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You are on page 1of 6

Sheet 1 of 6 Rev B

Job Title ECSC Stainless Steel Valorisation Project

Department of Civil and Mining Engineering Subject Design Example 8 – Resistance to concentrated forces

Division of Steel Structures, University

campus, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden

Tel: +46 920 91 000

Fax: +46 920 91 913 Client Made by AO Date June 2002

CALCULATION SHEET ECSC Checked by AT Date Oct 2002

Revised by MEB Date April 2006

**DESIGN EXAMPLE 8 – RESISTANCE TO CONCENTRATED LOADS
**

An existing plate girder, previously subjected to an evenly distributed load, will be

refurbished and will be subjected to a concentrated load. Check if the girder can resist the

new load applied through a 12 mm thick plate. The girder is a simply supported I-section

with a span according to the figure below. The top flange is laterally restrained.

FEd = 110 kN

500

200

1250 1250

**Material grade 1.4462, hot rolled. Table 3.1
**

fy = 460 N/mm2 Section 3.2.4

E = 200 000 N/mm2

**Flanges: 12 × 200 mm2
**

Web: 4 × 500 mm2

Stiffeners: 12 × 98 mm2

Weld throat thickness: 4 mm

Structural analysis

Maximum shear and bending moment are obtained as

FEd 110

VEd = = = 55 kN

2 2

FEd L 110 × 2,5

MEd = = = 68,75 kNm

4 4

**Partial safety factors
**

γM0 = 1,1 Table 2.1

γM1 = 1,1

**Classification of the cross-section Section 4.3
**

235 200 Table 4.2

ε = = 0,698

460 210

155

Job No. Sheet 2 of 6 Rev B

Job Title ECSC Stainless Steel Valorisation Project

Department of Civil and Mining Engineering Subject Design Example 8 – Resistance to concentrated forces

Division of Steel Structures, University

campus, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden

Tel: +46 920 91 000

Fax: +46 920 91 913 Client Made by AO Date June 2002

CALCULATION SHEET ECSC Checked by AT Date Oct 2002

Revised by MEB Date April 2006

Web, subject to bending Table 4.2

c 500 − 2 × 2 × 4

= = 175 > 74,8 , therefore the web is Class 4

tε 4 × 0,698

Flange, subject to compression Table 4.2

c 200 − 4 − 2 × 2 × 4

= = 11,0 ≤ 11,0 , therefore the compression flange is Class 3

tε 2 × 12 × 0,698

Thus, overall classification of cross-section is Class 4

**Resistance to concentrated force Section 5.4.4
**

The design load should not exceed the design resistance, i.e.

FRd = f yw Leff t / γ M1 Eq. 5.24

The effective length Leff is given by

Leff = χ F ly

where the reduction function is

0,5

χF = ≤ 1 .0 Eq. 5.32

λF

with the slenderness given by

l y t w f yw

λF = Eq. 5.33

Fcr

**The effective loaded length is given by
**

(

ly = ss + 2tf 1+ m1 + m2 ) Eq. 5.27

Where

ss is the length of the stiff bearing and m1 and m2 are dimensionless parameters.

f yf bf

m1 = Eq. 5.25

f yw t w

2

hw

m2 = 0,02

for λ F > 0,5 Eq. 5.26a

tf

m2 = 0 for λ F ≤ 0,5 Eq. 5.26b

**ss is conservatively taken as twice the thickness of the load bearing plate, i.e. 24 mm.
**

460 × 200 Eq. 5.25

m1 = = 50

460 × 4

156

Job No. Sheet 3 of 6 Rev B

Job Title ECSC Stainless Steel Valorisation Project

Department of Civil and Mining Engineering Subject Design Example 8 – Resistance to concentrated forces

Division of Steel Structures, University

campus, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden

Tel: +46 920 91 000

Fax: +46 920 91 913 Client Made by AO Date June 2002

CALCULATION SHEET ECSC Checked by AT Date Oct 2002

Revised by MEB Date April 2006

2 Eq. 5.26a

500

m2 = 0,02 × = 34,72 , assuming λ F > 0,5

12

Eq. 5.27

ly = 24 + 2 × 12 × 1 + 50 + 34,72 = 268,90 mm

**The critical load is obtained as
**

3

tw

Fcr = 0,9 k F E Eq. 5.34

hw

where the buckling coefficient is given by the load situation, type a.

2

h

kf = 6+2 w Figure 5.4

a

2

500

= 6 + 2× = 6,08

2500

43

Fcr = 0,9 × 6,08 × 200000 × = 140,08 kN

500

268.90 × 4 × 460 Eq. 5.33

λF = = 1,88 > 0.5 , assumption OK

140,08 × 10 3

0,5 Eq. 5.32

χF = = 0,266 ≤ 1,0 , OK

1,88

Leff = 0,266 × 268,90 = 71,53 mm

FEd = 110 ≤ 460 × 71,53 × 4 /(1,1 × 103 ) = 119,65 kN

Hence the resistance exceeds the load.

**Interaction between transverse force, bending moment and axial force
**

Interaction between concentrated load and bending moment is checked according to prEN

1993-1-5:2004.

prEN 1993-

0,8 × η1 + η2 ≤ 1,4 1-5, Eq. 7.2

Where

N Ed M Ed + N Ed e N prEN 1993-

η1 = + ≤ 1,0 1-5, Eq. 4.14

f y Aeff / γ M0 f y Weff / γ M0

157

Job No. Sheet 4 of 6 Rev B

Job Title ECSC Stainless Steel Valorisation Project

Department of Civil and Mining Engineering Subject Design Example 8 – Resistance to concentrated forces

Division of Steel Structures, University

campus, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden

Tel: +46 920 91 000

Fax: +46 920 91 913 Client Made by AO Date June 2002

CALCULATION SHEET ECSC Checked by AT Date Oct 2002

Revised by MEB Date April 2006

FEd prEN 1993-

η2 = ≤ 1,0 1-5, Eq. 6.14

f yw Leff t / γ M1

**Calculation of effective cross-section properties
**

The flanges are Class 3 and hence fully effective.

The depth of the web has to be reduced with the reduction factor ρ, welded web.

0,772 0,125

ρ = − ≤1 Eq. 4.1a

λp λ p2

b/t

λp = where b = d = 500 − 2 × 4 × 2 = 488,68 mm Eq. 4.2

28,4ε kσ

Assuming linearly varying symmetric stress distribution within the web,

σ2

ψ = = −1

σ1

⇒ kσ = 23,9 Table 4.3

488,68 / 4

λp = = 1,26

28,4 × 0,698 × 23,9

0,772 0,125

ρ = − = 0,534 ≤ 1

1,26 1,262

beff = ρ bc = ρb / (1-ψ) = 0,534 × 488,68 /(1 − (−1)) = 130,48 Table 4.3

be1 = 0,4beff = 0,4 × 130,48 = 52,19 mm Table 4.3

be2 = 0,6beff = 0,6 × 130,48 = 78,29 mm

**Calculate effective section modulus under bending
**

ei is taken as positive from the centroid of the upper flange and downwards

Aeff = ∑A = b t ×2 + b t

i

i f f e1 w + be2t w + (hw / 2 )t w = 6321,92 mm2

eeff =

1

Aeff ∑Ae i

i i =

1

Aeff

[ bf tf (0) + bf tf (hw + tf )] + [be1tw (0,5(be1 + tf ))

+ be2t w (0.5(hw + tf ) − be2 / 2) + (hw / 2 )t w (0,75hw + 0,5tf ) ] = 266,44 mm

bf tf 3 t w be13 t w be23 t w (hw / 2)3

Ieff = ∑ ∑

i

Ii +

i

Ai (eeff − ei ) 2 = 2 ×

12

+

12

+

12

+

12

**+ bf tf (eeff − 0)2 + bf tf [eeff − (hw + tf )] 2 + be1t w [eeff − 0,5(be1 + tf )] 2
**

[

+ be2t w [eeff − 0,5(hw + tf + be 2 )] 2 + (hw / 2)t w eeff − (0,75hw + 0,5tf )2 ] 4

= 3,459 × 108 mm4

158

Job No. Sheet 5 of 6 Rev B

Job Title ECSC Stainless Steel Valorisation Project

Department of Civil and Mining Engineering Subject Design Example 8 – Resistance to concentrated forces

Division of Steel Structures, University

campus, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden

Tel: +46 920 91 000

Fax: +46 920 91 913 Client Made by AO Date June 2002

CALCULATION SHEET ECSC Checked by AT Date Oct 2002

Revised by MEB Date April 2006

I eff

Weff = = 1,270 × 106 mm3

eeff + 0,5tf

68,75 × 106

η1 = = 0,129

460 × 1,270 × 106 / 1,1

110

η2 = = 0,920

119,63

0,8 × η1 + η2 = 0,8 × 0,129 + 0,920 = 1,023 < 1,4

Therefore, the resistance of the girder to interaction between concentrated load and

bending moment is adequate.

**Shear resistance Section 5.4.3
**

52

The shear buckling resistance requires checking when hw / t w ≥ ε for unstiffened webs.

η

52

hw / t w = 500 = 125 ≥ × 0,698 = 30,2

4 1,2

Therefore the shear buckling resistance has to be checked. It is obtained as

η f yw hw t

Vb,Rd = Vbw,Rd + Vbf,Rd ≤ Eq. 5.12a

3 γ M1

χ w f yw hw t w

Vbw,Rd = Eq. 5.12b

γ M1 3

χw = η = 1,2 for λ w ≤ 0,60 η = 0,5 Eq. 5.13a

0,64 0,05 Eq. 5.13b

χw = 0,11 + − for λw > 0,50

λw λw 2

hw 500 Eq. 5.14

λw = = = 2,072 > 0,5

86,4 t w ε 86,4 × 4 × 0,698

0,64 0,05

χw = 0,11 + − = 0,407

2,072 2,0722

The contribution from the flanges may be utilised if the flanges are not fully utilised to

withstand the bending moment. However, the contribution is small and is conservatively

not taken into account, i.e. V bf, Rd = 0 .

The shear buckling resistance can be calculated as:

0,407 × 460 × 500 × 4

Vbw,Rd = = 196,53 kN > VEd = 55 kN

1,1× 3

The shear resistance of the girder is thus adequate.

159

Job No. Sheet 6 of 6 Rev B

Job Title ECSC Stainless Steel Valorisation Project

Department of Civil and Mining Engineering Subject Design Example 8 – Resistance to concentrated forces

Division of Steel Structures, University

campus, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden

Tel: +46 920 91 000

Fax: +46 920 91 913 Client Made by AO Date June 2002

CALCULATION SHEET ECSC Checked by AT Date Oct 2002

Revised by MEB Date April 2006

Interaction between shear and bending

If η 3 does not exceed 0,5, the resistance to bending moment and axial force does not need

to be reduced to allow for shear

V Ed

η3 = ≤ 1,0 Eq. 5.23

V bw, Rd

55

= = 0,280 ≤ 0,5 , therefore interaction need not to be considered.

196,53

Concluding remarks

The resistance of the girder exceeds the load imposed. Note that the vertical stiffeners at

supports have not been checked. It should be done according to the procedure used in

Design Example 7.

160

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