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# HV SHUNT REACTOR SECRETS FOR PROTECTION ENGINEERS

By Zoran Gajić ABB Sweden Västerås, Sweden Birger Hillström ABB Sweden Västerås, Sweden Fahrudin Mekić ABB Inc. Allentown, PA 18106

Presented to: 30 Western Protective Relaying Conference Spokane, Washington October 21-23, 2003
th

HV SHUNT REACTOR SECRETS FOR PROTECTION ENGINEERS
Z. Gajić, B. Hillström ABB Sweden Västerås, Sweden F. Mekić ABB Inc. Allentown, PA 18106

Abstract: Viewed in the substation yard, an HV, oil immersed, shunt reactor does not differ much from a power transformer, but in reality it is not that simple. There are distinct differences between construction and operating characteristics of these two devices. In order to explain the properties of shunt reactors numerous current and voltage waveforms either captured as disturbance recordings in the field or simulated by ATP [7] will be presented. On all these figures the nomenclature for current and voltage signals, as shown in Figure 1 below, will always be used.
A B C
IA IB IC UA UB UC 3Io

IaN

IbN

IcN

IN

Figure 1: Shunt Reactor Current & Voltage Signals All presented current and voltage signals will be expressed in per unit system with shunt reactor rated data as a base. 1

I. BASIS ABOUT HV SHUNT REACTORS
1.1 INTRODUCTION Shunt reactors are designed for connection to the ends of high voltage transmission lines or to high-voltage cables for the purpose of controlling the line voltage by absorbing reactive power. Let us look at the equivalent circuit of the transmission line and see shunt reactor effect on the line parameters.
Is Z Ir

Vs Y/2 Y/2

Vr

Figure 2: Transmission line equivalent circuit (uncompensated line) In Figure 2, Vs and Is are the sending-end voltage and current, and Vr and Ir are the receivingend voltage and current. Writing Kirchoff Voltage Law equation for the circuit in Figure2,

Vs = Vr + Z ( Ir + Vs = (1 +

Vr * Y ) 2

(1) (2)

Y *Z ) * Vr + Z * Ir 2 Also writing a Kirchoff Current Law equation at the sending end, Vr * Y Vs * Y + 2 2 Y *Z Y *Z Is = Y (1 + ) * Vr + (1 + ) * Ir 4 2 Is = Ir +
Vs   AB  Vr   Is  = CD   Ir      

(3) (4)

(5)

where:

2

3 .277 *10 − 4 ∠90. This voltage regulation problem becomes more severe as the line length increase.0515 + j 0. the no-load receiving-end voltage is VrNL = Vs 345.A = D = 1+ B = Z (Ω ) Y *Z ( perunit ) 2 (6) (7) C = Y (1 + Y *Z )( S ) 4 (8) Example 1: A three-phase line.9706 Figure 3 summarizes these results.563(Ω / mile) y = j 6.78 0 C = 8.08 0 From (5).8 = = 356.3kVLL A 0. (7) and (8) A = D = 0. showing a high receiving-end voltage at no-load and a low receiving-end voltage at full load.9706∠0. 124 miles has the following positive sequence constants: z = 0. completely transposed 345kV.29∠84.76 *10 −6 ( S / mile) From equations (6).159 0 B = 70.

8 = = 348.2kVLL A 0.993∠0.4 * 10 −4 (1 − 0. VrNL = 4 . providing 75% compensation (the reactors are removed during heavy load conditions). the no-load receiving-end voltage is Vs 345. shunt reactors can reduce line loadability if they are not removed under full-load conditions. However. These reactors are limited to voltages up to 34. (7) and (8) A = D = 0.993 It may be concluded from the previous example that reactors reduce overvoltages during light load conditions. There are two general types of shunt reactors.04 0 From (5).V(x) V RNL No-load SIL Vs V RSIL VS Full-load Short-circuit V RFL V RSC Sending end Receiving end 0 Figure 3: Voltage profiles of an uncompensated line Assume that identical shunt reactors are connected from each phase to neutral at both ends of the same line during light load conditions.1 *10 − 4 ∠90 0 ( S ) From equations (6). In this case the line constants are: Z = z ∗ l = 70. One is dry-type reactor of an air core or core-less design.75) = 2.5kV and are often installed on the tertiary of a transformer.29∠84.78(Ω) Y = 8.

oil immersed. shunt reactors are usually installed at both ends of line. and sized to prevent the line voltage from exceeding design value when energized from one end. Since there is usually some uncertainty as to which end of a line may be energized (or de-energized) first. referring to Figure 4. A long distance 345kV transmission line will have a shunt capacitance around 3. 5 . Z G 52 52 52 52 G Equivalent Pi of the Long Line Y/2 Y/2 Figure 4: One-line diagram of line-connected switched shunt reactors The shunt capacitance depends on type of transmission line. The corresponding shunt capacitance for the 345kV cable is almost 20 times as large as or about 22. The shunt capacitance will be increased by increasing the transmission voltage (proportional to the square of the transmission voltage).12Mvar/mile). shunt reactors are the most compact and cost-efficient means to compensate reactive power generation of long-distance.HV.: • Shunt reactors that are continuously in service.14 µF /mile (1. high-voltage power transmission lines. Two main application of the reactor can be identified. length of line and line voltage.4Mvar/mile. generally used for EHV and long HV lines/cables • Switched shunt reactors are applied in the underlying system and near load centers It is common for shunt reactors to be installed at both ends of EHV lines. or extended cable systems during light load conditions.

Once above the saturation point the extra current needed to further increase the flux density will be large. In the reactor neutral the third harmonics in the three phases add together and act like a zero sequence current. 6 . but better tolerances are possible to achieve. commonly referred to as “gapped core” and “coreless” [1] & [2]. the saturation point. A usual figure is 0. This is due to the higher energy density that can be achieved in a gapped core reactor compared to a coreless reactor. a small increase in voltage will result in a proportional increase in current).1. Asymmetry between phases The tolerances on asymmetry between phases of a three-phase reactor or between single-phase units forming a three-phase bank can be judged by the amount of residual harmonics. The gapped core reactor has a subdivided limb of core steel with air gaps inside the winding – and no limb at all for the coreless concept. With a voltage of sinusoidal shape the fluxes and flux densities are also proportional to the voltage. Magnetic fluxes and flux densities are also proportional to the time integral of the applied voltage.5 %. and without practical importance for relaying and communication interference.e. Standards are realistic. The deviation from a true sinusoidal shape in line voltage is in general negligible for normal operating voltages. It is easy to verify that the gapped core concept becomes more advantageous as the loss evaluation rate increases and particularly at higher system voltages. The result is a zero sequence current in the neutral connection. SHUNT REACTOR OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Linearity For normal operating voltages there is a linear relationship between applied voltage and reactor current (i. Harmonic content Steady state harmonics in reactor current arise from partial saturation in the magnetic circuit. As the magnetic flux to a great extent has its path in magnetic core steel the core steel will get saturated for flux densities above a certain level. These effects are in fact very small.2 SHUNT REACTOR GENERAL DESIGN CONCEPTS Two different ways are used in building reactors. Below and up to the saturation point only a small current is needed to magnetize the core steel and the extra current needed to reach a marginal increase flux density is small. Of all harmonics the third harmonic will be dominant.

5 times depending on the particular shunt reactor design details. 99. but there are differences. 7 . For a three-phase reactor the different phases will experience different degrees of dc offset. Depending on the switching instant the currents might have a dc component. Input data for all figures in this chapter are obtained from actual disturbance recordings in the field. The flux will increase with the voltage-time-area during the first half-cycle to a value twice the maximum flux in normal operation.II. it is the same story as inrush current of a transformer. HV SHUNT REACTOR SWITCHING 2.2MVA. 440kV. the damping of the asymmetric condition – “the dc component” – is slow. Above the point of saturation the current will increase faster than the flux.82 times rated current. until reactor core saturation occurs.1 SWITCHING IN OF REACTORS. The instantaneous current values during shunt reactor switching in can be visualized from the Figure 5. The actual current peak might rise to a value in between 3 and 5. It is therefore necessary to keep this phenomenon in mind when designing the relay protection system for HV shunt reactors. 60Hz Reactor 4 2 Current [pu] 0 2 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Cycles 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 IA IB IC Figure 5: Shunt Reactor Phase Currents during Asynchronized Switching Without saturation. A reactor core keeps no remanence. One of the time intervals when reactor core goes into saturation is clearly marked if Figure 5. because of the air gaps. However. the first peak of the current with full dc offset would be 2 ⋅ 2 = 2. In principle. The current is proportional to the flux density. which makes the whole thing easier. The worst condition is when the reactor phase is closed in at zero voltage. The combination of the individual phase current offsets will give a neutral current rich in harmonics and also with possibly dc offset from the zero line as shown in Figure 6 or Figure 14. due to the inherent low losses in a shunt reactor. INRUSH CURRENT The switching in of a reactor gives rise to inrush current – a transient phenomenon related to saturation in the shunt reactor magnetic circuit.

5 9 9.92 Current [pu] 0.75 99. 440kV. 2 150MVAr. including shunt reactors. Typical current waveforms during the synchronized shunt reactor switching is shown in Figures 7.5 7 Cycles 7. 8 & 9. 50Hz Reactor 1 Current [pu] 0 1 2 4 4.5 5 5.75 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Cycles 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 IN 3Io Figure 6: Shunt Reactor Neutral Currents during Asynchronized Switching The time to more or less fully balanced operation around zero flux in the core may be fairly long often in order of seconds. 220kV. In recent years. 60Hz Reactor 0.5 6 6. but such condition is of no harm for the shunt reactor itself.2MVA.5 10 IA IB IC Figure 7: Shunt Reactor Phase Currents during Synchronized Switching 8 .0833 0. can be performed without a disturbance to the rest of the power system.1. By using these relays switching of different power system devices. so-called point on wave closing relays are available from switchgear manufacturers.5 8 8.

78 7 IA IB IC UA UB UC Figure 9: Shunt Reactor Phase Currents & Voltages during Synchronized Switching 9 .44 5. 50Hz Reactor 2 1 Current & Voltage [pu] 0 1 2 5 5.5 5 5. 220kV. circuit breaker poles must be precisely closed in three consecutive phase voltage peaks as shown in the following figure. 150MVAr.25 0.1.5 8 8.22 5.25 4 4.25 150MVAr.56 6.89 Cycles 6.5 9 9.67 5.11 6. 50Hz Reactor 0. 220kV.5 7 Cycles 7.5 10 IN 3Io Figure 8: Shunt Reactor Neutral Currents during Synchronized Switching In order to obtain such disturbance free shunt reactor switching.5 6 6.33 6.75 Current [pu] 0.

However these discharge secondary currents are typically very small for shunt reactors and pose no effect on the reactor protection schemes with numerical relays. for typical example). which appears in the CT secondary circuit. However. This phenomenon is manifested as an exponentially decaying dc current component in the CT secondary circuit (see Figure 16. This secondary dc current has no corresponding primary current in the power system. Modern surge arresters are fully capable of handling this condition. and besides. and maybe less known. 10 .2 SHUNT REACTOR DISCONNECTION Disconnection of small reactive current was at one time regarded as a dangerous operation because of the risk of current chopping and resulting switching overvoltage. The phenomenon can be simply explained as a discharge of the magnetic energy stored in the magnetic core of the current transformer. transient phenomenon. the primary current chopping causes another. the tendency of the circuit breaker to chop reactor current is not so pronounced for typical HV shunt reactor rated current values [1].2. [3].

Typically 12 to 32 samples per fundamental power system cycle are used depending on the particular relay design. phase and ground overcurrent) In order to apply correct relay settings for shunt reactor protection application. which extracts equivalent RMS value from the input signal. 99. 440kV.e. These RMS values are then typically processed by different protective functions (i.III.e. NUMERICAL PROTECTION RELAY RESPONSE DURING SHUNT REACTOR SWITCHING IN All numerical relays utilize so-called sampling technique of the input current and voltage signals. 60Hz Reactor 5 4 3 Current [pu] 2 1 0 1 2 20 30 40 IC 50 Cycles 60 70 80 Figure 10: Typical Shunt Reactor current waveform during switching in Response of two different types of digital filters will be investigated. it is of outmost importance to understand the relay digital filter response to typical input current waveforms. TRMS (i. digital Fourier filter). which extracts only RMS value of the fundamental component from the input signal. DFT (i.2MVA.e. From these samples numerical relays calculates root-mean-square values of the input quantities by using different type of digital filters. 11 . Figure 10 represents typical current waveform during reactor switching in. Therefore this filter includes the dc component and higher harmonic components from the input quantity into its output result 2. 1. This filter effectively suppresses the dc component and higher harmonic components in the input quantity. which can be encountered. True RMS filter).

69 [pu] 1.56 0 20 30 40 TRMS DFT 50 Cycles 60 70 80 Figure 11: Digital Filter Output for input signal shown in Figure 10 12 . Similar results can be obtained if similar analysis is performed for the neutral point current as well. All setting recommendation in this document will be given for relays. which utilize DFT filtering technique (i. relays which effectively suppress the dc component and higher harmonic components in the input quantity).13 0. 2.From Figure 11 it is obvious that the overcurrent relays which use DFT filtering technique can be set more sensitive than the relays which use TRMS filter for its operation.e.25 IC RMS value 1.

During normal operation reactor current is always around 1pu and therefore of a relatively low magnitude. POSSIBLE PROTECTION PROBLEMS DURING SHUNT REACTOR SWITCHING It is well known fact that one of the principal difficulties with shunt reactor protection scheme is false operation during reactor energizing and de-energizing [4]. which is never big enough to move the operating point towards the origin. 4.1 CURRENT TRANSFORMER PERFORMANCE DURING SWITCHING IN OF SHUNT REACTOR It should be noted that HV shunt reactors are typically switched in and out at least once per day or even more often depending on the power system loading patterns. Most problems are typically encountered with restricted ground fault protection.e. Such CT saturation event is captured by numerical relay disturbance recorder and it is shown in Figure 12. residual flux in the CT core can increase or decrease. Therefore performance of these three relays during switching in of the shunt reactor will be explained here in more details. depending on the moment of switching. Therefore when next switching attempt comes. This CT saturation then causes problems for protective relays. during this period relatively high and long lasting dc current component typically causes most problems for protective relays. As shown in Chapter II during switching in of shunt reactor relatively high and long lasting dc current component might appear in one or more phases. As explained previously. differential protection and ground fault protection during switching.IV. If the protection relays maloperate this typically happen some hundreds of millisecond or even 1 to 2 seconds after circuit breaker closing. which lose the correct information about the primary current and therefore can maloperate. 50Hz Reactor 3 CT Saturation Instant Current [pu] 2 1 0 1 0 5 10 15 Cycles 20 25 30 35 IC Figure 12: Phase CT saturation during Shunt Reactor Switching in 13 . 4 150MVAr. remanent) flux. What is most difficult to understand is why this problem often happens randomly and not with every reactor switching attempt. 220kV. Thus this mechanism will sooner or later cause CT saturation during reactor switch in operation. This current waveform moves the operating point of CT magnetic core on the hysteresis curve in one direction and when the dc component diminish it leaves the main CT with certain level of residual (i.

product type relays). This gives the following benefits to the end user: • this relay can be applied with different type of CTs at the reactor bushing and at reactor neutral point (i. CTs doesn’t need to be identical) • main CTs can be shared with other relays • no galvanic connection is necessary between CTs at the reactor bushing and at reactor neutral point • in case of an internal fault no high voltages will appear in the CT secondary wiring Typically these restricted ground fault relays of a low impedance type calculate the differential current as a difference between zero-sequence currents at the reactor bushings and the reactor neutral point. which is shown in Figure 14.e. 220kV. Let’s have a look into the disturbance-recording file captured by numerical relay. 4.1.2 RESTRICTED GROUND FAULT RELAY PERFORMANCE DURING SWITCHING IN OF REACTOR Modern numerical relays typically offer restricted ground fault protection of a low impedance type. As additional operating criteria they often use directional principle (i.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 DFT IC 25 Cycles 30 35 40 45 50 Figure 13: Influence of Phase CT saturation on current DFT value calculation This type of CT saturation is reflected in the CT secondary side as: • loss of information about primary dc component • reduced current magnitude Figure 13 represents the DFT filter output value for the input current waveform as shown in Figure 12.e. 50Hz Reactor 1 Current [pu] 0. However for shunt reactor protection these sometimes might not be enough to prevent maloperations.5 150MVAr. 14 .

2 150MVAr. Calculated phase angle difference between neutral point current and zero-sequence current at the reactor bushing for the above event is shown in Figure 15: 100 Phase Angle Between IN & 3Io 80 60 Angle [deg] 40 20 0 20 5 10 15 Cycles 20 25 30 35 3Io-IN Figure 15: Calculated phase angle difference between IN and 3Io currents Obviously it is necessary to have some additional means to restrain low impedance. 220kV. product type relay) to maloperate during reactor switching in.e. 15 . Unfortunately this very often manifests as the current of opposite polarity in comparison with the neutral point current. which then causes the directional restricted ground fault relay (i. One very effective method is to check the amount of second harmonic component in the shunt reactor neutral point current and adaptively prevent relay operation if the preset limit is exceeded. restricted ground fault relay from maloperations during shunt reactor switching in. 50Hz Reactor 1 Current [pu] 0 1 0 5 10 15 Cycles 20 25 30 35 IN 3Io Figure 14: Zero-sequence currents during Shunt Reactor Switching in The problem is that when one or more phase CTs saturate false 3Io current appears at the reactor bushings.

67 18. 16 .75 20.4. In the same time in order to have secure operation for heavier internal fault.e. 10-15% of the reactor rated current) it might be necessary to have some additional means to restrain low impedance differential protection relay from maloperations during shunt reactor switching in. One effective method is to enable second harmonic blocking feature commonly readily available in numerical transformer differential relay. Second possibility is to delay the restraint differential protection operation only during reactor switching. This gives the following benefits to the end user: • this relay can be applied with different type of CTs at the reactor bushing and at reactor star point (i. the unrestrained differential level can be typically set down to 200% and without any time delay.08 4. 60Hz Reactor 2 [pu] 0 2 0 2.25 8.58 16.3 DIFFERENTIAL RELAY PERFORMANCE DURING SWITCHING IN OF REACTOR Modern numerical relays typically offer differential protection of a low impedance type.5 Cycles 14.2MVA.e.42 12.83 22. which is shown in Figure 16.33 10.17 6. However again the long lasting dc component can cause uneven saturation of the two CTs and cause the relay maloperations.92 25 IC IcN Figure 16: Phase C winding currents during shunt reactor switching in As it can be seen in Figure 16 due to uneven CT saturation on the two winding ends differential protection had unwanted operation and it has disconnected the shunt reactor from the power system. Let’s have a look into the disturbance recording file captured by numerical relay. CTs doesn’t need to be identical) • main CTs can be shared with other relays • no galvanic connection is necessary between CTs at the reactor bushing and at reactor star point • in case of an internal fault no high voltages will appear in the CT secondary wiring Here the situation is little bit easier because the relay measures essentially the same current on both ends of the protected winding. 440kV. Thus if sensitive setting is required for the differential protection (i. 4 99.

V. 1. Thus during external fault condition. Then the relay will check the second harmonic component level in the measured input current and prevent relay operation if the preset limit is exceeded. Reactor Phase Currents As a result.57 Current [pu] 0 0. However.4 GROUND OVERCURRENT RELAY PERFORMANCE DURING SWITCHING IN OF REACTOR Numerical ground overcurrent relay might maloperate during reactor switching if it is set too sensitive.4. SHUNT REACTOR BEHAVIOUR DURING EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL FAULTS Shunt reactors are connected in parallel with the rest of the power network. As shown in Appendix II shunt reactor can be treated as a device with the fixed impedance value.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cycles 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 IA IB IC Figure 17: External Phase A to Ground Fault.e. shunt reactor unbalance current will appear in the neutral point as shown in Figure 18. which is readily available in certain numerical protections. Such behavior is verified by an ATP simulation and it is shown in Figure 17. another very effective method for such type of problem is to enable second harmonic blocking feature for ground overcurrent relay. I=U/Z). Therefore the individual phase current is directly proportional to the applied phase voltage (i. Depending on the point on the voltage wave when external fault happens the reduce current might have superimposed dc component. when the faulty phase voltage is lower than the rated voltage . Typically in such cases either pickup current value or time delay are increased. 220kV. the current in the faulty phase will actually reduce its value from the rated value. However.47 0.6 150MVA.08 0.98 1. this neutral point current will typically be less than 1 pu irrespective of the location and fault resistance of the external fault. 17 . 50Hz Reactor 1.

Assuming that due to the construction details. 220kV.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cycles 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 IN 3Io Figure 18: External Phase A to Ground Fault. 50Hz Reactor 1.57 Current [pu] 0 0. internal shunt reactor phase-to-phase faults are not very likely. 1% from the neutral point has been simulated in ATP.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cycles 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 IA IB IC Figure 19: Internal Phase A Winding to Ground Fault. In the first case the Phase A winding to ground fault.08 0.47 0.2.17 1. only two extreme cases of internal phase to ground fault scenarios will be presented here. 220kV.6 150MVA.17 Current [pu] 0.98 1.e. in reactor bushings) will be practically the same as before the fault as shown in Figure 19. 1. 50Hz Reactor 1. Phase Currents 18 .5 150MVA. As a result the phase currents on the HV side (i. Reactor Zero-sequence Currents Similarly during an internal fault the value of the individual phase currents and neutral point current will depend very much on the position of the internal fault.

67 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cycles 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 IN 3Io Figure 20: Internal Phase A Winding to Ground Fault. These currents can be so high to even cause CT saturation as shown in Figure 20 for the common neutral point current. In this case the currents have opposite properties.e. The phase A current on the HV side is very big (limited only by the power system source impedance and fault resistance). 19 . while the phase A current in reactor star point will have very small value due to a fact that phase A winding is practically short-circuited. shunt reactor bushing failure) has been investigated. For internal ground fault in some other location in-between these two positions the shunt reactor currents will have values somewhere in the range limited by this two extreme cases. shunt reactor bushing failure) shall be easily detected and cleared by the differential. However. 15 150MVA. In the second case the Phase A to ground fault.e.However phase A current at the shunt reactor star point and common neutral point current will have very big value due to so-called transformer effect. similar value as during external ground fault). but not by reactor HV side overcurrent or HV residual ground fault protections.e. this neutral point current will typically have a value around 1 pu (i. 220kV. restricted ground fault or HV side overcurrent or residual ground fault protections.33 Current [pu] 1. That type of the internal fault (i. Neutral point ground overcurrent protection can operate with the time delay. As a result. Zero-sequence Currents This type of the internal fault shall be easily detected and cleared by the differential. just between the HV CTs and shunt reactor winding (i. 50Hz Reactor 8. shunt reactor unbalance current will appear in the neutral point. restricted ground fault or neutral point ground overcurrent protection.

e. one in each winding part). Then so-called split phase differential protection can be utilized to detect turn-toturn faults. if the same CTs are used for both differential protections • this scheme can be only used if the shunt reactor is specifically ordered with these CTs Second turn-to-turn protection scheme for shunt reactors.VI. However this protection scheme have the following drawbacks: • this special CT arrangement typically causes reactor manufacturing problems • typically low CT ratio is required. external phase to ground fault) will cause appearance of unbalance voltage which can be used to block the operation of turn-to-turn protection scheme • In case of a bigger winding turn-to-turn fault which might cause the sufficient voltage unbalance. which can cause longitudinal differential protection problems during reactor switching in. The current and the voltage changes encountered during such fault are very small and therefore sensitive and reliable protection against turn-to-turn faults is difficult to achieve.e. oil immersed shunt reactors have very small manufacturing asymmetry between individual phases • Shunt reactor winding impedance is approximately proportional to the square of the number of active turns • Short circuit between some number of turns will cause the decrease of the winding impedance only in the faulty phase and corresponding small raise of the shunt reactor neutral point current • Currents during turn-to-turn fault are of the small magnitude and they will not produce any sufficient unbalance voltage • Any external cause of neutral point current (i. To implement such shunt reactor turn-to-turn protection scheme within multifunctional numerical relay utilizing its graphical configuration facilities. the HV lead is brought out at the mid point of the winding. Hence special protection schemes shall be employed. shall not be a big problem for a protection engineer. At the same time the longitudinal differential protection offers no protection at all for such faults. SHUNT REACTOR TURN-TO-TURN PROTECTION SCHEMES Turn-to-turn faults in shunt reactor present a formidable challenge to the protection engineer. and the two neutral leads at the bottom and the top of the winding). successfully used in some other counties. and readily available logical gates. This gives the opportunity to install two CTs in the winding star point (i. utilize the following facts: • HV power system voltages are well balanced during normal load conditions • Modern HV.e. 20 . sensitive directional zero sequence relay connected on the shunt reactor HV side and set to look into the reactor shall be capable to detect such fault This protection scheme was developed even before multifunctional numerical relays were available. timers etc. One such scheme. utilizes a fact that the HV shunt reactor winding is often made of two half-windings connected in parallel (i. often used in certain countries.

50Hz Reactor 1. 1. is verified by an ATP simulation and it is shown in Figures 21 & 22.06 150MVA.08 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cycles 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 IN 3Io 3Uo Figure 22: Internal Phase A Winding turn-to-turn fault.57 Current [pu] 0 0.98 1. Phase Currents 0.47 0. Zero-sequence Quantities 21 . 50Hz Reactor Current & Voltage [pu] 0. shunt reactor behavior.033 0.08 0. 220kV. From these figures is obvious that the above-described scheme can be successfully implemented if the power system itself is well balanced.013 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cycles 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 IA IB IC Figure 21: Internal Phase A Winding turn-to-turn fault.In order to verify above statements. 220kV. for phase A winding 1% turn-to-turn faults.6 150MVA.

Buchholz relay) with alarm and trip stage • sudden pressure relay • winding temperature contact thermometer with alarm and trip stage • oil temperature contact thermometer with alarm and trip stage • low oil level relay These mechanical relays are excellent compliment to the electrical measuring relays previously explained. However signals from mechanical devices shall be connected to binary inputs of numerical relays in order to get time tagging information. By using overcurrent relay secure control action is obtained when reactor is energized regardless the circuit breaker auxiliary contact status. numerical relay. VIII.e. disturbance recording and event reporting in case of their operation. The control action can be initiated by the circuit breaker auxiliary contact or by operation of an overcurrent relay set to 50% of the reactor rated current. lately it is often required by the electrical utilities to perform automatic shunt reactor in and out switching. by monitoring the busbar voltage level. Typically it is recommended to arrange that these mechanical relays trip reactor circuit breaker independently from electrical relays. However sometimes it is required to have some control action in the cooling circuit depending on the status of the shunt reactor circuit breaker. SHUNT REACTOR MECHANICAL FAULT DETECTION Similarly to the power transformers.VII. However user must carefully check relay performance regarding the following points: • over/under voltage relay with reset ratio or 1% or better is required for such application • typically more than one over/under voltage level with independently settable time delays are required within the relay • over/under voltage relay shall be capable to operate only when all three voltages are above/below set operate level or relay must be capable to measure and operate on the value of the positive sequence voltage 22 . This functionality is quite easy to integrate into multifunctional. Typically the following built-in mechanical fault detection devices can be encountered within shunt reactor: • gas detection relay (i. In order to improve power system performance. HV oil immersed shunt reactors typically have build-in mechanical devices for internal fault or abnormal operating condition detection. TYPICAL SHUNT REACTOR CONTROL SCHEMES The shunt reactors are generally designed for natural cooling with the radiators mounted directly on the tank.

IX. For internal phase-to-phase fault detection. 23 . 50/51) is utilized. with just a few protection functions are still specified and applied today. However.e. 50G/51G) is used as backup protection for ground faults and as main protection for circuit breaker pole disagreement condition. TRADITIONAL SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION AND CONTROL SCHEMES Usually multifunctional numerical protection relays are used for both power transformer and shunt reactor protection. This protection shall trip instantaneously for all internal phase to ground faults. Two such traditional protection arrangements are shown in the following two figures. IA IB IC 50/51 87N IN 50G/51G Figure 23: Typical Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme No1 The first protection scheme utilizes restricted ground fault protection (i. Ground overcurrent protection (i.e.e. overcurrent protection (i. typically old protection schemes for shunt reactor protection. 87N) as reactor unit protection.

87) as reactor unit protection.e. Residual overcurrent protection (i. 50N/51N) is used as backup protection for ground faults and as main protection for circuit breaker pole disagreement condition. This protection shall trip instantaneously for all internal phase to phase and phase to ground faults. Overcurrent protection (i.e.e. 50/51) is used as backup protection for internal phase-tophase faults.IA IB IC 50/51 50N/51N 87 IbN IaN IcN Figure 24: Typical Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme No2 The second protection scheme utilizes differential protection (i. Actually it shall be noted that the numerical multifunctional relays can offer much more functionality than shown on the above two figures. Please refer to the following chapter to see proposed shunt reactor protection scheme with multifunctional numerical protection relay. 24 .

The proposed settings shall be considered only as guidelines. numerical relay All proposed protection or control functions in Figure 25 are typically readily available in multifunctional numerical transformer protection relays.X. an example of possible application of such relay. It is hoped that this paper will provide some guidance to those seeking assistance in HV shunt reactor protection and control issues. 25 . Table 1 gives the summary about each function from Figure 25 as well as some typical setting values [5]. which utilizes DFT filtering technique. IA IB IC 50/51 #1 50N/51N 67N 87N UA UB UC 59 27 59N 87 IbN IaN IcN 50/51 #2 49 50/51 #3 IN 50G/51G Figure 25: Example of complete HV shunt reactor protection and control scheme with multifunctional. However suitability of a particular relay to be used for shunt reactor application shall be carefully evaluated. CONCLUSIONS The paper has described a number of details regarding HV shunt reactors and their protection and control schemes. In order to help the end user to properly select and apply multifunctional numerical relays for HV shunt reactor protection and control. is presented in Figure 25.

Backup protection. these settings have to be revised in order to prevent unwanted operation. Set differential level to 10%. Often more than one stage required. Use 2nd harmonic blocking. Specific system data are required in order to properly set this function. * Specific system data are required in order to properly set this function. Used for automatic shunt reactor control.6s and 1s or even longer. Set high set to 175% with time delay of 0. Table 1: List of functions for complete HV shunt reactor protection and control scheme * These settings are proposed for HV shunt reactors with own circuit breaker. Check suitability for shunt reactor application with relay manufacturer. Set low set to 20% with time delay in between 0.Function 87=low impedance differential protection 87N=low impedance. That is the exact time when reactors are required to be energized. sensitive for internal faults close to the reactor bushings. * Set low set to 30% with appropriate time delay as CBF protection. In case that the HV shunt reactor is directly connected to the HV line without its own circuit breaker. Set restraint differential level to 10-15% with 2nd harmonic restrain set at 10%. Used as circuit breaker failure protection and indication that reactor is energized for the cooling control logic.6s and 1s. restricted ground fault protection #1-50/51=HV overcurrent protection #2-50/51=HV overcurrent protection #3-50/51=HV overcurrent protection Comment Check suitability for shunt reactor application with relay manufacturer. Relay shall include adaptive 2nd harmonic restrain feature. Backup protection. Backup protection. Set operate angle for directional criteria to ±65 deg. Shall be used with great care. when: HV line is de-energized.1s. sensitive for internal fault close to the reactor star point.1s. Used for turn-to-turn fault detection logic. Possible to use winding/oil contact thermometer instead. * Typical setting shown in percents of the shunt reactor rating 49=thermal overload protection Specific manufacturing data are required in order to properly set this function. Set low set to 130% with time delay in between 0. Shunt reactor overload can only be caused by overvoltage in a power system.6s and 1s. sensitive for internal faults close to the reactor bushings. * Set low set to 130% with time delay in between 0. Thus it might come in conflict with shunt reactor voltage/reactive power control functionality in the power system. due to low-frequency. sensitive for internal fault close to the reactor star point. Backup protection. Used for turn-to-turn fault detection logic. Used for turn-to-turn fault detection logic. long time constant transients which are determined by the combination of line capacitance and shunt reactor inductance [4]&[6] One HV line phase is open during dead time of single pole autoreclosing cycle 26 . Set unrestraint differential level 200%. Set high set to 50% in order to indicate that shunt reactor is energized. 50G/51G=ground fault protection in reactor neutral point 50N/51N=ground fault overcurrent protection in reactor HV side 59N=unbalance overvoltage 67=directional ground fault protection 27&59=under/over voltage Specific system data are required in order to properly set this function. Specific system data are required in order to properly set these functions. Set high set to 200% with time delay of 0. Set high set to 250% with time delay of 0.1s.

0015 * Q PFe ≈ 0.3) (App_I.002 * Q PCu ≈ 0. 27 .2% in accordance with references [1]&[2]) • PCu is total shunt reactor copper losses in W (typically shunt reactor copper losses are in order of 75% of the total losses in accordance with reference [1]) • PFe is other shunt reactor losses (most of them are iron losses) in W Above data are important in order to properly simulate HV shunt reactors.2) (App_I.APPENDIX I Basic relationships between shunt reactor most important quantities are shown here: Q = 3 *U * I = X * I 2 = U2 X (App_I.75 * PTotal ≈ 0.25 * PTotal ≈ 0.4) PTotal ≈ 0.0005 * Q where: • Q is shunt reactor rated reactive power in VAr • U is shunt reactor rated phase-to-phase voltage in V • I is shunt reactor rated phase current in A • X is shunt reactor rated reactance in Ω • Ptotal is total shunt reactor losses in W (typically total shunt reactor losses are in order of 0.1) (App_I.

e. and the quotient between the peak value and the root-mean-square value exceeds value 2 .e. The knee point usually corresponds from 125% to 135% of the rated voltage. The relation between voltage and current peak value is shown in Figure 26. Below the knee point the reactor current is sinusoidal (i. one below saturation and the other above saturation.5 1 0. Magnetic fluxes and flux densities are also proportional to the time integral of the applied voltages. Thus for normal operating voltages there is a linear relationship between applied voltage and reactor current (i.5 Voltage [pu] 2 1. 28 . a small increase in voltage will result in a proportional increase in current).APPENDIX II Typical HV shunt reactor magnetizing characteristic is shown in Figure 26. For operation above the knee point the current peak value increases faster than the root-meansquare value.5 0 0 Shunt Reactor Characteristic 1 2 Current [pu] 3 4 Figure 26: Typical magnetizing characteristic of a gapped core shunt reactor The relation between voltage and current peak value in a HV shunt reactor can be described by two lines. this means that the relation between the current peak value and the root-mean-square value of the current is fix and equal to 2 ) and its magnitude is directly proportional to the applied sinusoidal voltage. With a voltage of sinusoidal shape the fluxes and flux densities are also proportional to the voltage. The deviation from a true sinusoidal shape in phase voltage is generally negligible for normal operating conditions of the power system. The slope of the saturated part is 20% to 40% of the slope in the unsaturated region. 2. The point where the two lines intersect is called knee point.

R. Johannesburg-RSA in 1995. 1968. Carlson. Zoran is co-holder of two patents. “IEEE Application Guide for Shunt Reactor Switching”. ABB Power Technology Products/Transformers. IEEE Power Systems Relaying Committee.. PA.Sc. A. During ten years he was relay laboratory manager and was then responsible for development of a digitally controlled. Turkey in 1996. His main working areas are computer applications for protection and control of electrical power systems. 1970 and is currently working as development project manager at ABB Automation Technologies.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. in Allentown. ATP is the royalty-free version of the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). editor. Fahrudin Mekić was born in former Yugoslavia in 1967. Protective Relaying: Theory and Applications. W. Zoran has published several technical papers in the relay protection area. 7. ABB Relays. He is a member of IEEE and PES.. His special areas of interest are transient network analysis. ABB Transformatori. where he had various engineering positions.E degree from Chalmers Technical University in Goteborg Sweden. Switchgear Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. analogue power system simulator and was after that part of a specification group of a real time digital power system simulator. VästeråsSweden. He received his BSEE with honors from University of Belgrade. He received his M. He is a member of IEEE. Inc. Å.ee. 1994. development and testing of line and transformer static and numerical relays. IEEE Std C37. He received his BSEE with honors from Sarajevo University. Sweden.eeug. “IEEE Guide for the Protection of Shunt Reactors”. Elmore. Since 1993 he has been working in the area of power system protection and control within ABB Group of companies.. He was employed as development engineer at ASEA. Substation Automation.de/ or http://www. He received his MSEE degree from Istanbul Technical University. Nylen.E. 2002-08-20 2. For more info please visit one of the following web sites: http://www. protection and control algorithms for microprocessor based relays and power system simulation. ANSI/IEEE C37. Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991 where he also worked as research assistant. Sweden. Substation Automation. Birger Hillström was born in Sweden 1944.015-1993 4. Since 1996 he has been working in the area of power system protection and control within ABB. Currently he is Senior Application Engineer with the Substation Automation and Protection Division. where he had various engineering positions. “Shunt Reactor and SVC Protection Application Guide”. Yugoslavia in 1990 and GDE in Computer Engineering from Witwatersrand University. “Pamphlet Shunt Reactors”. ABB Inc. He is currently responsible for the application and technical issues associated with ABB relays. “Shunt Reactor Manual”. Fahrudin has published several technical papers in the area of protection and reliability.edu/atp/ BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES Zoran Gajić was born in former Yugoslavia in 1965. Sweden. Currently he has a position of Protection Application Specialist with ABB Automation Technologies.109-1988 5. Marcel Dekker. 1988-11-17 6.. Roma-Italy 3. 29 .mtu. Ludvika-Sweden.