# Code No: R050211802

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Prove the following for a closed system . For constant volume process Q = mCv (T2 − T1 ) For constant pressure process Q =mCp (T2 − T1 ) (b) Diﬀerentiate between intensive and extensive properties with examples. [12+4] 2. (a) State and explain HESS’s law of heat summation. (b) Explain the conclusion that are drawn from Joule - Thomson experiment. (c) Derive an expression for the work done in isothermal expansion of an ideal gas. [5+5+6] 3. (a) From the Consideration of the variation of entropy and heat content with temperature, pressure and volume , derive the general thermodynamic equation of state and comment on them. (b) Calculate the diﬀerences in entropy of 0.5kg of liquid water at 00 C and 1 × 105 N/m2 Pressure and 0.5kg of water vapour at 1000 C and 1 atm pressure. The latent heat of vaporization at 1000 C is 530kcal /gm. [16] 4. (a) Why free energy is called a thermodynamic work function or thermodynamic driving force? Explain. (b) Deﬁne Gibb’s free energy and Helmholtz free energy and diﬀerentiate (c) What do you understand by the term spontaneous thermodynamic process and non-spontaneous thermodynamic process? [16] 5. (a) What do you know about thermo chemical data. [8]

(b) Discuss the use of third law of thermodynamics in evolution of ∆S O of a reaction [8] 6. (a) Deﬁne equilibrium constant and what is its role in metallurgical processes. (b) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction ZrO2 = Zr + O2 ∆GO = 259, 940 + 4.33 T log T-59. 12TCal at 1727O C. [16] 7. (a) Say true or false the following statements with suitable Explanation. Activity of component can never be greater then unity in a system under equilibrium. (b) State and explain Troutons rule. 8. (a) Derive an expression for half life of a ﬁrst order reaction. [16]

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Code No: R050211802

Set No. 1

(b) What is a catalyst? What is the importance of catalyst in a chemical reaction? [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050211802

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) State whether the following statements are true or false and justify your answer in brief. i. Internal energy of a gas does not depend upon its pressure and temperature. ii. If f is negative , a reaction will deﬁnitely will be spontaneous . (b) The properties of a closed system undergoes change following the relation PV =4 and P isin bar and V in metre cube . Calculate the work done, when P increases from 2.5 bar to 8 bar. [8+8] 2. With the help of ﬁrst law of thermodynamics equation calculate internal energy for isobaric process and isothermal process. [16] 3. (a) what is entropy? What are the deferent types of entropies? Give the entropy criterion for spontaneity of a process. (b) Calculate the strand enthalpy and entropy changes at 250 C for the reaction. 2Cu + 1/2 O2 →< Cu2 O > ∆G0 = - 40,500- 3.92 Tlog T + 29.5 T Cal. [16]

4. (a) What do you understand by the term free energy of a system. what is its Signiﬁcance? (b) From the ﬁrst principles, derive the equations for the Gibbs free energy ∆G = ∆H − T ∆S (c) How can free energy change of a reaction determine experimentally. [16]

5. (a) state the third law of thermodynamics and explain how it rationalize the thermo chemical data [6] (b) What is the meaning of thermodynamically possible process (c) What are he important deductions of third law of thermodynamics 6. Deﬁne the following and explain (a) Fugacity (b) Activity (c) Equilibrium Constant 1 of 2 [5] [5] [16]

Code No: R050211802 (d) Raoult’s law

Set No. 2

7. (a) Say true or false the following statements with suitable Explanation. Activity of component can never be greater then unity in a system under equilibrium. (b) State and explain Troutons rule. [16]

8. (a) Comment on the following statement: A catalyst increases the rate of reaction, but it is not consumed because it does not participate in the reaction. (b) Why does not a catalyst appear in the overall chemical equation for a reaction? (c) What eﬀect does a catalyst have on the rate, mechanism and activation energy of a chemical reaction? (d) Distinguish between homogeneous catalyst and heterogeneous catalyst and give an example for each. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050211802

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) State whether the following statements are true or false and justify your answer in brief. i. Internal energy of a gas does not depend upon its pressure and temperature. ii. If f is negative , a reaction will deﬁnitely will be spontaneous . (b) The properties of a closed system undergoes change following the relation PV =4 and P isin bar and V in metre cube . Calculate the work done, when P increases from 2.5 bar to 8 bar. [8+8] 2. (a) Deﬁne the following : i. ii. iii. iv. Heat Work Internal Energy. Heat capacity.

(b) State and explain the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics and its applications. [8+8] 3. Explain the application of a thermodynamic equation of state to the equation of state to the elastic compression or Expansion of a solid. [16] 4. (a) What do you mean by spontaneity based on free energy? (b) Calculate the standard free energy change for the following reaction at 25O C. NiO + H2 = Ni + H2 O Given data NiO = Ni + 1/2 O2 ∆H298O =50,786Cal H2 + 1/2 O2 = H2 O ∆H298O =54,996Cal [16] 5. (a) State and explain the third law of thermodynamics .what is its importance. [6] (b) Derive an expression to show variation of equilibrium constant with temperature. [10] 6. Calculate the equilibrium constant and equilibrium partial pressure of oxygen for the reaction. ZrO2 → Zr + O2 ∆GO = 259940 + 4.33TlogT - 59.12T cal, at 1727O C. Also predict the possibility of decomposing a pure Zirconium crucible under a vaccum of 10−5mm Hg at that temperature. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: R050211802

Set No. 3
[16]

7. (a) Say true or false the following statements with suitable Explanation. Activity of component can never be greater then unity in a system under equilibrium. (b) State and explain Troutons rule.

8. (a) Derive an expression for rate of rate constant of a second order equation A+B → product. (b) Explain how does the temperature aﬀect the rate of a reaction. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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Code No: R050211802

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Write the statement for four laws of thermodynamics. (b) Deﬁne and explain the standard state of a substance. (c) Equation of state. 2. (a) State and explain Le-chatlier principle. (b) Derive Kirchoﬀ’s equation. (c) Deﬁne and explain joule - Thomson coeﬃcient and derive an equation for it in terms of Vanderwalls constants [5+5+6] 3. (a) Deﬁne entropy and explain its importance. (b) Calculate standard entropy change for the reaction at 250 C. Cr2 O3 + 3C = 2Cr + 3CO Given Data: O S298<Cr2O3> = 19.4 cal/deg/mole O S298<C> = 1.36 cal/deg/mole O S298<Cr> = 5.68 cal/deg/mole O S298(Co) = 47.3 cal/deg/mole [8+4+4]

[4+12]

4. (a) What are the various factors on which the free energy of substance of a ﬁxed mass depends? Explain them. (b) Derive all T ds equations from thermodynamic relations. 5. (a) What do you know about thermo chemical data. [16] [8]

(b) Discuss the use of third law of thermodynamics in evolution of ∆S O of a reaction [8] 6. (a) Discuss the importance of sigma function in evalution of fugacity. (b) Explain the eﬀect of temperature on equilibrium constant. (c) How is equilibrium constant determined at any time? [16]

7. (a) Say true or false the following statements with suitable Explanation. Activity of component can never be greater then unity in a system under equilibrium. (b) State and explain Troutons rule. [16]

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Code No: R050211802

Set No. 4
[6]

8. (a) explain the standard free energy change for any reaction. (b) Determine the equilibrium constant at 250 c for the reaction CH4 (g) + H2 O(l) → CO(g) + 3H2 (g) Data: COMPONENT CO(g) CH4 (g) H2 O (1) ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ ∆0 G at 250 c -137.8 KJ/mole -50.09 KJ/mole -238.0 KJ/mole

[10]

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