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Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) A plate 0.05 mm distant from a ﬁxed plate moves at 1.2 m/s and requires a force of 2.2 N/ m2 to maintain this speed. Find the viscosity of the ﬂuid between the plates. (b) Expalin how vacuum pressure can be measure with the help of a U-tube manometer. [8+8] 2. A two-dimensional ﬂow ﬁeld is given by φ = 3xy, determine: (a) The stream function (b) The velocity at L(2,6) and M (6,6) and the pressure diﬀerence between the points L and M. (c) The discharge between the streamlines passing through the points L and M. [16] 3. An open circuit wind tunnel draws air from the atmosphere through a well contoured nozzle. In the test section, where the ﬂow is straight and nearly uniform, a static pressure tap is drilled into the tunnel wall. A manometer connected to the tap shows that the wall pressure within the tunnel is 45 mm of water below atmospheric. Assume that air is incompressible and at 250 C, pressure is 100 Kpa(absolute). Calculate the velocity in the wind tunnel section. Density of water is 999kg/m3 and characteristic gas constant for air is 287 J/Kg K. [16] 4. (a) Derive an expression for discharge as liquids through a rectangular notch. (b) A 120mm × 60mm venturimeter with Cd = 0.98 is to be replaced by an oriﬁce meter having a value of Cd = 0.6, is both the meters are to give the same diﬀerential mercury monometer reading for a discharge of 100 lit/sec and the inlet diameter to remain 125 mm. what should be the diameter of oriﬁce.[7+9] 5. (a) Explain with a neat sketch the boundary layer characteristics when a ﬂuid is ﬂowing over a ﬂat plate. (b) A thin ﬂat plate 0.3 m wide and 0.6 m long is suspended and exposed parallel to air ﬂowing with a velocity of 3 m/sec. Calculate drag force on both sides of the plate when the 0.3 m edge is oriented parallel to free stream. Consider ﬂow to be laminar and assume for air kinematic viscosity is 0.18 stokes and density is 1.2 kg/m3 . [10+6] 6. (a) Derive Darcy-Weisbach equation for loss of head in a pipe. 1 of 2

Code No: R050212102

Set No. 1

(b) Two tanks are connected by a 300 mm diameter 1000 m long pipe. Find the rate of ﬂow if the diﬀerence of water level in the tank is 10 m. Take 4f = 0.04 and ignore minor losses. [10+6] 7. (a) What do you meant by viscous ﬂow? Mention various forces to be considered in Navier Stroke’s equation. (b) Through a horizontal circular pipe of diameter 100 mm and of length 10m, an oil of dynamic 0.097 poise and relative density 0.9 is ﬂowing. Calculate the diﬀerence of pressure at the two ends of the pipe, if 100 Kg. of the oil is collected in a tank in 30 seconds. [10+6] 8. (a) Explain brieﬂy about stagnation point? (b) Avessel ﬁtted with a nozzle, contains air at pressure of 2500KN/m2 and a temperature of 200 C.If the pressure at the outlet of the nozzle is 1750 KN/m2 ﬁnd the velocity of air ﬂowing at the outlet of the nozzle. Take K=1.4 and R=287 J/Kg K. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050212102

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Derive an expression for calculating time of rolling of ﬂoating body. (b) Expalin why in liquids, the viscosity decreases when the temperature is increased where as it increases in the case of gases. [8+8] 2. (a) In a ﬂuid, the velocity ﬁeld is given by V=(3x+2y)i+(2z+3 x2 )j+(2t-3z)k Determine: i. The velocity components u,v,w at any point in the ﬂow ﬁeld ii. The speed at point (1,1,1); iii. The speed at time t = 2s at point (0,0,2). Also classify the velocity ﬁeld as steady, or unsteady, uniform or nonuniform and one, two or three dimensional. (b) Deﬁne convectional and local accelerations. [10+6]

3. A 600 reducing bend is connected in a pipeline, the diameters at the inlet and outlet of the bend being 500mm and 250mm respectively. Find the force extended by water on the bend if the intensity of pressure at inlet to bend is 9N/cm2 and rate of ﬂow of water is 500lit/sec. [16] 4. (a) Explain Weber model law? (b) A 100 mm ×50 mm venturimeter with Cd =0 .97 is to be replaced by an oriﬁce meter having a value of Cd = 0.7 if both the meters are to give the same diﬀerential mercury manometer reading for a discharge of 70 lit/s and the inlet diameter to remain 100 mm what should be the diameter of oriﬁce? [7+9] 5. (a) Explain with a neat sketch the boundary layer characteristics when a ﬂuid is ﬂowing over a ﬂat plate. (b) A thin ﬂat plate 0.3 m wide and 0.6 m long is suspended and exposed parallel to air ﬂowing with a velocity of 3 m/sec. Calculate drag force on both sides of the plate when the 0.3 m edge is oriented parallel to free stream. Consider ﬂow to be laminar and assume for air kinematic viscosity is 0.18 stokes and density is 1.2 kg/m3 . [10+6] 6. (a) How the loss of energy at the entrance to the pipe and exit from the pipe is to be determined?

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Code No: R050212102

Set No. 2

(b) A horizontal pipeline 50 m long is connected to a water tank at one end and discharges freely into the atmosphere at the other end. For the ﬁrst 30 m of its length from the tank, the pipe is 100 mm diameter and its diameter suddenly enlarged to 200 mm. The height of the water level in the tank is 10 m above the centre of the pipe. Determine the rate of ﬂow. Take 4f = 0.04 for both sections of the pipe and consider minor losses. [6+10] 7. (a) Deﬁne the terms Kinetic energy correction factor and momentum correction factor. (b) The Radial clearance between a hydraulic plunger and the cylinder wall is 0.1 mm, the length of the plunger is 300 mm and diameter 100 mm. Find the velocity of leakage and rate of leakage past the plunger at an instant when the diﬀerence of the pressure between the two ends of the plunger is 9m of water. Take mu = 0.0127 Poise. [6+10] 8. (a) Obtain the expression for the sound wave in a compressible ﬂuid in terms of change of pressure and change of density. (b) Air at 300 C at a pressure of 294.3 KN/m2 absolute ﬂows into another reservoir through an oﬃce 50 ×10−4 m2 in area. If the pressure in the reservoir is 147.15 N/m2 absolute, what is the discharge? Given R = 287.14 J/KgK, K = 1.4 and coeﬃcient of discharge Cd = 0.65. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050212102

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Prove that the pressure is the same in all directions at a point in a static ﬂuid. (b) Expalin brieﬂy the following terms: i. ii. iii. iv. Mass density Weight density Speciﬁc volume Speciﬁc gravity. [8+8]

2. (a) The diameter of a pipe at the sections 1-1 and 2-2 are 200 mm and 300 mm respectively. If the velocity of water ﬂowing through the pipe at section 1-1 is 4 m/s, ﬁnd; i. Discharge through the pipe, and ii. Velocity of water at section 2-2 (b) Deﬁne steady, non-steady, uniform and non-uniform ﬂows. [8+8]

3. (a) Starting with Euler’s equation of motion along a streamline obtain Bernoulli’s equation by its integration? List all the assumptions (b) The water is ﬂowing through a taper of 50m having diameters 40cm at the upper end and 20cm at the lower end, at the rate of 60 Lit/sec. The pipe has a slope of 1 in 40. Find the pressure at the lower end, if the presser at the higher level is a 24.525 N/m2 . [7+9] 4. In a vertical pipe conveying oil of speciﬁc gravity 0.8 two pressure gauges, have been installed at A & B where the diameters are 16cms and 8cms respectively. A is 2m above B The pressure gauge reading have shown that the pressure at ‘B’ is greater than at ‘A’ by 0.981 N/cm2 . Neglecting all lasses, calculate the ﬂow rate. If the gauges at A and B are replaced by tubes ﬁlled with the same liquid and connected to a U-tube contains mercury, calculate the diﬀerence of level of mercury in the two limbs of the U-tube. [16] 5. (a) Explain with a neat sketch the boundary layer characteristics when a ﬂuid is ﬂowing over a ﬂat plate. (b) A thin ﬂat plate 0.3 m wide and 0.6 m long is suspended and exposed parallel to air ﬂowing with a velocity of 3 m/sec. Calculate drag force on both sides of the plate when the 0.3 m edge is oriented parallel to free stream. Consider ﬂow to be laminar and assume for air kinematic viscosity is 0.18 stokes and density is 1.2 kg/m3 . [10+6] 1 of 2

Code No: R050212102

Set No. 3

6. Two reservoirs are connected by three cast iron pipes in series. The length and diameter of the pipes are L1 = 600 m, D1 = 0.3 m, L2 = 900 m, D2 = 0.4 m, L3 = 1500 m and D3 = 0.45 m respectively. Find out Reynolds number in each of the pipes. The density and viscosity of water are 1000 kg/m3 and 1.1 ×10−3 N-sec/m2 . The friction factor in each pipe may be approximated as 0.02. The loss due expansion at the junctions between pipe-1 and pipe-2 as well as between pipe-2 and pipe-3 may be neglected. The discharge is 0.11 m3 /sec. Determine the diﬀerence in elevation between the top surfaces of reservoirs. Include the entry loss to pipe-1 and exit loss between pipe-3 and adjacent reservoir. [16] 7. (a) Sketch the Reynolds apparatus and explain how the laminar ﬂow can be demonstrated with the help of this apparatus? (b) Oil of absolute viscosity 1.5 poise and relative density 0.85 ﬂows through a 30cm diameter pipe .If the head losses in a 3000M length of a pipe is 20M.estimate the friction factor by assuming the ﬂow to be laminar. [8+8] 8. (a) what is the relation between pressure and density of a compressible ﬂuid for? i. Isothermal process ii. Adiabatic process. (b) A gas is ﬂowing through a horizontal pipe at a temperature of 40 C. The diameter of the pipe is 8cm and at a section I in the pipe, the pressure is 30.3N/cm2 (gauge). The diameter of the pipe changes from 8cm to 4cm at the section II, where pressure is 20.3N/cm2 (gauge). Find the velocities of the gas at these sections assuming an isothermal process. Take R=287.14Nm/Kg.K and atmosphere pressure=10N/ cm2 . [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050212102

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Deﬁne kinematic viscosity and dynamic viscosity state its units. (b) What is a Newtonian ﬂuid? (c) Deﬁne the term ‘pressure’. (d) What is the diﬀerence between cohesion and adhesion? 2. (a) In a ﬂuid, the velocity ﬁeld is given by V=(3x+2y)i+(2z+3 x2 )j+(2t-3z)k Determine: i. The velocity components u,v,w at any point in the ﬂow ﬁeld ii. The speed at point (1,1,1); iii. The speed at time t = 2s at point (0,0,2). Also classify the velocity ﬁeld as steady, or unsteady, uniform or nonuniform and one, two or three dimensional. (b) Deﬁne convectional and local accelerations. [10+6] [6+4+2+4]

3. A 300mm diameter pipe carries water under a head of 20m with a velocity of 3.5m/s. If the a axis of the pipe turn through 450 , ﬁnd the magnitude and direction of the resultant force at the bend . [16] 4. (a) Explain the working of Viscometer? (b) A venturimeter is used to measurement of discharge of water through a horizontal pipe line. If the ratio of up stream pipe diameter to that of the throat is 2:1, upstream diameter is 300mm. The diﬀerence in pressure between the throat and upstream side is equal to 3mts head of water and loss of head through meter is 1/8th of throat velocity head. Calculate the discharge in the pipe. [7+9] 5. (a) For a ﬂuid ﬂowing over a ﬂat plate, draw i. Velocity distribution in the laminar and turbulent boundary layers ii. Shear stress distribution for the boundary layer developing on either side of the plate. (b) A plate 4 m x 1.5 m is held in water moving at 1 m/sec parallel to its length. If the ﬂow in the boundary layer is laminar at the leading edge of the plate, ﬁnd [6+10] i. the distance from leading edge where the boundary layer ﬂow changes from laminar to turbulent ﬂow 1 of 2

Code No: R050212102

Set No. 4

ii. the thickness of boundary layer at this section, and iii. the frictional drag on both sides of the plate. 6. (a) What do you mean by ‘pipes in series’ and ‘pipes in parallel’ ? How the loss of head is to be determined? (b) A pipeline 0.25 m in diameter and 1600 m long has a slope of 1 in 200 for the ﬁrst 800 m and 1 in 100 for the next 800m. The pressure at upper end of the pipeline is 120 kN/m2 and at the lower end is 60 kN/m2 . Taking 4f = 0.04, determine discharge through the pipe. [8+8] 7. (a) What do you meant by viscous ﬂow? Mention various forces to be considered in Navier Stroke’s equation. (b) Through a horizontal circular pipe of diameter 100 mm and of length 10m, an oil of dynamic 0.097 poise and relative density 0.9 is ﬂowing. Calculate the diﬀerence of pressure at the two ends of the pipe, if 100 Kg. of the oil is collected in a tank in 30 seconds. [10+6] 8. (a) Explain brieﬂy the above normal shock in compressible ﬂow. (b) If in a compression shock wave P1 = 42. 13 KN/m2 , T1 =00 c and velocity V1 = 1000 m/s , determine the conditions just down stream of the shock wave. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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