# Code No: RR210201

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Obtain an expression for excess pressure in a free jet. (b) A body weighing 440 N with a surface area of 0.09m2 slides down lubricated inclined plane making 300 with horizontal. For dynamic viscosity of 0.1Ns/m2 and body velocity of 3 m/s, determine the lubricant ﬁlm thickness. [8+8] 2. (a) Brieﬂy explain the classiﬁcation of ﬂows. (b) What type of acceleration is to be expected if i. ii. iii. iv. Streamlines Streamlines Streamlines Streamlines are are are are parallel and equidistant straight and converging curved but equispaced curved and converging.

[8+8]

3. (a) Explain the diﬀerent forms of energy in a ﬂuid. (b) The cross-sectional area of a convergent pipe is so shaped that the velocity of ﬂow along the centre line varies linearly from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in a distance of one metre. The pipe is inclined downward at an angle of 300 with horizontal. Determine the diﬀerence in pressure between the two points, assuming the speciﬁc weight of the liquid as 7.85kN/m3 . [8+8] 4. Fully rough turbulent ﬂow occurs in a 15 cm diameter pipe carrying oil of density 917kg/m3. If at a distance of 2.5 cm from the wall the velocity is 1.5m/s and the velocity gradient is 7s−1 , determine the (a) Boundary shear stress, (b) Equivalent sand grain roughness (c) Discharge and (d) Friction factor. [16] 5. Water ﬂows in a 250mm pipe. Two pitot tubes are installed in the pipe, one on the centerline and the other 50mm from the centerline. If the velocities at the two points are 3m/s and 2m/s respectively calculate the reading on the diﬀerential mercury manometer connected to the two tubes. [16] 6. A jet of water moving at 20m/s impinges on a symmetrical curved shaped to deﬂect the jet through 1200 (that is the vane angles are each equal to 300 ). If the vane is moving at 5m/s, ﬁnd the angle of the jet so that there is no shock at inlet. Also determine the absolute velocity of exit in magnitude and direction, and the work done. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR210201

Set No. 1

7. (a) What is meant by impact of jet? Derive an expression for the force exerted by a jet on a stationary plate normal to the jet. (b) A jet of water 40 mm diameter moves with a velocity of 18 m/s and strikes on a series of vanes moving with a velocity of 8 m/s. Find: i. the force exerted by the jet, ii. work done by the jet and iii. eﬃciency of the jet.

[8+8]

8. A double acting reciprocating pump has a bore of 0.2 m and stroke of 0.4 m. The suction pipe has a diameter of 0.1 m and is ﬁtted with an air vessel. Fine the rate of ﬂow into or from the air vessel when the crank makes angles of 300 , 900 , and 1200 with the inner dead center. Determine also the crank angles at which there is no ﬂowto or from the air vessel. Take the speed as 120 rpm and assume that the plunger has simple harmonic motion. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR210201

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) The surface tension of water in contact with air at 200 C is 0.073 N/m. The pressure inside a water droplet is 0.15kN/m2 greater than the outside pressure. Calculate the diameter of the water droplet. Derive the equation used. (b) Diﬀerentiate between absolute and gauge pressures. Calculate the pressure in N/m2 due to a column of 0.4 m of i. water ii. oil of speciﬁc gravity 0.9 and iii. mercury. Assume speciﬁc weight of water as 9810N/m3 . 2. (a) Brieﬂy explain the classiﬁcation of ﬂows. (b) What type of acceleration is to be expected if i. ii. iii. iv. Streamlines Streamlines Streamlines Streamlines are are are are parallel and equidistant straight and converging curved but equispaced curved and converging.

[8+8]

[8+8]

3. (a) Explain the diﬀerent forms of energy in a ﬂuid. (b) The cross-sectional area of a convergent pipe is so shaped that the velocity of ﬂow along the centre line varies linearly from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in a distance of one metre. The pipe is inclined downward at an angle of 300 with horizontal. Determine the diﬀerence in pressure between the two points, assuming the speciﬁc weight of the liquid as 7.85kN/m3 . [8+8] 4. (a) List the Minor losses of energy in a pipe ﬂow. (b) A piping system consists of three pipes arranged in series; the lengths of the pipes are 1200 m, 750 m and 600 m and diameters 750 mm, 600 mm and 450 mm respectively. i. Transform the system to an equivalent 450mm diameter pipe and ii. Determine an equivalent diameter for the pipe, 2550m long. [6+10] 5. A Venturitmeter having inlet diameter 100 mm and throat diameter 25 mm is ﬁtted in a vertical pipe, throat 0.3 m below inlet, for measuring the ﬂow of petrol of speciﬁc gravity 0.78. Pressure gauges are ﬁtted at inlet and throat. Assuming the loss of head between inlet and throat as 30 times the velocity head at inlet, ﬁnd 1 of 2

Code No: RR210201 (a) Cd for the meter

Set No. 2

(b) the discharge in liters per minute when the inlet gauge reads 274.68KN/m2 more than the throat gauge. [16] 6. A jet of water having a velocity of 18m/s strikes a curved vane which is moving with a velocity of 6m/s. The vane is symmetrical and so shaped that the jet is defected through 1200 . Determine (a) The angle of the jet at inlet of the vane so that there is no shock; (b) The absolute velocity of the jet at outlet in magnitude and direction; and (c) The work done per unit weight of water. [16]

7. An inward ﬂow reaction turbine is supplied with water at the rate of 600 lps with a velocity of 2 m/s. The velocity of periphery and velocity of whirl at inlet is 24 m/s and 18 m/s respectively. Assuming the discharge to be radial at outlet and the velocity of ﬂow to be constant, ﬁnd: (a) vane angle at inlet and (b) head of water exerted on the wheel. [16]

8. Find the power required to drive a Centrifugal pump which delivers 0.04 m3 /s of water to a height of 20m through a 15cm dia pipe and 100m long. The overall eﬃciency of the pump is 70% and coeﬃcient of friction is 0.04. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR210201

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Deﬁne speciﬁc weight, viscosity, surface tension and vapour pressure and, mention their SI units. (b) Space between two parallel plates kept 3 mm part is ﬁlled with an oil of viscosity 0.2Ns/m2 . Find the shear stress at the lower plate when the upper plate is moving with a velocity of 1.5 m/s. [8+8] 2. (a) Brieﬂy explain the classiﬁcation of ﬂows. (b) What type of acceleration is to be expected if i. ii. iii. iv. Streamlines Streamlines Streamlines Streamlines are are are are parallel and equidistant straight and converging curved but equispaced curved and converging.

[8+8]

3. (a) Explain the diﬀerent forms of energy in a ﬂuid. (b) The cross-sectional area of a convergent pipe is so shaped that the velocity of ﬂow along the centre line varies linearly from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in a distance of one metre. The pipe is inclined downward at an angle of 300 with horizontal. Determine the diﬀerence in pressure between the two points, assuming the speciﬁc weight of the liquid as 7.85kN/m3 . [8+8] 4. The diﬀerence in water surface levels in two tanks which are connected by three pipes in series of lengths 300 m, 170 m and 210 m and of diameters 300 mm, 200 mm and 400 mm respectively, is 12 m. Determine the rate of ﬂow of water if values of friction factor are 0.02, 0.0208 and 0.0192 respectively, considering: (a) Minor losses also (b) Neglecting minor losses. [16]

5. (a) Explain the three hydraulic coeﬃcients of an oriﬁce. What is the relation between them? (b) The head of water over an oriﬁce of diameter 50 mm is 12 m. Find the actual discharge and actual velocity of jet at Vena -Contracta. Take Cd = 0.6 and Cv = 0.98. [8+8] 6. A square plate weighing 115N and of uniform thickness and 30 cm edge is hung so that horizontal jet 2 cm diameter and having a velocity of 15 m/s impinges on the plate. The center line of the jet is 15 cm below the upper edge of the plate, and 1 of 2

Code No: RR210201

Set No. 3

when the plate is vertical the jet strikes the plate normally and at its center. Find what force must be applied at the lower edge of the plate in order to keep plate vertical.If the plate is allowed to swing freely, ﬁnd the inclination to vertical which the plate will assume under the action of jet. [16] 7. A model turbine has a runner of diameter 0.61m. It develops 50 KW under a head of 30m at a speed of 4000 RPM. Compute Speciﬁc speed and Unit speed for this model. It is required to build a similar turbine to develop 155 KW under a head of 36m. Calculate the required diameter. [16] 8. (a) Derive the equation for the power required to drive the single acting reciprocating pump. (b) A single acting reciprocating pump has a plunger of diameter 0.3m and a stroke of length 0.4m. If the speed of the pump is 60 RPM and coeﬃcient of discharge is 0.97, determine the percentage slip and actual discharge of the pump. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR210201

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Deﬁne mass density, weight density, speciﬁc volume and speciﬁc gravity. (b) A 30 cm diameter shaft revolves in a guide bearing of 60 cm long at 500 rpm. If the oil ﬁlm bearing is 0.13 mm and viscosity of oil is 0.05Ns/m2 , ﬁnd the power absorbed. [8+8] 2. (a) Derive the continuity equation for one-dimensional ﬂow. (b) Distinguish between stream line, path line and streak line. [8+8]

3. An inclined pipe carrying water gradually changes in diameter from 15 cm. at a point A to 40 cm, at a point B; point B is 4.50m vertically above A. If the pressures at A and B are respectively 68.67 kN/m2 and 49.05kN/m2 and discharge is 150 litres per second, determine (a) the direction of ﬂow and (b) the head loss between the sections. 4. (a) Derive an expression to compute loss of head for sudden expansion (b) Determine the wall shearing stress in a pipe of diameter 100mm which carries water. The velocity at the pipe centre and 30mm, from the pipe centre are 2 m/s and 1.5 m/s respectively. The ﬂow in pipe is assumed to be turbulent. [8+8] 5. (a) Explain the terms Vena-contracta, coeﬃcient of velocity, coeﬃcient of contraction and coeﬃcient of discharge, related to an oriﬁce. (b) Oil ﬂows through a 25 mm diameter oriﬁce under a head of 5.5 m at a rate of 3 liters/s. The jet strikes a wall l.5m away and 120 mm vertically below the centerline of the contracted jet. Calculate the coeﬃcients of velocity, contraction and discharge. [8+8] 6. A jet of water, cross-sectional area 20cm2 ,issues with a velocity of 25m/s and strikes a stationary plate held at 300 to the axis of jet.Find the force exerted by the jet on the plate,and work out the components of force in the direction normal to the jet.Also ﬁnd how the discharge gets distributed after striking the plate. [16] 7. Show that the expressions for the non-dimensional numbers: (a) speciﬁc speed, 1 of 2 [16]

Code No: RR210201 (b) speciﬁc diameter, (c) ﬂow number and

Set No. 4

(d) head number for a Pelton wheel are functions of diameter ratio(d/D) where d is the jet diameter and D is the Pelton wheel diameter. Assume that there is no friction in the buckets and the ﬂow reversal in the buckets is through 1800 . Also determine the above numbers if d/D is 0.2. [16] 8. (a) What is meant by ‘priming’ of a pump? What are the diﬀerent priming arrangements employed for small and big pumping units? (b) A centrifugal pump of the radial type delivers 500 litres per minute against a total head of 38 m, when running at a speed of 1450 rpm. If the outer diameter of the impeller is 300 mm and its width at the outer periphery is 13 mm, ﬁnd the vane angle at exit. Assume the manometric eﬃciency as 80%. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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