Code No: R050211103

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 BIO ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRODE (Bio-Medical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. What are the different bio-potentials? Explain with their characteristics. [16]

2. Describe local excitatory state (LES) and rheobase . Explain the relation between the stimulus strength and duration. [16] 3. What is synaptic cleft? Explain how impulse is transmitted through synaptic cleft. [16] 4. With a neat sketch, explain the conduction system and electrical activity of the heart. How does repolarization start in ventricles? [16] 5. Write the applications of bio-electrodes in medical field. Explain about electrodeelectrolyte interface. [16] 6. Describe surgical diathermy and physiotherapy instruments used in medicine. Write their applications. [16] 7. (a) What do you mean by electrical activity of skeletal muscles? (b) What are motor unit potentials? Explain. 8. (a) Explain any two important applications of bio-electric phenomena. (b) Give a scheme for measurement of tissue resistance. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8] [8+8]

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Code No: R050211103

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 BIO ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRODE (Bio-Medical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Discuss about the bio-electric generation at the cellular and sub-cellular level, in detail. [16] 2. What is all or none principle? Explain how action potentials are recorded. [16]

3. Describe various studies conducted on nerve conduction including Galvani and Volta’s experimentation, Goldman’s theory and Hodgekin and huxelys observation. [16] 4. Explain the different types of leads used to record ECG? Give the relation between different types of ECG. [16] 5. (a) Explain a case for Electrode-Electrolyte interface? (b) Also explain, in what ways the study of electrode-electrolyte interface helps in Understanding the volume conductor fields. [8+8] 6. (a) Write a short note on various types of electrodes used to extract bio-signals? (b) What are physiotherapy instruments? [8+8]

7. What is the effect of fatigue on EMG? Discuss gradation of muscle activity? [16] 8. What are various rhythms in EEG waveforms? How does REM affect the EEG signals? Discuss the clinical utility of EEG in early detection of Epilepsy? [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050211103

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 BIO ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRODE (Bio-Medical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Enumerate the precautions to minimise elecric shock. Hazards. Interprect the biopotential waveforms. [16] 2. What is refractory period and explain absolute and relative refractory periods. [16] 3. Write about the spark theory ( electrical transmission of an Impulse). Explain how synaptic delay in transmission is reduced by electrical transmission. [16] 4. Enumerate the electrical activity of the heart with the help of Einthoven’s triangle. [16] 5. Explain the various types of needle electrodes used for tapping bio-potentials with their equivalent circuit properties. Give their applications. [16] 6. Write a short note on: (a) Physiotherapy instruments (b) Surgical instruments (c) P H meter 7. How are motor unit potentials generated? Explain. [6+5+5] [16]

8. Discuss the different waves and rhythms in Electroencephalogram. Explain. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050211103

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 BIO ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRODE (Bio-Medical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. What is an electrode potential with reference to bio-potential recording? What are different types of electrodes used for recording bio-potentials? Write their important characteristics? [16] 2. What is refractory period and explain absolute and relative refractory periods. [16] 3. Explain how propagation of an impulse is different from transmission with reference to neuroneuronal junction. [16] 4. Define “lead”? Explain the ECG leads with neat circuit diagrams. 5. Discuss on needle electrodes focusing on mechanical properties. 6. Write a short note on: (a) Diathermy (b) Blood cell counter (c) Ion-Sensitive electrode [6+5+5] [16] [16]

7. (a) Explain as to how you can relate motor unit potentials to the electrical activity of skeletal muscles? (b) What is gradation of muscular activity? [8+8]

8. Discuss the different waves and rhythms in Electroencephalogram. Explain. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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