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Job No.

Sheet 1 of 6 Rev B
Job Title ECSC Stainless Steel Valorisation Project
Department of Civil and Mining Engineering Subject Design Example 8 – Resistance to concentrated forces
Division of Steel Structures, University
campus, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden
Tel: +46 920 91 000
Fax: +46 920 91 913 Client Made by AO Date June 2002
CALCULATION SHEET ECSC Checked by AT Date Oct 2002
Revised by MEB Date April 2006

DESIGN EXAMPLE 8 – RESISTANCE TO CONCENTRATED LOADS
An existing plate girder, previously subjected to an evenly distributed load, will be
refurbished and will be subjected to a concentrated load. Check if the girder can resist the
new load applied through a 12 mm thick plate. The girder is a simply supported I-section
with a span according to the figure below. The top flange is laterally restrained.

FEd = 110 kN

500

200

1250 1250

Material grade 1.4462, hot rolled. Table 3.1
fy = 460 N/mm2 Section 3.2.4
E = 200 000 N/mm2

Flanges: 12 × 200 mm2
Web: 4 × 500 mm2
Stiffeners: 12 × 98 mm2
Weld throat thickness: 4 mm

Structural analysis
Maximum shear and bending moment are obtained as
FEd 110
VEd = = = 55 kN
2 2
FEd L 110 × 2,5
MEd = = = 68,75 kNm
4 4

Partial safety factors
γM0 = 1,1 Table 2.1
γM1 = 1,1

Classification of the cross-section Section 4.3
235 200 Table 4.2
ε = = 0,698
460 210

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Job No. Sheet 2 of 6 Rev B
Job Title ECSC Stainless Steel Valorisation Project
Department of Civil and Mining Engineering Subject Design Example 8 – Resistance to concentrated forces
Division of Steel Structures, University
campus, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden
Tel: +46 920 91 000
Fax: +46 920 91 913 Client Made by AO Date June 2002
CALCULATION SHEET ECSC Checked by AT Date Oct 2002
Revised by MEB Date April 2006
Web, subject to bending Table 4.2
c 500 − 2 × 2 × 4
= = 175 > 74,8 , therefore the web is Class 4
tε 4 × 0,698
Flange, subject to compression Table 4.2
c 200 − 4 − 2 × 2 × 4
= = 11,0 ≤ 11,0 , therefore the compression flange is Class 3
tε 2 × 12 × 0,698
Thus, overall classification of cross-section is Class 4

Resistance to concentrated force Section 5.4.4
The design load should not exceed the design resistance, i.e.
FRd = f yw Leff t / γ M1 Eq. 5.24
The effective length Leff is given by
Leff = χ F ly
where the reduction function is
0,5
χF = ≤ 1 .0 Eq. 5.32
λF
with the slenderness given by
l y t w f yw
λF = Eq. 5.33
Fcr

The effective loaded length is given by
(
ly = ss + 2tf 1+ m1 + m2 ) Eq. 5.27

Where
ss is the length of the stiff bearing and m1 and m2 are dimensionless parameters.
f yf bf
m1 = Eq. 5.25
f yw t w
2
 hw 
m2 = 0,02  
 for λ F > 0,5 Eq. 5.26a
 tf 
m2 = 0 for λ F ≤ 0,5 Eq. 5.26b

ss is conservatively taken as twice the thickness of the load bearing plate, i.e. 24 mm.
460 × 200 Eq. 5.25
m1 = = 50
460 × 4

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Job No. Sheet 3 of 6 Rev B
Job Title ECSC Stainless Steel Valorisation Project
Department of Civil and Mining Engineering Subject Design Example 8 – Resistance to concentrated forces
Division of Steel Structures, University
campus, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden
Tel: +46 920 91 000
Fax: +46 920 91 913 Client Made by AO Date June 2002
CALCULATION SHEET ECSC Checked by AT Date Oct 2002
Revised by MEB Date April 2006
2 Eq. 5.26a
 500 
m2 = 0,02 ×   = 34,72 , assuming λ F > 0,5
 12 
Eq. 5.27
ly = 24 + 2 × 12 × 1 + 50 + 34,72  = 268,90 mm
 

The critical load is obtained as
3
tw
Fcr = 0,9 k F E Eq. 5.34
hw
where the buckling coefficient is given by the load situation, type a.
2
h 
kf = 6+2 w  Figure 5.4
 a 
2
 500 
= 6 + 2×   = 6,08
 2500 
43
Fcr = 0,9 × 6,08 × 200000 × = 140,08 kN
500
268.90 × 4 × 460 Eq. 5.33
λF = = 1,88 > 0.5 , assumption OK
140,08 × 10 3
0,5 Eq. 5.32
χF = = 0,266 ≤ 1,0 , OK
1,88

Leff = 0,266 × 268,90 = 71,53 mm

FEd = 110 ≤ 460 × 71,53 × 4 /(1,1 × 103 ) = 119,65 kN

Hence the resistance exceeds the load.

Interaction between transverse force, bending moment and axial force
Interaction between concentrated load and bending moment is checked according to prEN
1993-1-5:2004.
prEN 1993-
0,8 × η1 + η2 ≤ 1,4 1-5, Eq. 7.2

Where
N Ed M Ed + N Ed e N prEN 1993-
η1 = + ≤ 1,0 1-5, Eq. 4.14
f y Aeff / γ M0 f y Weff / γ M0

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Job No. Sheet 4 of 6 Rev B
Job Title ECSC Stainless Steel Valorisation Project
Department of Civil and Mining Engineering Subject Design Example 8 – Resistance to concentrated forces
Division of Steel Structures, University
campus, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden
Tel: +46 920 91 000
Fax: +46 920 91 913 Client Made by AO Date June 2002
CALCULATION SHEET ECSC Checked by AT Date Oct 2002
Revised by MEB Date April 2006
FEd prEN 1993-
η2 = ≤ 1,0 1-5, Eq. 6.14
f yw Leff t / γ M1

Calculation of effective cross-section properties
The flanges are Class 3 and hence fully effective.
The depth of the web has to be reduced with the reduction factor ρ, welded web.
0,772 0,125
ρ = − ≤1 Eq. 4.1a
λp λ p2
b/t
λp = where b = d = 500 − 2 × 4 × 2 = 488,68 mm Eq. 4.2
28,4ε kσ
Assuming linearly varying symmetric stress distribution within the web,
σ2
ψ = = −1
σ1
⇒ kσ = 23,9 Table 4.3
488,68 / 4
λp = = 1,26
28,4 × 0,698 × 23,9
0,772 0,125
ρ = − = 0,534 ≤ 1
1,26 1,262
beff = ρ bc = ρb / (1-ψ) = 0,534 × 488,68 /(1 − (−1)) = 130,48 Table 4.3
be1 = 0,4beff = 0,4 × 130,48 = 52,19 mm Table 4.3
be2 = 0,6beff = 0,6 × 130,48 = 78,29 mm

Calculate effective section modulus under bending
ei is taken as positive from the centroid of the upper flange and downwards
Aeff = ∑A = b t ×2 + b t
i
i f f e1 w + be2t w + (hw / 2 )t w = 6321,92 mm2

eeff =
1
Aeff ∑Ae i
i i =
1
Aeff
[ bf tf (0) + bf tf (hw + tf )] + [be1tw (0,5(be1 + tf ))
+ be2t w (0.5(hw + tf ) − be2 / 2) + (hw / 2 )t w (0,75hw + 0,5tf ) ] = 266,44 mm

bf tf 3 t w be13 t w be23 t w (hw / 2)3
Ieff = ∑ ∑
i
Ii +
i
Ai (eeff − ei ) 2 = 2 ×
12
+
12
+
12
+
12

+ bf tf (eeff − 0)2 + bf tf [eeff − (hw + tf )] 2 + be1t w [eeff − 0,5(be1 + tf )] 2
[
+ be2t w [eeff − 0,5(hw + tf + be 2 )] 2 + (hw / 2)t w eeff − (0,75hw + 0,5tf )2 ] 4

= 3,459 × 108 mm4

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Job No. Sheet 5 of 6 Rev B
Job Title ECSC Stainless Steel Valorisation Project
Department of Civil and Mining Engineering Subject Design Example 8 – Resistance to concentrated forces
Division of Steel Structures, University
campus, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden
Tel: +46 920 91 000
Fax: +46 920 91 913 Client Made by AO Date June 2002
CALCULATION SHEET ECSC Checked by AT Date Oct 2002
Revised by MEB Date April 2006
I eff
Weff = = 1,270 × 106 mm3
eeff + 0,5tf

68,75 × 106
η1 = = 0,129
460 × 1,270 × 106 / 1,1
110
η2 = = 0,920
119,63
0,8 × η1 + η2 = 0,8 × 0,129 + 0,920 = 1,023 < 1,4
Therefore, the resistance of the girder to interaction between concentrated load and
bending moment is adequate.

Shear resistance Section 5.4.3
52
The shear buckling resistance requires checking when hw / t w ≥ ε for unstiffened webs.
η
52
hw / t w = 500 = 125 ≥ × 0,698 = 30,2
4 1,2
Therefore the shear buckling resistance has to be checked. It is obtained as
η f yw hw t
Vb,Rd = Vbw,Rd + Vbf,Rd ≤ Eq. 5.12a
3 γ M1
χ w f yw hw t w
Vbw,Rd = Eq. 5.12b
γ M1 3
χw = η = 1,2 for λ w ≤ 0,60 η = 0,5 Eq. 5.13a
0,64 0,05 Eq. 5.13b
χw = 0,11 + − for λw > 0,50
λw λw 2

 hw   500  Eq. 5.14
λw =   =   = 2,072 > 0,5
 86,4 t w ε   86,4 × 4 × 0,698 
0,64 0,05
χw = 0,11 + − = 0,407
2,072 2,0722
The contribution from the flanges may be utilised if the flanges are not fully utilised to
withstand the bending moment. However, the contribution is small and is conservatively
not taken into account, i.e. V bf, Rd = 0 .
The shear buckling resistance can be calculated as:
0,407 × 460 × 500 × 4
Vbw,Rd = = 196,53 kN > VEd = 55 kN
1,1× 3
The shear resistance of the girder is thus adequate.

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Job No. Sheet 6 of 6 Rev B
Job Title ECSC Stainless Steel Valorisation Project
Department of Civil and Mining Engineering Subject Design Example 8 – Resistance to concentrated forces
Division of Steel Structures, University
campus, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden
Tel: +46 920 91 000
Fax: +46 920 91 913 Client Made by AO Date June 2002
CALCULATION SHEET ECSC Checked by AT Date Oct 2002
Revised by MEB Date April 2006
Interaction between shear and bending
If η 3 does not exceed 0,5, the resistance to bending moment and axial force does not need
to be reduced to allow for shear
V Ed
η3 = ≤ 1,0 Eq. 5.23
V bw, Rd
55
= = 0,280 ≤ 0,5 , therefore interaction need not to be considered.
196,53

Concluding remarks
The resistance of the girder exceeds the load imposed. Note that the vertical stiffeners at
supports have not been checked. It should be done according to the procedure used in
Design Example 7.

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