Peritoneal Dialysis | Dialysis | Kidney

PERITONEAL DIALYSIS

Peritoneal uses a filter inside body-the your belly, the peritoneal membraneto remove wastes and extra fluid from your body. It also restores the normal balance of certain minerals in the blood (electrolytes). The dialysis fluid fills the belly and pulls out extra minerals and fluids from the bloodstream. These wastes then drain out of the body along with the dialysis fluid into a collection bag. Peritoneal dialysis is usually done at home. dialysis natural your lining of called Introduction: Though known since the 1940’s, peritoneal dialysis became a standard treatment used in removing waste products from the body in 1976. An estimated 260,000 people in US suffer from chronic renal (kidney) failure and 50,000 die each year from conditions secondary to this disease. On average, approximately one fifth- of the total of the total blood supply of the human body- 1.3 qt (1.2L) of blood- passes through the kidneys every minute. Twelve times every hour, the entire amount of blood present in the body circulates through the kidneys. Through an osmotic process called glomerular filtration, selective fluids and dissolved chemicals are filtered out, but necessary nutrients such as proteins are retained. The filtered-out solution enters a part of the kidney called Bowman’s capsule, then passes through a system of tubes that reabsorb nearly all (99%) of the fluid. The remaining 1% that contains the waste products is sent down through two slender tubes, called ureters, to the bladder. From the bladder, the urine created in the kidneys, on average 1.6 qt (1.5 L) is excreted. Peritoneal dialysis is a method for removing waste such as urea and potassium from the blood, as well as excess fluid, when the kidneys are incapable of this (i.e. in renal failure). Peritoneal dialysis works on the principle that the peritoneal membrane that surrounds the intestine, can act as a natural semipermeable membrane and that if a specially formulated dialysis fluid is instilled around the membrane then dialysis occur, by diffusion. Excess fluid can also be removed by osmosis, by altering the concentration of glucose in the fluid. 3 Types of peritoneal dialysis

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) - the most common type, needs no machine and can be done at home. Exchanges of fluid are done throughout the day, usually four exchanges a day. During CAPD, the dialysate solution stays in your belly for about 4 to 6 hours. After this time, the solution is drained out of your belly. Your belly is then refilled with fresh solution. You need to change the solution about 4 times a day. This is the most commonly used form of peritoneal dialysis. Continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) - uses a machine and is usually performed at night when the person is sleeping. During CCPD, a machine automatically fills and drains the dialysate from your belly. This process takes about 10 to 12 hours, so you can perform CCPD at night while you sleep. • Portable—do it anywhere • Convenient—have your days free • Easy—learn it in a week or two • No needles—avoid needle sticks • Less restrictive—easier diet • Routine—feel healthy, not sick • Time—fewer trips to the clinic Intermittent peritoneal dialysis- uses the same type of machine as CCPD. It is usually performed in the hospital. Treatment sessions may last up to 24 hours and are done several times a week.IPD is rarely done anymore. PURPOSE: • To remove waste as urea and potassium from blood • To remove excess fluid, when the kidneys are incapable of this (i.e. in renal failure) • Remove wastes and extra fluid from your body • It stores the normal balance of certain minerals in the blood (electrolytes). • The dialysis fluid fills the belly and pulls out extra minerals and fluids from the blood stream. These wastes then drain out the body along with the dialysis fluid into a collection bag. INDICATIONS: Laboratory results which suggest PD: • Serum Creatinine- 10 mg/100 ml • BUN- more than 100 mg/ 100 ml • K+- more than 6 meq/L • CRF Contraindications • Scarring of the lining of the abdominal wall (peritoneal membrane) • Leaks in the lining of the abdominal wall • Active IBD (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis) Reported by: Rovefrances Erpelua Passed to: Ms. Shiela Ritas

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