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The femur or thigh bone, is the closest to the center of the body.

The pair of femur in humans has been shown in Figure 1.

Figure a

The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and patella forming the knee joint. (Figure 2) .By most measures the femur is the strongest, heaviest
Figure b

and longest bone in the body.

The femur contains two distinct morphological types of bone:  Cortical (compact) bone  Cancellous or Trabecular (spongy) bone These are shown in the figure b. Cortical bone forms a dense cylinder down the shaft of the bone surrounding the central marrow cavity. While cortical bone accounts for 80% of the mass of bone in the human body, it has a much lower

One system follows curved paths from the inner side of the shaft and radiates outwards to the opposite side of the bones. and the stresses (both tensile and compressive) generated by this bending moment account for the structure and distribution of cancellous and cortical bone. the cancellous bone is composed of two distinct systems of trabeculae. Stresses Bones such as the femur are subjected to a bending moment. and has an open. -2- . It has a much lower Young’s modulus than cortical bone. and in general are lighter in structure than those of the compressive system. accounts for roughly 20% of the total mass of the skeleton. and by following the paths of the principal compressive and tensile stresses they carry these stresses economically. Cancellous (or trabecular) bone is located at the ends of long bones. These trabeculae follow the lines of maximum tensile stress. and this graded modulus gradually matches the properties of the cortical bone to the cartilage that forms the articulating surface on the femoral head. The thickness of the trabeculae varies with the magnitude of the stresses at any point. honeycomb structure.surface area than cancellous bone due to its lower porosity. The second system forms curved paths from the outer side of the shaft and intersects the first system at right angles. In the upper section of the femur. The greatest strength is therefore achieved with the minimum of material. following the lines of maximum compressive stress.

Diagram showing computed lines of constant stress from the analysis of various transverse sections -3- . To resist these stresses. again achieving the greatest strength with the minimum of material. the material should be as far from the neutral axis as possible. A hollow cylinder is the most efficient structure.The distribution of the compact bone in the shaft is also due to the requirement to resist the bending moment stresses.

which connects to the hip. in which the bone narrows in the middle and expands at each end.  The Eiffel Tower has been a Paris landmark for over a century. Meyer had studied the human femur. The internal wrought-iron braces used in the tower closely follow the design of trabeculae within the femur. or thighbone. The -4- .2 In the late 1860s he noted that the trabeculae fibers closely resembled the struts and braces used in buildings. the largest in our body.While designing the famous tower. The result has been a self-ventilated and strong structure. These bone fibers crisscross each other in layers and are precisely aligned to withstand the varying forces of tension and compression. As a result of this ingenious design. i. For strength. the tower reaches a height of 1. which has been a source of inspiration for the tower. Including its antennas. the tallest structure in the world at that time.  Swiss engineer Karl Cullman later generated mathematical models of the femur design. The femur’s ball joint may look awkward. the lightest and strongest bone of the human body.   In the 1850s. is in the shape of a pipe and has a fusiform internal structure.063 feet (324 m). This bone. to be built with a minimum amount of iron for maximum strength. construction material is saved. but it functions superbly for a lifetime of movement unless bone disease interferes. In buildings that are constructed in this way. the bone’s curved head has many internal bone fibers. The outward flares at the base of the tower resemble the upper curved portion of the femur. This structure provides flexibility and lightness for the bones. or 81 stories. Maurice Koechlin. called trabeculae. Architect Eiffel then took these ideas and designed his famous Eiffel Tower. assistant to Eiffel.e. The femur. has an unusual off-center ball joint that fits into the hip socket. and the construction's skeletons gain firmness and flexibility. yet does not cause them to lose a bit of their strength. the architect of the tower. the femur efficiently supports and transfers the off-center weight of the person. was inspired by the femur.

Competing architects scoffed at the tower. to which this monument will be built as an expression of France's gratitude. It is the destination of millions of tourists annually. cancellous bone has a higher surface area to mass ratio because it is less dense. named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel. calling it an eyesore and predicting that it would collapse under its own weight. who engineered the human femur. working at home. a Paris landmark. Koechlin. It has a height of 324 metres.  When it was completed in 1889. and for which the way was prepared by the great scientific movement of the eighteenth century and by the Revolution of 1789. made an outline drawing of their scheme. over a century later. its elegant design was originally based on God’s design of the human body. As Psalm 139:14 declares. However. described by him as "a great pylon. it remains today. But its basic design was actually borrowed from the work of an ancient designer—the Creator.  In May 1884. but also the century of Industry and Science in which we are living.  The Eiffel Tower today is considered a work of art.tower marked the entrance to the 1889 exhibition and was originally built as a temporary structure. we are fearfully and wonderfully made." -5- . whose company designed and built the tower. weaker.   Compared to compact bone. consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming together at the top. A true marvel of human engineering. This gives it softer. and more flexible characteristics. the Eiffel Tower was hailed as a marvel of man’s engineering. joined together by metal trusses at regular intervals"  "not only the art of the modern engineer.  The Eiffel Tower is an iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris.