Code No: R050211801

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PHYSICAL METALLURGY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What are the step to be taken to achieve optimum resolution? (b) Name the steps to be taken to improve the depth of field. (c) Comment on oil immersion objectives. [4+6+6]

2. (a) Determine the number of lattice points per cell in cubic crystal systems. (b) Determine the relationship between the atomic radius and the lattice parameter in BCC and FCC structures. [12+4] 3. (a) How does an interstitial solid solution differ from interstitial compound? Discuss various factors suggested by Hume-Rothery that control the range of solubility in solid solution. (b) Explain the effect of alloying elements on plain carbon steels. [8+8]

4. (a) Draw a typical Equilibrium diagram for 2 metals completely soluble both in liquid & solid states. Label the important points, lines and areas in it. (b) Explain cooling of any one alloy from the above system. 5. (a) Discuss in detail order-disorder transformations with neat sketches. (b) Explain the effects of alloying elements on steels. [8+8] [8+8]

6. (a) Explain the phase changes that take place when an eutectoid steel is cooled from 9000 C to RT. (b) Distinguish between steels and cast irons and highlight the importance of each of them as engineering materials. [7+9] 7. (a) Explain the mechanism of Bainitic transformation. (b) Distinguish between athermal martensite and isothermal martensite. (c) Explain the term inter lamellar spacing of pearlite. Discuss the parameters which control the inter lamellar spacing. [7+5+4] 8. What do you mean by TTT diagrams. Describe the method of constructing TTT diagrams for an eutectoid steels. Label the various phases in the TTT diagram. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050211801

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PHYSICAL METALLURGY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Give an account on the following: (a) Condenser system (b) Light filters (c) Objective lens [6+5+5]

2. With a neat sketch of HCP structure, find effective number of atoms packing factor and coordination number. [16] 3. (a) What are the different types of solid solutions. Explain interstitial solid solution with suitable examples. (b) Discuss in detail the necessity of alloying and explain the same with four specific examples. [8+8] 4. What is a cored structure? Explain the mechanism of its formation with an example. What are its disadvantages? How does the problem of coring be solved? [16] 5. (a) Discuss in detail order-disorder transformations with neat sketches. (b) Explain the effects of alloying elements on steels. 6. (a) Compute the mass fraction of ferrite and cementitie in pearlite. (b) Explain the differences between hypo eutectoid and hypereutectoid steels. (c) In a hypo eutectoid steel both eutectoid and proeutectoid ferrite exist. Explain the differences between them. [5+5+6] 7. (a) Discuss the following statemtns i. Martensite transformation is reversible ii. Martensite transformation does not proceed to completion. [4+4] [8+8]

(b) What is Bainite? What are its properties. Explain various types of Bainitic structures. [8] 8. (a) What are MS and Mf temperatures? Explain in detail. What is the significance of the above? (b) Distinguish between CCT & TTT diagrams. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1 [8+8]

Code No: R050211801

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PHYSICAL METALLURGY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Name different types of electron microscopes and highlight the salient features associated with them. (b) Explain construction and working of a compound microscope. [8+8]

2. (a) What are the seven important crystal systems and define them with reference to lattice parameters and angle between them. (b) Prove that the packing factor for BCC metals is 0.68. [9+7]

3. (a) Distinguish between unsaturated, saturated and supersaturated solutions with suitable examples. (b) What is chemical affinity factor? Should this be high, or low for the formation of substitutional solid solutions? Why? Explain. [9+7] 4. (a) Explain the differences between i. Coherent ii. Partially coherent iii. Incoherent interfaces. (b) Explain how does the interfacial energy vary with coherency.

[3+3+3] [7]

5. (a) Explain with neat diagrams how the micro-structure of a pure metal may change with additions of alloying elements. (b) What is allotropy & Discuss various allotropic forms of Iron & their properties. [8+8] 6. (a) Compute the mass fraction of ferrite and cementitie in pearlite. (b) Explain the differences between hypo eutectoid and hypereutectoid steels. (c) In a hypo eutectoid steel both eutectoid and proeutectoid ferrite exist. Explain the differences between them. [5+5+6] 7. (a) Compare and contrast the structural features of pearlite with that of Bainite. (b) “Steel is made hard by Quenching”. State at least three conditions which must be fulfilled to justify the above statement. [8+8] 8. Draw and explain TTT diagrams for the following (a) Eutectoid steel (b) Hypo eutectoid steels 1 of 2 [6+5+5]

Code No: R050211801 (c) Hyper eutectoid steels. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

Set No. 3

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Code No: R050211801

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PHYSICAL METALLURGY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Give an account on the following: (a) Condenser system (b) Light filters (c) Objective lens [6+5+5]

2. (a) Determine the number of lattice points per cell in cubic crystal systems. (b) Determine the relationship between the atomic radius and the lattice parameter in BCC and FCC structures. [12+4] 3. (a) What are the differences between primary solid solution and secondary solid solutions? (b) Discuss the effect of alloying elements regarding mechanical properties of steels. (c) What are intermediate phases? Discuss the various types of intermediate phases. [6+4+6] 4. (a) Explain the lever rule as applied to equilibrium diagrams. (b) ”Eutectic composition usually does not show coring whereas a solid solution may show coring”. Explain why. [8+8] 5. (a) What is allotrophy? What is allotrophic transformation? Give any three examples which show allotrophic transformation and explain them. (b) Explain the allotropic transformation of Iron. [9+7]

6. (a) What are the particular characteristics of alloys of Cu-Zn system, which contain only alpha solid-solution. Explain them. (b) Explain why alpha brasses are cold worked and (α + β) brasses are hot worked brasses. (c) As the solute content (zinc) increases in copper, strength as well ductility increases. Why? Explain. [6+5+5] 7. (a) Compare and contrast the structural features of pearlite with that of Bainite. (b) “Steel is made hard by Quenching”. State at least three conditions which must be fulfilled to justify the above statement. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: R050211801

Set No. 4

8. (a) ‘In a TTT curve the incubation period is initially large (at =7000C), which decreases (as the amount of under cooling increases) to a minimum at the nose of the curve and then increases’. Justify the correctness/in correctness of the above statement. Give the necessary reasons (b) CCT curve of eutectoid steel is displaced towards right and lowered as compared to its TTT curves. Explain, why? [10+6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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