# Code No: R050212202

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SENSORS & SIGNALS CONDITIONING (Instrumentation & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Deﬁne the terms (i) Precision (ii) Dead space (iii) Hysteresis (iv) Resolution. (b) An RC circuit consists of 10mF in series with a resistors of 5KW. A D.C voltage of 25 volts is suddenly applied across the circuit. Calculate the value of voltage after(i) 4 msec. (ii) 25 msec. [8+8] 2. (a) What are the main factors considered for lead arrangement an RTD? Explain any one brieﬂy (b) A Describe the working and construction of resistance thermometers. Describe the materials used for RTDs along with their properties. Sketch this typical characteristic curve. [8+8] 3. (a) Explain the principle of resistance measurement with Substitution method. (b) A modiﬁed form of Wheatstone bridge is shown in ﬁgure 1 . Calculate the value of unknown resistance, Rx , if Ra = 1200Ω , Ra = 1600 Rb , R1 = 800Rb , R1 = 1.25 R2 andR3 =0.5 Rb are the resistance values under balanced conditions. [8+8]

Figure 1: 4. (a) What are the advantages and disadvantages of a capacitive transducer? 1 of 2

Code No: R050212202

Set No. 1

(b) Explain in detail the working of inductive transducers operating on the principle of eddy currents? [8+8] 5. (a) How variable oscillators are classiﬁed. Explain any one of them. (b) Explain the working of Hay’s Bridge with the help of necessary equations also state any one of its application. [8+8] 6. (a) Explain the theory of radiation pyrometers. (b) Describe the diﬀerent radiation receiving elements. [8+8]

7. (a) What is an ampliﬁer. Draw the circuit symbol of op-amp and derive an equation for its output voltage. (b) List the ideal characteristics of op-amp. [10+6]

8. (a) Explain the principle of working of SAW-device thermometer? Draw the characteristics. (b) Write short notes on magneto diodes. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: R050212202

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SENSORS & SIGNALS CONDITIONING (Instrumentation & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) A ﬁrst order instrument which has a time constant of 0.5 sec. is subjected to an input of 2 sin 3t 5 sin 30t ﬁne the response of the instrument (b) Deﬁne the terms i. Precision ii. Dead space, iii. Hysteresis iv. Resolution. [8+8] 2. (a) Deﬁne gauge factor Gf for an electrical strain gauge. Compare the characteristics of metallic and semi conductor type strain gauges (b) Explain with the aid of a circuit diagram the principle of operation of a strain measurement system with temperature compensation technique [8+8] 3. (a) Describe the ammeter - voltmeter method of measurement of resistance with neat diagram? (b) Describe the operation of the Wheatstone bridge? [8+8]

4. (a) Explain the proximity type inductance transducer for motion measurement. (b) A capacitive transducer consists of two plates of diameter 2 cm each, separated by an air gap of 0.25 mm. Find the displacement sensitivity. [8+8] 5. (a) Explain how variable oscillators are classiﬁed. Explain working of any one of them. (b) How resolver to digital converters are constructed. Explain its working.[8+8] 6. (a) Derive the expression for impulse response of piezo-electric transducers. (b) A pulse is applied to a piezo-electric transducer for a time T. Prove that in order to keep the undershoot to a value within 5%, the value of time constant should be approximately 20T. [8+8] 7. (a) What is an ampliﬁer. Draw the circuit symbol of op-amp and derive an equation for its output voltage. (b) List the ideal characteristics of op-amp. [10+6]

8. (a) Explain the principle of working of SAW-device thermometer? Draw the characteristics. (b) Explain the principle of working of Quartz crystal thermometer? ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: R050212202

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SENSORS & SIGNALS CONDITIONING (Instrumentation & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Deﬁne accuracy and precision of a measuring instruments with suitable examples. (b) Derive the expression for frequency response of a second order system. Draw the magnitude and phase versus frequency plots for damping ratio smaller than 0.707. [8+8] 2. (a) Give the advantage of digital methods in measuring angular velocity over electromechanical methods. (b) Explain the measurement of angular velocity using photo electric tachometer. Also give advantage and disadvantage of the method. [8+8] 3. (a) Derive the expression for bridge sensitivity for a Wheatstone bridge with equal arms,also ﬁnd the expression for current through the galvanometer for a small unbalance. (b) A Wheatstone bridge is connected for a Varley Loop test as shown in ﬁg 1. when the switch is in position 1, the bridge is balanced with R1 = 1000Ω, R2 = 2000Ω , R3 = 100Ω . When switch is in position 2, the bridge is balanced with R1 = 1000Ω, R2 = 2000Ω, and R3 = 99Ω. If the resistance of the earthed wire is 0.15 km, how many metres from the bridge has the ground fault occurred? [10+6]

Figure 1:

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Code No: R050212202

Set No. 3
[8+8]

4. (a) How are synchros useful in error detection and correction in a servo control system. (b) What do you understand by a dynamic error of a synchro system. 5. (a) Explain the construction and working of resolver to digital converters. (b) With the help of neat sketch explain the construction and working of digital to resolver converters. [8+8] 6. (a) Derive the expressions for frequency response characteristics of piezo-electric transducers. (b) Describe the uses of piezo-electric materials and transducers. [8+8]

7. (a) With a schematic diagram, explain the operation of Instrumentation ampliﬁer. (b) List the characteristics of Instrumentation ampliﬁer. [10+6]

8. (a) Explain the principle of working of SAW-device thermometer? Draw the characteristics. (b) Write short notes on magneto diodes. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: R050212202

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SENSORS & SIGNALS CONDITIONING (Instrumentation & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Deﬁne and derive expression for the following for a second order system. (i) Resonant frequency (ii) Resonant peak (iii) Bandwidth (b) A second order system has a natural frequency of 10Hz and a damping ration of 0.3. Calculate the value of resonant frequency and the magnitude ratio at this frequency. Calculate the bandwidth. [8+8] 2. (a) Give the advantage of digital methods in measuring angular velocity over electromechanical methods. (b) Explain the measurement of angular velocity using photo electric tachometer. Also give advantage and disadvantage of the method. [8+8] 3. (a) With neat diagram explain the diﬀerential instrumentation ampliﬁer using Transducer Bridge. (b) Deﬁne the term null as it applies to bridge measurement? [10+6]

4. (a) Is it possible to measure relative humidity by means of a capacitive transducer? Show how the capacitance variation is measured. (b) Explain how moisture content in grain, and granulated powder can be measured by means of a capacitive transducer. [8+8] 5. Explain the diﬀerential pressure measurement using inductive transducer in combination with a bridge. Derive an expression for the output voltage of the bridge. [16] 6. (a) A pulse is applied to a piezo-electric transducers for a time T. Prove tat in order to keep the under shoot to a value within 5% the value of the constant should be approximately 20T. (b) What is photo resistor? Explain brieﬂy. 7. (a) With a block diagram explain the operation of Chopper ampliﬁer (b) How the frequency response limitation of Chopper ampliﬁer is overcome.[10+6] 8. (a) Write short notes on Magneto transistors. (b) Give the important features and applications of vibrating wire arc weldable strain gauge. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1 [8+8]