005 2003 2000 2008
IMS
HSDPA
MBMS
WLAN IW
HSUPA
IMS Evolution
LTE Studies
3GPP Specification work:
2009
LTE have been developed by the 3GPP, the same standardization organization responsible fro
WCDMA/HSPA. The target has been simple multimode implementation and backwards
compatibility.
HSPA and LTE have in common:
Sampling rate using the same clocking frequency
Same kind of Turbo coding
The harmonization of these parameters is important as sampling and Turbo decoding are
typically done on hardware due to high processing requirements.
WiMAX and LTE do not have such harmonization.
UMTS Rel 8
UMTS Rel 8
LTE & EPC
A true global roaming technology
Next step for
GSM/WCDMA/HSPA
Networks, but also for
cdma2000 operators
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Comparison of Throughput and Latency (1/2)
Enhanced consumer experience:
- drives subscriber uptake
- allow for new applications
- provide additional revenue streams
Peak data rates to
exceed 100 Mbps in
DL / 50 Mbps in UL
HSPA R6
Max. peak data rate
M
b
p
s
Evolved HSPA
(REL. 7/8, 2x2
MIMO)
LTE 2x20 MHz
(2x2 MIMO)
LTE 2x20 MHz
(4x4 MIMO)
Downlink
Uplink
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
173 Mbps in DL
57 Mbps in UL
Following settings and requirements apply when obtaining LTE max bit rate in Downlink:
173 Mbps on the physical layer
FDD with 20MHz bandwidth carrier
2x2 MIMO (2 antennas for TX, 2 Antennas for RX)
64QAM modulation
The bit rate refers to User plane only, meaning that it is already excluded:
Control overhead (7.1%)
Reference symbol overhead (7.7%)
Following settings and requirements apply when obtaining LTE max bit rate in Uplink:
57 Mbps on the Physical layer (just user plane)
Single stream transmission with 64QAM assumed
Reference symbol overhead (14.3%), already excluded
FDD with 20 MHz bandwidth carrier
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Comparison of Throughput and Latency (2/2)
HSPAevo
(Rel8)
LTE
* Server near RAN
Latency (Roundtrip delay)*
DSL (~20-50 ms, depending on
operator)
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
GSM/
EDGE
HSPA
Rel6
mi
n
ma
x
ms
Enhanced consumer experience:
- drives subscriber uptake
- allow for new applications
- provide additional revenue streams
Reduce Latency:
User Plane 10-20 ms
Control Plane < 100 ms
IDLE
ECM_Idle
(no
resources)
ACTIVE
ECM_
Connected
(EPS Bearer
allocated)
< 100 ms
USER PLANE Latency:
CONTROL PLANE Latency:
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Scalable bandwidth
Scalable bandwidth:
from 1.4MHz up to
20 MHz
Easy to introduce on any
frequency band: Frequency
Refarming
(Cost efficient deployment on lower
frequency bands supported)
Scalable Bandwidth
Urban
2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020
Rural
2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020
or
2.6 GHz
2.1 GHz
2.6 GHz
2.1 GHz
LTE
UMTS
UMTS
LTE
900 MHz
900 MHz
GSM
or
GSM
UMTS
LTE
LTE
LTE
Scalability of bandwidth
Urban areas:
Most likely LTE will be deployed.
Stepwise deployment in UMTS 2.1 bands will be possible at a later stage.
Rural areas:
Option 1: deploy UMTS in 900 MHz band.
Advantage: rollout can start now
Disadvantage: a block of 5 MHz need to be taken out of the
GSM band. Not a lot of operators can afford to take out this
much of spectrum due to heavy usage in this band
Option 2: Introduce LTE in 900 MHz band
Advantage: reuse of GSM 900 Sites.
step by step introduction of LTE
with smaller granularity (1.4 / 3 / 5 /MHz).
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0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
HSPA R6 HSPA R6 +
UE
equalizer
HSPA R7 WiMAX LTE R8
b
p
s
/
H
z
/
c
e
l
l
Downlink
Uplink
Increased Spectral Efficiency
All cases assume 2-antenna terminal reception
HSPA R7, WiMAX and LTE assume 2-antenna BTS transmission (2x2 MIMO)
ITU contribution from
WiMAX Forum shows
downlink 1.3 and uplink 0.8
bps/Hz/cell
OFDMA technology
increases Spectral
efficiency
LTE target is to increase 2-4 times
the HSPA R6 spectral efficiency
HSPA R7 and WiMAX have Similar
Spectral Efficiency
Simulations show LTE can
provide:
>3 times HSPA R6
spectral efficiency in DL
>2 times HSPA R6
spectral efficiency in UL
Reference:
- HSPA R6 and LTE R8 from 3GPP R1-071960
- HSPA R6 equalizer from 3GPP R1-063335
- HSPA R7 and WiMAX from NSN/Nokia simulations
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Reduced Network Complexity
Flat Architecture,
Optimized PS Domain
IP based Interfaces
Flat Architecture: 2 nodes
architecture
IP widely used as the network layer
in the protocol stack of all interfaces
(both for the control and user plane)
Access Core Control
Evolved Node B
Gateway
IMS HLR/HSS
Flat, IP based architecture
Internet
MME
Cost per MByte decreases with introduction of new technologies.
From HSPA to LTE, the cost per MByte will reduce with more than 70%
Why?
-Flat architecture.
-All-IP transmission network
-Increased spectral efficiency > bits per Hz per cell for LTE (2X2 MIMO) ~ 1.7
-Reuse of spectrum > Refarming of existing 900 MHz band in rural areas possible. For
urban larger bandwidth expected in 2.6 GHz
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LTE Requirements Summary
1.- Simplify the RAN:
- Reduce the number of different types of RAN nodes, and their
complexity.
- Minimize the number of RAN interface types.
2.- Increase throughput.
3.- Reduce latency (which is a prerequisite for CS replacement).
4.- Improve spectrum efficiency.
5.- Provide greater flexibility with regard to the frequency bands in which the
system may be deployed (Frequency Refarming)
6.- Migrate to an optimized PS domain, with no CS domain in the core
network.
7.- Provide efficient support for a variety of different services. Traditional CS
services will be supported via VoIP, etc.
8.- Minimise the presence of single points of failure in the network above the
evolved Node Bs (eNBs).
9.- Support inter-working with existing 3G systems and non-3GPP specified
systems in order to support handover to/from these systems.
10.- All-IP transport network.
11.- Improve terminal power efficiency.
A more detailed list of the requirements and objectives for Evolved UTRAN can be found
in TR25.913 from 3GPP.
3GPP TR 36.913 provides de requirements for the EUTRAN within LTE-Advanced.
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Module Contents
Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
IMT-Advanced
LTE Summary
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data rates
< 1 Gbps
mobility
GSM/IS95
AMPS
WCDMA/cdma2000
HSPA LTE
802.11a/b/g
802.11a/b/g
< 100 Mbps < 50 Mbps < 10 Mbps
< 1 Mbps < 200 kbps
time
2010 2005 2000 1990
HIGH
LOW
History and Future of Wireless
1G
2G
3G 3G Enhacements 3G Evolution
802.11
802.11n
WLAN Family
WiMAX Family
802.16e
Mobile WiMAX
802.16e
Mobile WiMAX
802.16a/d
Fixed WiMAX
802.16a/d
Fixed WiMAX
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WiMAX and HSPA/LTE Technology Positioning
Licenced
FDD band
Licenced
FDD band
Licenced
TDD band
Licenced
TDD band
HSPA/LTE
HSPA/LTE
WiMAX
WiMAX
GSM
WCDMA
LTE
Spectrum
Interworking
Terminals and services
HSPA for paired FDD spectrum
LTE initially for paired FDD
spectrum
WiMAX initially for unpaired TDD
spectrum
Tight interworking between 3GPP
technologies (HSPA, LTE) including
common network management and
handovers
Loose interworking between 3GPP
and WiMAX
LTE terminals include GSM/HSPA for full coverage
WiMAX/LTE initially in USB modems and embedded
in laptops while GSM/HSPA supports also CS voice
HSPA/LTE/WiMAX for broadband IP services
The 3GPP technologies are designed for smooth inter-working and co-existence.
LTE will support bidirectional handover t/from the GSM and UMTS networks.
GSM, UMTS and LTE will share a number of network element, especially in the PS core
network.
It is also expected that some 3G network element can be upgraded to provide the LTE
capability.
The subscriber management and authentication will be based on existing procedures for
GSM/WCDMA networks.
However in LTE the system access requires to use the Universal SIM (USIM) card, more
modern and secure that the former 2G SIM card.
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Module Contents
Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
IMT-Advanced
LTE Summary
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End 2004 3GPP workshop on UTRAN Long Term Evolution
Beginning 2005 Study item started
December 2005 Multiple Access selected
March 2006 Functionality split between radio and core
September 2006 Study item closed & approval of the work items
December 2007 1st version of all radio specs approved
December 2008 3GPP REL. 8: content Finalized
March 2009 Protocol Freezing (Backwards compatibility starts)
3GPP LTE specification work completed so far
2008 2004 2005 2006 2007
Multiple Access
Decision
RAN/CN
functional split
PDCP moved from
CN to EUTRAN
FDD/TDD Frame
Structure Alignment
2009
LTE
Workshop
Start of the
Study
Close Study and
Start Work Item
1st full set of
specifications
Content
Finalized
Protocol
Freezing
Standardization
Technology
First LTE Workshop took place in Canada in November 2004, where the LTE work was
started as a study in the 3GPP. First set of requirements was presented, together with
proposals for technology selection. Both vendors and operators contributed to the
workshop.
June 2005: first approved version of LTE Requirements
OFDMA and SCFDMA multiple access selection for Downlink and Uplink respectively
was close by th end of 2005
The study item was closed in September 2006, and detailed work item started to make
LTE part of the 3GPP Release 8 Specification.
March 2009Protocol Specification Freezing: starting backwards compatibility; it
defines the first version of the protocol that can be used as the baseline to develop the
commercial implementation.
Specification deep freeze: any changes in the specs are not allowed. Typically the
system is commercial, its key functionalities are running. Potential improvement will come
only as part of a new release. This is expected for LTE in 2010.
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3GPP Release 9 and beyond
During 2008 the 3GPP has analyzed topics to be included in the Release 9 .
Examples of those topics are:
LTE MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast System): operation of a
broadcast carrier.
Self Optimized Networks (SON)
Network Sharing
Enhanced VoIP support in LTE
Requirements for LTE Multi-band and Multi-Radio base stations
Japan
2008 2009
2010
2011 & beyond
Demonstrate
LTE Air
Interface
Performance
Operator Trials.
Friendly-use
networks
LTE Networks
Launch:
commercial
solution available
Large Scale LTE Networks.
VoIP service optimized.
3GPP R9
LTE MBMS: in a synchronized network, several base stations can transmit an OFDMA
based broadcast signal with identical content. Receiver can combine the signal coming
for those base stations.
Requirements for LTE Multi-band and Multi-Radio. The idea is the future RF modules can be used
for GSM, WCDMA and LTE transmission. 3GPP to defined the requirements for the emissions on
the adjacent cells (for both intrasystem and intersystem cases)
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Module Contents
Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
IMT-Advanced
LTE Summary
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NSN Network Architecture Evolution (1/4)
Node B RNC SGSN GGSN
Internet
3GPP Rel 6 / HSPA
User plane
Control Plane
Original 3G architecture.
2 nodes in the RAN.
2 nodes in the PS Core Network.
Every Node introduces additional delay.
Common path for User plane and Control plane data.
Air interface based on WCDMA.
RAN interfaces based on ATM.
Option for Iu-PS interface to be based on IP.
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NSN Network Architecture Evolution (2/4)
Direct tunnel
3GPP Rel 7 / HSPA
Internet
Node B
RNC
SGSN
GGSN
User plane
Control Plane
Separated path for Control Plane and User Plane data in the PS
Core Network.
Direct GTP tunnel from the GGSN to the RNC for User plane data:
simplifies the Core Network and reduces Signalling.
First step towards a flat network Architecture.
30% core network OPEX and CAPEX savings with Direct Tunnel.
The SGSN still controls traffic plane handling, performs session and
mobility management, and manages paging.
Still 2 nodes in the RAN.
The PS Core Network is streamlined by separating the control plane and the user plane.
The SGSN becomes a pure control entity.
The user plane bypasses the SGSN directly to the GGSN
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NSN Network Architecture Evolution (3/4)
Direct tunnel
3GPP Rel 7 / Internet HSPA
Internet
Node B
SGSN
GGSN
Node B
(RNC Funct.)
User plane
Control Plane
I-HSPA introduces the first true flat architecture to WCDMA.
Standardized in 3GPP Release 7 as: Direct Tunnel with collapsed
RNC.
Most part of the RNC functionalities are moved to the Node B.
Direct Tunnels runs now from the GGSN to the Node B.
Solution for cost-efficient broadband wireless access.
Improves the delay performance (less node in RAN).
Deployable with existing NSN WCDMA base stations.
Transmission savings
Node B functionalities:
All radio Protocols
Mobility Management
Header Compression
Packet Retransmission
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NSN Network Architecture Evolution (4/4)
Direct tunnel
3GPP Rel 8 / LTE
Internet
Evolved Node B
MME
SAE GW
LTE takes the same Flat architecture from Internet HSPA.
Air interface based on OFDMA.
All-IP network.
New spectrum allocation (i.e 2600 MHz band)
Possibility to reuse spectrum (i.e. 900 MHZ)
User plane
Control Plane
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NSN Network Architecture Evolution - Summary
Node B RNC SGSN GGSN
Internet
3GPP Rel 6 / HSPA
Direct tunnel
3GPP Rel 7 / HSPA
Internet
Node B
RNC
SGSN
GGSN
Direct tunnel
3GPP Rel 7 / Internet HSPA
Internet
Node B
SGSN
GGSN
Node B
(RNC Funct.)
Direct tunnel
3GPP Rel 8 / LTE
Internet
Evolved Node B
MME
SAE GW
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Module Contents
Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
IMT-Advanced
LTE Summary
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LTE/SAE Key Features
EPS ( Evolved Packet System ) /
SAE ( System Architecture Evolution ) /
LTE ( Long Term Evolution )
EPC ( Evolved Packet Core )
EPC ( Evolved Packet Core )
EUTRAN
( Evolved UTRAN )
EUTRAN
( Evolved UTRAN )
IP Network
IP Network
IP Network
IP Network
IP Network
IP Network
OFDMA/SC-FDMA
MIMO ( beam-forming/
spatial multiplexing)
HARQ
Scalable bandwidth
(1.4, 3, 5, 10, .. 20 MHz)
Evolved Node B /
No RNC
UL/DL resource
scheduling
IP Transport Layer
QoS Aware
Self Configuration
PS Domain only,
No CS Domain
IP Transport Layer
QoS Aware
3GPP (GTP) or
IETF (MIPv6)
Prepared for
Non-3GPP Access
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LTE/SAE Key Features EUTRAN 1/2
Evolved NodeB
No RNC is provided anymore
The evolved Node Bs take over all radio management functionality.
This will make radio management faster and hopefully the network
architecture simpler
IP transport layer
EUTRAN exclusively uses IP as transport layer
UL/DL resource scheduling
In UMTS physical resources are either shared or dedicated
Evolved Node B handles all physical resource via a scheduler and assigns
them dynamically to users and channels
This provides greater flexibility than the older system
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LTE/SAE Key Features EUTRAN 2/2
QoS awareness
The scheduler must handle and distinguish different quality of service
classes
Otherwise real time services would not be possible via EUTRAN
The system provides the possibility for differentiated services
Self configuration
Currently under investigation
Possibility to let Evolved Node Bs configure themselves
It will not completely substitute the manual configuration and optimization.
37 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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LTE/SAE Key Features EPC (Evolved Packet Core)
Packet Switched Domain only
No circuit switched domain is provided
If CS applications are required, they must be implemented via IP
Only one mobility management for the UE in LTE.
3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) option
The EPC can be based either on 3GPP GTP protocols (similar to PS
domain in UMTS/GPRS) or on IETF Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)
Non-3GPP access
The EPC will be prepared also to be used by non-3GPP access networks
(e.g. LAN, WLAN, WiMAX, etc.)
This will provide true convergence of different packet radio access system
38 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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Module Contents
Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
IMT-Advanced
LTE Summary
39 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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TDMA
f
t
f
Time Division
FDMA
f
f
t
Frequency Division
CDMA
f
t c
o
d
e
s
f
Code Division
OFDMA
f
f
t
Frequency Division
Orthogonal subcarriers
Multiple Access Methods
User 1 User 2 User 3 User ..
OFDM is the state-of-the-art and most efficient and robust air interface
40 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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LTE/SAE Air Interface 1/3
OFDMA
Downlink multiplexing
OFDMA stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple
Access
Receiver complexity is at a reasonable level
it supports various modulation schemes from BPSK, QPSK,
16QAM to 64 QAM.
SC-FDMA
Uplink multiplexing
SC-FDMA stands for Single Carrier Frequency Division
Multiple Access, a variant of OFDMA
The advantage against OFDMA to have a lower PAPR
(Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) meaning less power
consumption and less expensive RF amplifiers in the
terminal.
64QAM
Modulation
41 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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LTE/SAE Air Interface 2/3
MIMO
Multiple Input Multiple Output
LTE will support MIMO as an option,
It describes the possibility to have multiple transmitter
and receiver antennas in a system.
Up to four antennas can be used by a single LTE cell
(gain: spatial multiplexing)
MIMO is considered to be the core technology to
increase spectral efficiency.
HARQ
Hybrid Automatic Retransmission on reQuest
HARQ has already been used for HSDPA and HSUPA.
HARQ especially increases the performance (delay and
throughput) for cell edge users.
HARQ simply implements a retransmission protocol on
layer 1/layer 2 that allows to send retransmitted blocks
with different coding than the first one.
TX RX
Tx Rx
MIMO
Channel
HARQ Hybrid
Automatic
Repeat Request
42 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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LTE/SAE Air Interface 3/3
Scalable bandwidth
LTE air interface allows to drive cells with
1.4 MHz, 3 MHz, 5 MHz, 10MHz, 15MHz &
20 MHz.
This gives the required flexibility for
operators to use spectrum allocations not
available to a non-scalable wide-band or
ultra-wide-band system. DL: OFDMA
UL: SC-FDMA
scalable
43 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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DOWNLINK
UPLINK
UPLINK
0.67 2 - 4 times
HSUPA
0.26 Spectral
Efficiency
(bps/Hz/cell)
> 50
Target
57 5.67 Peak Bit Rate
(Mbps)
SAE/LTE HSUPA (Rel6)
SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access)
SC-FDMA is technically close to OFDMA, but is more power efficient
OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)
1.84 2 - 4 times
HSDPA
0.75 Spectral
Efficiency
(bps/Hz/cell)
> 100
Target
173 14.4 Peak Bit Rate
(Mbps)
SAE/LTE HSDPA (Rel6)
Requirements for LTE Air Interface
44 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
For public use IPR applies
Module Contents
Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
IMT-Advanced
LTE Summary
45 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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Standardisation around LTE
Next Generation Mobile Networks. Is a group of mobile
operators, to provide a coherent vision for technology
evolution beyond 3G for the competitive delivery of
broadband wireless services.
More in www.ngmn.org
Collaboration agreement established in December
1998. The collaboration agreement brings together a
number of telecommunications standards bodies: ARIB,
CCSA, ETSI, ATIS, TTA, and TTC.
More in www.3gpp.org
LTE/SAE Trial Initiative. Is was founded in may 2007 by a
group of leading telecommunications companies.
Its aim is to prove the potential and benefits that the LTE
technology can offer.
More in http://www.lstiforum.com/
46 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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3GPP List of
Specification Series
36 Series contains most
part of LTE related
specifications for Radio
All 3GPP specifications have a specification number consisting of 4 or 5 digits. (e.g.
09.02 or 29.002).
The first two digits define the series, followed by 2 further digits for the 01 to 13 series or
3 further digits for the 21 to 55 series.
47 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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NGMN Alliance
LTE /SAE approved by the
NGMN as first technology which
broadly meets NGMN
requirements
NGMN Vision & Mission
The vision of the NGMN Alliance is to provide a platform for innovation by moving towards one
integrated network for the seamless introduction of mobile broadband service
The mission of the NGMN Alliance is to provide a set of recommendations to enhance the ability
of mobile operators, who are buyers of infrastructure, in offering cost-effective wireless broadband
services for the benefits of their customers.
The participating network operators represent more than half of all mobile phone users worldwide
(June-2009)
48 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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LSTI (LTE-SAE Trial Initiative)
- joint test bed for LTE worldwide
.. active parties within LSTI
LSTI initiatives goals/objectives
demonstrate feasibility and
capabilities of 3GPP LTE-SAE
technology under real world
conditions. Indoor & outdoor tests
accelerate development of 3GPP
specification by identifying
shortcomings out of test phases
reduce risk of market introduction of
new LTE-SAE technology
Friendly customer trials
PR
2007 2008 2009 2010
Public Relation work
Interoperability
IODT
IOT
Trials
Test of basic functions
Proof of Concept
Schedule & Program Office:
Test of OFDM Air Interface
49 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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Module Contents
Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
IMT-Advanced
LTE Summary
50 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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LTE Advanced
data rates
1 Gbps
Mobility
100 Mbps 10 Mbps 1 Mbps
LOW
HIGH
IMT-2000
IMT-2000 Evolution IMT-
Advanced
WCDMA
HSPA LTE LTE-Advanced
IMT-Advanced is a concept for mobile systems beyond IMT-2000
During 2009, ITU will submit a request for IMT-Advanced candidates. Radio
interface submission deadline is expected October 2009.
IMT Target bit rates:
100Mbps for high mobility users
1Gbps for low mobility users
3GPP has already started to work on the IMT-Advanced targets under the name:
LTE-Advanced. To be part of 3GPP REL 10.
LTE-Advanced is expected to be ready for commercial deployment in 2013 or later.
3GPP is considering bandwidths of up to 100MHZ to support LTE-Advanced.
LTE-Advanced will require different spectral efficiencies, depending on the environment.
3GPP requirements for LTE-Advanced were approved in May 2008 (TR 36.913)
A key issue for LTE-Advanced is the backwards compatibility with LTE Release 8, as
well as with GSM/WCDMA/ HSPA and also with cdma2000.
Some of the items from the LTE-Advanced studies to be postponed for 3GPP releases
beyond Release 10.
51 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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Module Contents
Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
IMT-Advanced
LTE Summary
52 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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Access Core Control
LTE BTS
(eNodeB)
MME/GW IMS HLR/HSS
New Architecture
Flat Architecture: 2-node architecture
PS Core Network optimized
No CS Core Network
Improved Radio Principles
peak data rates [Mbps ]: 173 DL , 57 UL
Scalable Carrier Bandwidth:
1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
Short latency: 10 20 ms
2 - 4 times better spectral efficiency that
HSPA Rel. 6
New Interfaces Design
Simplified Protocol Stack
Simple, more efficient QoS
IP network layer
Overview of LTE/SAE design benefits
RAN GW MME
eUtran
RF Modulation:
OFDMA in DL
SC-FDMA in UL
53 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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Appendix
54 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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The right solution for each segment
For operators with 3G spectrum
Broad terminal eco system
High data security and QoS
Quick and cost-effective upgrade
of existing networks
Seamless 2G/3G handover
global coverage, global roaming
Proven technology
Mainstream; 3G evolution leverage large
installed 3G base
Utilizes 2G and 3G spectrum efficient re-
farming with flexible bandwidth
Broad terminal eco system expected
Highest capacity, lowest latency
Very flat and IP based architecture
High speed data rates
with full mobility
Broadband multimedia
with full mobility
High speed data with
limited mobility
W-CDMA/HSPA WiMAX LTE
Fixed or mobile network operators with WiMAX
spectrum
Device eco system started to evolve
Optimized wireless-DSL services
High capacity and low latency
Flat and IP based architecture
Short term availability
Compatibility
with existing
standards
Economy of scale
Spectrum availability
and cost impact
Variety of
terminals
Voice
performance
IPR
regime
Lean
architecture
Broadband data
performance
Compatibility
with existing
standards
Economy of scale
Spectrum availability
and cost impact
Variety of
terminals
Voice
performance
IPR
regime
Lean
architecture
Broadband data
performance
Economy of scale
Spectrum availability
and cost impact
Variety of
terminals
Voice
performance
IPR
regime
Lean
architecture
Broadband data
performance
Economy of scale
Spectrum availability
and cost impact
Variety of
terminals
Voice
performance
IPR
regime
Compatibility
with existing
standards
Lean
architecture
Broadband data
performance
Economy of scale
Spectrum availability
and cost impact
Variety of
terminals
Voice
performance
IPR
regime
Compatibility
with existing
standards
Lean
architecture
Broadband data
performance
Compatibility
with existing
standards
Economy
of scale
Spectrum availability
and cost impact
Variety of
terminals
Voice
performance
IPR
regime
Lean
architecture
Broadband data
performance
Compatibility
with existing
standards
Economy
of scale
Spectrum availability
and cost impact
Variety of
terminals
Voice
performance
IPR
regime
Lean
architecture
Broadband data
performance
Compatibility
with existing
standards
Economy
of scale
Spectrum availability
and cost impact
Variety of
terminals
Voice
performance
IPR
regime
Lean
architecture
Broadband data
performance
Comments concerning IPR:
-UMTS: high number of essentials and many IPR holders, very aggressive licensing policy
(Qualcomm) by holders without product business, no effective IPR regulation (forming licensing
pools) in place
-LTE /SAE: also many patents and IPR holders, but aggressive ones are not so dominant, most
patents hold by infrastructure & terminal vendors, increased IPR awareness /lessons learned from
3G), additional IPR regulations planed via NGNMN (early declaration of IPR licensing fees,
forming licensing pools possible)
-WIMAX: nearly same number of patents and patent holders as for LTE, but many of them will not
provide Wimax products, expectation of aggressive licensing (Qualcomm, Wi-Lan), licensing pool
initiated by INTEL up till now not successful, slightly lower number of essential patents expected
than for LTE
Economy of scale:
-UMTS/HSPA: designed for evolution of GSM networks, therefore new terminals will contain
UMTS/HSPDA too leverage of GSM footprint, same is for Basestations (site and component
sharing) /and Core network entities
-Wimax: mainly driven from Notebook market (INTEL Chipsets will include
WIMAX),i.e. datacards. dedicated handsets expected to follow, but extend
unclear (probably technically more difficult due to shorter battery lifetimes)
-LTE: GSM and UMTS network footprint can be leveraged. High terminal
volumes can be expected (GSM/UMTS/LTE multimode terminals from
beginning), also platform sharing in Basestations.
Spectrum availability and cost impact:
-UMTS/HSPA: paired spectrum assign in 2GHz band in many regions, in Europe partly
high costs due to auctions, continuous 5MHz bandwith required
-Wimax: currently suited for TDD spectrum, in 3,5 Ghz band and in some
regions probably also in 2,5 Ghz band as well as in unlicensed bands,
more cost intensive due to 3,5 Ghz band
-LTE: planned for 2,6 Ghz band (W-Cdma extension bands) and refarming
of GSM frequency bands (scalable bandwitdth)
Terminal variety:
-UMTS/HSPA: designed for evolution of GSM networks, therefore also broad availability
of GSM/UMTS multimode terminals
-Wimax: currently starting with datacards of Notebooks only, but terminals
planned, unsure how many terminals vendors will provide Wimax terminal,
especially which multimode capabilities exist
-LTE: as evolution of GSM and UMTS network a wide variety of terminals
can be expected, probably most of them supporting GSM/UMTS as well
Voice performance:
-UMTS/HSPA: Circuit switched was as well as Voice over HSPA in future
-Wimax: No circuit switched voice, VOIP only, pure QoS management
-LTE: VoIP only, but lowest latency in Air-I/F and network due to flat
architecture and QoS mechanism, at the beginning also directing of voice
traffic to GSM/UMTS overlay network possible
Broadband data performance:
-UMTS/HSPA: up to 14 Mbit/s DL, 5,6 UL
-Wimax: high data performance upt to 50 Mbits/s
-LTE: highest data performance up to 160 Mbit/s (DL) and 50 Mbit/s UL,
high spectral efficiency
Lean Architecture:
-UMTS/HSPA: 4 Node architecture (Node-B, RNC; SGSN, GGSN)
-Wimax: 3 Node architecture (AP, ASN-GW, CSN-GW)
-LTE: Ultra flat architecture 2 Nodes only (eNodeB, SAE-GW)
Compatibility with existing systems:
UMTS/HSPA: internat. roaming, HO to GSM systems
Wimax: currently no IW to other systems, difficult to implement
LTE: Full IW with GSM /UMTS networks will be defined and implemented, also IW to
other systems like WIMAX /CDMA2000 planned