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# Code No: R050212201 Set No.

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II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007
CALIBRATION & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
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## 1. (a) Write short notes on the statistical analysis of measurement data?

(b) Define limiting errors. Derive the expression for relative limiting error. [8+8]

## 2. Write short notes on any of the THREE:

(a) International standards
(b) Voltage standards
(c) Secondary standards
(d) Current standards [16]

## 3. (a) Define in the following terms : [8+8]

i. Accuracy
ii. Bias
iii. Calibration
iv. Calibration interval
(b) Explain the procedure that should be followed before attempting to calibrate
deflecting instruments?

## (a) Peak reading voltmeter

(b) General specifications of DVM’s
(c) AC voltmeter using full wave rectifier
(d) Types of thermocouples

5. (a) Explain how a Kelvin’s double bridge can accurately measure low resistances.
Also derive the condition for balance. [10]
(b) In the Kelvin’s Bridge shown in figure 1 the ratio of Ra to Rb is 2000Ω,R1 is
10Ω and R1=0.2 R2. Calculate the value of Rx . [6]

6. (a) With the help of a block diagram explain the multiplexed display technique
used in a frequency counter. [4+6]
(b) Explain in detail about frequency mode errors and period mode errors. [6]

## (a) Sources of synchronization [6]

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Code No: R050212201 Set No. 1

Figure 1:

## (b) Blanking circuit [4]

(c) Focus control [6]

8. (a) Explain with the help of a block diagram the working principle of spectrum
analyzer. [3+5]
(b) Write short notes on X-Y plotter. [8]

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Code No: R050212201 Set No. 2
II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007
CALIBRATION & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) What are the different types of systematic errors present? Explain each of
them with an example? [8+8]
(b) A voltmeter having a sensitivity of 1KΩ/V is connected across an unknown
resistance in series with a milli ammeter reading 80V on 150V scale. When
the milli ammeter reads 10mA, calculate the
i. Apparent resistance of the unknown resistance
ii. Actual resistance of the unknown resistance
iii. Error due to the loading effect of the voltmeter.

## 3. (a) Explain the following terms : [8+8]

i. Measurement and test equipment
ii. Traceability
iii. Reliability
iv. Tolerance limits
(b)
SCALE READING PRECISION VOLTAGE CORRECTION
100 103 +3
90 93 +3
80 82.5 +2.5
70 72.5 +2.5
60 62 +2
50 51.7 +1.7
40 41.5 +1.5
30 31 +1
20 19.7 -0.3
10 9.5 -0.5
0 0 0

For the 10 and 50 readings in the calibration chart shown above determine the
instrument accuracy as a percentage of the reading and as a percentage of full
scale?

4. (a) Explain the working principle of AC voltmeter using full wave & half wave
rectifier?

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Code No: R050212201 Set No. 2

Figure 1:

(b) For the circuit (figure 1) shown calculate the AC and DC sensitivity? [8+8]

5. (a) Explain the “series-connection” technique of using Q-meter .Obtain the ex-
pressions for resistance , reactance and Q factor. [8]
(b) Write short notes on effect of shielding in bridge circuits. [8]

6. (a) With a neat sketch explain the operation of a cavity wave meter. [8]
(b) Explain gating errors and time base errors. [8]

## 7. (a) Explain the operation of 10 to 1 probe . [8]

(b) A given oscilloscope has an input resistance of 10 M ohm shunted by 20 pf.
Design a 10 to 1 probe. [8]

8. (a) With a schematic diagram explain the operation of pulse duration modula-
tion(PDM) recording system. [8]
(b) Draw the block diagram of a logic analyzer and explain its operation. [2+6]

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Code No: R050212201 Set No. 3
II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007
CALIBRATION & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

## 1. (a) Explain the following terms [8]

i. True value
ii. Absolute value
iii. Accuracy
iv. Relative accuracy
(b) The expected value of the voltage across a resistor is 80V. But the measure-
ment gives a value of 79V. Calculate [8]
i. Absolute error
ii. % Error
iii. Relative accuracy
iv. % of accuracy

## 2. (a) Distinguish between International and absolute standards.

(b) What are the international standards of length and volume?
(c) Write short notes on concept of inductance standards? [4+4+8]

## 3. (a) Discuss the concept of traceability?

(b) Explain the importance of testing? [8+8]

## 4. (a) Write short notes on extending of ammeter and voltmeter ranges?

(b) A 1mA meter movement with an internal resistance of 100Ω is to be converted
into a 0-100mA. Calculate the value of shunt resistance required? [8+8]

5. (a) How does the basic circuit of Kelvin’s bridge differ from that of Wheatstones
bridge.
(b) The four arms of a Wheatstone bridge have the following resistances AB 100Ω
BC 10Ω CD 40Ω DA 50Ω. A galvanometer of 20Ω resistance is connected
across BD . calculate the current through the galvanometer when a potential
difference of 10 V is maintained across AC. [8+8]

6. (a) With the help of a block diagram explain the multiplexed display technique
used in a frequency counter. [4+6]
(b) Explain in detail about frequency mode errors and period mode errors. [6]

7. (a) Distinguish between alternate and chopped modes of operation of CRO. [8]

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Code No: R050212201 Set No. 3
(b) Explain the gear wheel method for frequency measurement [8]

8. (a) Explain the operation of logic timing analyzer and logic state analyzer. [5+5]
(b) What are the merits and demerits of Magnetic recording? [6]

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Code No: R050212201 Set No. 4
II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007
CALIBRATION & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

## 2. (a) Determine the dimensions of charge, power and voltage.

(b) Describe the international standard of length and volume? [8+8]

## 3. (a) Write short notes on the concept of instrument calibration chain?

(b) What is reliability and explain the concept of measurement reliability? [8+8]

## 4. (a) Explain the series type ohmmeter? [8]

(b) A 4 12 digit voltmeter is used for voltage measurements. [8]
i. Find its resolution?
ii. How would 12.98V be displayed on 10V range?
iii. How would 0.6973 be displayed on 1V range?
iv. How would 0.6973 be displayed on 10V range?

5. (a) Derive an expression for balance in an Anderson’s bridge. Draw the phasor
diagram under balance conditions. [10]
(b) List the advantages and disadvantages of Anderson?s bridge. [6]

6. (a) With a suitable block diagram and waveforms explain the operation of a fre-
quency counter. [3+3+4]
(b) How many displays (total decades) should a frequency counter have if its
accuracy and resolution are to be 0.001 percent? [6]

7. (a) Write short notes on time base generators used in oscilloscopes [8]
(b) Compare storage oscilloscope with ordinary oscilloscope. [8]

8. (a) Explain with the help of a block diagram the working principle of spectrum
analyzer. [3+5]
(b) Write short notes on X-Y plotter. [8]

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