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Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) The space between two parallel plates is ﬁlled with oil, each side of the plate being 720mm. The thickness of the oil ﬁlm is 1.5mm. The upper plate, which moves at 3m/s requires a force of 120N to maintain the speed. Determine dynamic and Kinematic viscosity of oil if speciﬁc gravity of oil is 0.95. (b) A vertical cylinder of diameter 180 mm rotates concentrically inside another cylinder of diameter 181.2 mm. Both the cylinders are 300 mm high. The space between the cylinders is ﬁlled with a liquid whose dynamic viscosity is unknown. Determine dynamic viscosity if a torque of 20 N-m is required to rotate the inner cylinder at 120 rpm. [8+8] 2. A triangular plate of base width 1.5 m and height 2 m lies immersed in water with the apex downwards. The base of the plate is 1 m bellow and parallel to the free water surface. Calculate the total pressure on the plate and the depth of center of pressure. [16] 3. (a) Diﬀerentiate between uniform ﬂow and steady ﬂow. (b) For the ﬂow of an incompressible ﬂuid, the velocity component in the xdirection is u = ax2 + by and the velocity component in z direction is zero. Find the velocity component in y direction. To evaluate arbitrary function which might appear in the integration assume that v = 0 at y = 0. [6+10] 4. (a) A 400 m long pipe has a slope of 1 in 100 and tapers from 1.2 m dia at high end to 0.6 m dia at the low end. The discharge is 100 lit/sec. If the pressure at high end is 100 kN/m2 , ﬁnd the pressure at the low end. Neglect friction. (b) A 20 cm diameter pipe has a 900 bend (to the right) in the horizontal plane. When a discharge of 150 lit/sec of oil (S = 0.8) is sent in this pipe, the pressure at the beginning of the bend is found to be 0.5 m of oil. Estimate the resultant force exerted by the oil on the bend. [8+8] 5. (a) Diﬀerentiate between i. Stream line body and bluﬀ body ii. Friction drag and pressure drag. (b) A kite 60cm x 60cm weighing 2.943 N assumes an angle of 10o to the horizontal. If the pull on the string is 29.43N when the wind is ﬂowing at a speed of 40 km/hr. Find the corresponding coeﬃcient of drag and lift. Density of air is given as 1.25 kg/m3 . [8+8]

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Code No: RR210106

Set No. 1

6. (a) Compute the kinetic energy and momentum correction factors for laminar ﬂow between ﬁxed parallel plates. (b) Oil ﬂows through a pipe of 15cm diameter and 650m length with a velocity of 0.5 m/sec. If the kinematic viscosity of oil at the temperature is 18.7 stokes, ﬁnd the loss of heat in friction. Assume the speciﬁc gravity of oil as 0.9. [8+8] 7. Two reservoirs are connected by three pipes laid in parallel, their diameters are d, 2d and 3d respectively, and they are of the same length. Assuming f to be the same for all pipes, ﬁnd the discharge through each of the larger pipes and also the total discharge in 3 pipes if the smallest pipe is discharging 1 cumec. [16] 8. (a) A pitot static tube placed in the centre of a 200mm pipe line, has one opening pointing upstream and the other perpendicular to it. If the pressure diﬀerence between the two openings is 40 mm of water when the discharge through the pipe is 1.365 m3 per minute, ﬁnd the coeﬃcient of the pitot tube. Take mean velocity in the pipe to be 0.83 of the central velocity (b) A pitot tube was used to measure the quantity of water ﬂowing in a pipe of 0.3m diameter. The water was raised to a height of 0.25 m above the centre line of pipe in a vertical limb of the tube. If the mean velocity is 0.78 times the velocity at the centre and coeﬃcient of pitot tube is 0.98, ﬁnd the quantity of water. Static pressure head at the centre of the pipe is 0.2 m. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR210106

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A plate having an area of 0.6m2 is sliding down the inclined plane at 300 to the horizontal with a velocity of 0.36 ms−1 . There is a cushion of ﬂuid 1.8 mm thick between the plane and the plate. Find the viscosity of the ﬂuid if the weight of the plate is 280N. [16] 2. (a) Distinguish between i. Standard and local atmosphere pressures ii. Absolute pressure and gauge pressure iii. Gauge pressure and vacuum pressure (b) Explain, the principle of working of Bourdon pressure gauge with a neat sketch. [9+7] 3. (a) The velocity of a 3-D ﬂow ﬁeld is given by V = (y2 +z2 )i + (x2 +z2 )j + (x2 +y2 )k Determine the acceleration components at a point (1,2,3) (b) Derive the continuity equation for a 3-D ﬂuid ﬂow. [8+8]

4. (a) A tank has a nozzle of exit diameter D1 at a depth H1 below the free surface. At the side opposite to that of nozzle 1, another nozzle is proposed at a depth H1 /2. What should be the diameter of the second nozzle D2 , interms of D1 so that the net horizontal force on the tank is zero? (b) In a pump the suction and delivery pipes are of the same size and are at the same level. At a given discharge the loss of head between a point A on the suction side and a point B on the delivery side is 3.0 m. If the pressure at point B is 120 KPa and the head developed by the pump is 10 m, ﬁnd the pressure at point A. [8+8] 5. (a) Diﬀerentiate between i. Stream line body and bluﬀ body ii. Friction drag and pressure drag. (b) A kite 60cm x 60cm weighing 2.943 N assumes an angle of 10o to the horizontal. If the pull on the string is 29.43N when the wind is ﬂowing at a speed of 40 km/hr. Find the corresponding coeﬃcient of drag and lift. Density of air is given as 1.25 kg/m3 . [8+8] 6. (a) Compute the kinetic energy and momentum correction factors for laminar ﬂow between ﬁxed parallel plates.

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Code No: RR210106

Set No. 2

(b) Oil ﬂows through a pipe of 15cm diameter and 650m length with a velocity of 0.5 m/sec. If the kinematic viscosity of oil at the temperature is 18.7 stokes, ﬁnd the loss of heat in friction. Assume the speciﬁc gravity of oil as 0.9. [8+8] 7. Derive the equation for head loss in pipes due to friction. Explain the variation of friction factor with Reynolds number. [16] 8. (a) What will be the ratio of the area of the supply pipe to the area of the nozzle for maximum transmission of power through nozzle. (b) A nozzle is ﬁtted at the end of a pipe of length 300 m and of diameter 10 cm . For the maximum transmission of power through the nozzle, ﬁnd the diameter of nozzle. Take f= 0.009. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR210106

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A painter is painting a wall 3mX4m with a brush 0.1m wide and 0.0125m thick the thickness of one coat of paint is 7X10−3 m and the viscosity of the paint is 2 Pa-s. Calculate the total work required for painting one side of the wall. Assume the variation of velocity as liner. [16] 2. Figure 1 shows a U-tube diﬀerential manometer connecting two pressure pipes A and B. Pipe A contains a liquid of speciﬁc gravity 1.6 under a pressure of 110 kpa and pipe B contains oil of speciﬁc gravity 0.8 under a pressure of 200kpa. Find the diﬀerence of pressure measured by mercury as manometric liquid. [16]

**Figure 1: 3. (a) Is the ﬂow net analysis applicable to rotational ﬂow? If not, Why?
**

x (b) A two-dimensional ﬂow can be described by u = − by2 , v = a2 Verify that this 2 2 is the ﬂow of an incompressible ﬂuid and that the ellipse x2 + y2 = 1 is a a b streamline. [8+8]

4. (a) Derive the Euler’s equation of motion for ﬂow of steady incompressible ﬂuid. State the assumptions. (b) A 2.5 cm nozzle is connected to a 7.5 cm diameter pipe. If the pressure at the upstream end of the nozzle is 550 kN/m2 gauge, what will be the force exerted by the nozzle on the water, if the water is discharged into the atmosphere. 1 of 2

Code No: RR210106

Set No. 3

[8+8]

5. (a) How does the drag coeﬃcient change with i. surface roughness ii. turbulence level (b) Explain under what conditions will roughening of the surface of a body i. increase ii. decrease its drag coeﬃcient. (c) A plate of size 1m x 1.2m moves at 12 m/sec in still air at an angle of 120 with the horizontal. Using a coeﬃcient of drag of 0.17 and coeﬃcient of lift of 0.72, determine i. the resultant force exerted by air on the plate ii. the frictional force and iii. the power required to keep the plate moving. The speciﬁc weight of the air is 12.15 N/m3 . [4+4+8] 6. (a) Derive an expression for the diﬀerence of pressure head for a given length of the two parallel plates which are ﬁxed and through which viscous ﬂuid is ﬂowing. (b) Calculate the pressure gradient along the ﬂow, the average velocity and the discharge for an oil of viscosity 0.02 NS/m2 ﬂowing between two stationary plates 1m wide maintained 1cm apart. The velocity midway between the plates is 2.5 m/sec. [8+8] 7. If two pipes of diameter D and d and equal length L are arranged in parallel the loss of head for a ﬂow of Q is h. If the same pipes are arranged in series the loss of head for the same ﬂow Q is H. If d= 0.5D ﬁnd the percentage of total ﬂow through each pipe when placed in parallel and the ratio (H/h). Neglect minor losses and assume‘ f ’ to be constant. [16] 8. (a) What will be the ratio of the area of the supply pipe to the area of the nozzle for maximum transmission of power through nozzle. (b) A nozzle is ﬁtted at the end of a pipe of length 300 m and of diameter 10 cm . For the maximum transmission of power through the nozzle, ﬁnd the diameter of nozzle. Take f= 0.009. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR210106

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FLUID MECHANICS (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) A liquid with a volume of 0.2m3 at 300 kPa is subjected to a pressure of 3000kPa and its volume is found to decrease by 0.2%. Calculate the bulk modulus of elasticity of the liquid. (b) If the surface tension of water in contact with air is 0.075 N/m, what correction need be applied toward capillary rise in the monometer reading in tube of 3mm diameter. [8+8] 2. A triangular plate of base width 1.5 m and height 2 m lies immersed in water with the apex downwards. The base of the plate is 1 m bellow and parallel to the free water surface. Calculate the total pressure on the plate and the depth of center of pressure. [16] 3. (a) A certain ﬂow pattern has a velocity potential φ= 7(y2 −x2 ) + 8x + 12y . Determine the velocity components. (b) What is a ﬂownet? Explain its use. What are its limitations? [8+8]

4. (a) A turbine is set 40 m below the water level of a reservoir and is fed by 60 cm diameter pipe. If short pipe of 45 cm diameter discharges water from the turbine to atmosphere, neglecting friction, estimate the power extracted by the turbine when the discharge is 0.8 m3 /s. (b) Describe that each term in the Bernoulis equation represents the energy per unit weight. [8+8] 5. (a) Diﬀerentiate between i. Stream line body and bluﬀ body ii. Friction drag and pressure drag. (b) A kite 60cm x 60cm weighing 2.943 N assumes an angle of 10o to the horizontal. If the pull on the string is 29.43N when the wind is ﬂowing at a speed of 40 km/hr. Find the corresponding coeﬃcient of drag and lift. Density of air is given as 1.25 kg/m3 . [8+8] 6. (a) Describe Reynold’s experiment with a neat sketch. What are the outcomes of Reynolds experiment. (b) A crude oil of viscosity 0.97 poise and relative density 0.9 is ﬂowing through a horizontal circular pipe of diameter 10cm and of length 10m. Calculate the diﬀerence of pressure at the two ends of the pipe, if 100 kg of the oil is collected in a tank in 30 seconds. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR210106

Set No. 4

7. The population of a city is 8X105 and it is to be supplied with water from a reservoir 6.4 km away. Water is to be supplied at the rate of 0.14m3 per head per day and half the supply is to be delivered in 8 hours. The full supply level of the reservoir is R.L 180.00. and its lowest water level is R.L.105.00. The delivery end of the main is at R.L 22.50 and the head required there is 12m. Find the diameter of the pipe. Take f= 0.04. [16] 8. A venturimeter having inlet diameter 100 mm and throat diameter 25 mm is ﬁtted in a vertical pipe, throat is 0.3 m below the inlet, for measuring the ﬂow of petrol of speciﬁc gravity 0.78. Pressure gauges are ﬁtted at inlet and throat. Taking loss of head between inlet and throat as 36 times the velocity head at inlet, ﬁnd cd of the meter and the discharge when the inlet gauge reads 274.68 KN/m2 . [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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