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NatEast Enterprises

Yaseen Ahmad
MBA- Finance

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement
For the degree of Master of Business Administration


Virtual University of Pakistan
M. A. Jinnah Campus, Defense Road, Off Raiwand Lahore


All praises and thanks to Almighty Allah. The Lord and Creator of this universe by whose
power and glory all good things are accomplished. He is also the most merciful, who best
owed on me the potential, ability and an opportunity to work on this project.

I am grateful to my respected teacher Mr. Bilal Ahmed who has guided me in each
and every step of this project. Indeed, without her kind guidance I may not be able to
even start this project. May ALLAH give her the reward which he deserves. I am also
grateful to all those members who are related to Nat East Enterprises.

Despite of the most hectic schedule, Mr.Waqas Ahmed (Accountant Manager)
helped me so much. I'm really grateful to you Sir for clarifying my concepts and making
me learn from your experience. Whatever I learnt from you will definitely help me in my
upcoming study and the professional life ahead. Thank you so much for being so co-
operative and so helpful every time. I hope Sir I have been up to your expectations.

In the end, I am thankful to all my teachers and have a lot of prayers for them who
give me the knowledge and make me able to complete my master’s degree. Here I have
special thanks for Mr. Bilal Ahmed whose guided me to complete my final project.

Yaseen Ahmad.

I dedicate this report to my loving parents whose prays, affection and support are always
a source of encouragement for me to reach at this destination and a humble icon for
others in future. My parent and teachers who give me real eyes that help me to leads
myself and others in the dark and cruel world.


I have completed my master’s degree in Business Administration from Virtual university
of Pakistan, Lahore, and internship is compulsory for this degree because university has
recommended the internship. Internship helps us to get the practical knowledge of the
field and we get a chance to implement our knowledge which we have gotten from our
sixteen years of education. We become aware from the field and its requirements that
which types of abilities we should have so that we can perform well in the field. I did the
internship in NatEast enterprises Miana Pura Sialkot is the manufacturing Organization
and named as Leather products of Sialkot in Pakistan.

In Pakistan a large of Industry like, Leather, Textile industry, Cotton industry, are
providing and producing the product for domestic and intentional. NatEast is one of these
industries. NatEast is the reputable firm in the Sialkot sector because their marketing and
production strategy.
In the section of overview of the organization, describe the organization history their
formation and the business background. The Volume of business is the initial step in this
section toward finding their position in the market when they established. The main
products which they are offering to their reliable customer to produce strength in the
In the section organization structure, the organization culture and No of employee
described. The offices and the location of the firm. The Three Partners and their Ratio in
the capital.
In the section plan of internship, include the description of the internship programme and
their starting and ending date.
Structure of finance department including the detailed of particular department where
internship done and the period of spending in these department during internship.
Function of finance is described most specific because my MBA degree is related to The
Accounts and Finance specialization. Therefore my Overall time mostly done with these

departments and also the production because they interlinked closely for the accounts
purpose to made financial statment.
Finance Function section also including function of finance, Funding generation,
mobalization, and source and how to allocate it.
At the end in my repost most important step is analysis of financial statement horizontal
and vertical analysis.
SWOT analysis is also done to produce organization value and their judgment.
All supported material is also attached which support the this Report. The Completion is
done through the NatEast co operation and my parent’s prayer and teacher’s guidance.

Scanned Copy of internship Certificate & Evaluation form

Scanned Copy of internship Certificate

Scanned Copy of Internee Evaluation form
Scanned Copy of internee’s Evaluation Form
Scanned Copy of internship Certificate
Scanned Copy of internship Certificate
Scanned Copy of internship Certificate

Table of Content

SCANNED COPY OF INTERNSHIP CERTIFICATE.....................................................VI

SCANNED COPY OF INTERNEE EVALUATION FORM............................................VI


OVERVIEW OF THE ORGANIZATION.........................................................................16

Brief History......................................................................................................................16

Nature of the Organization ...............................................................................................17

Business Volume................................................................................................................17

Product Lines.....................................................................................................................18
Martial Arts................................................................................................................................................18
Sports wear.................................................................................................................................................21
Fitness accessories.....................................................................................................................................23


ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE.....................................................................................27

Organization hierarchy chart.............................................................................................27

Number and Profile of employee.......................................................................................28

PLAN OF INTERNSHIP PROGRAM..............................................................................29

Brief Introduction of Branch.............................................................................................29

Starting & Ending Dates of Internship..............................................................................29

Departments of Internship.................................................................................................30

INTRODUCTION OF DEPARTMENTS..........................................................................30

Business and Administration Department.........................................................................31

Production department.......................................................................................................34

Methods of production.......................................................................................................40

Analysis of Business Operation.........................................................................................44

PRINCIPAL FIRMS..........................................................................................................50



Marketing Department.......................................................................................................56

Human Resource department.............................................................................................67

STRUCTURE OF FINANCE DEPARTMENT................................................................72

Departmental hierarchy.....................................................................................................72

No of Employees...............................................................................................................73

Finance and Accounting operation....................................................................................73

FUNCTION OF FINANCE DEPARTMENT...................................................................80

Accounting System of the Organization............................................................................80

Finance system of the organization...................................................................................81

Use of electronic data in decision making.........................................................................82

Mobilization of funds........................................................................................................83

Generation of funds...........................................................................................................84

Sources of funds................................................................................................................85

Allocation of funds............................................................................................................85

CRITICAL ANALYSIS.....................................................................................................85

Financial Analysis..............................................................................................................86

Interpretation .....................................................................................................................95

SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE NAT EAST ENTERPRISES............................................100





CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................102

REFERENCE & SOURCE..............................................................................................103


Introduction of Organization’s Business sector
Nat East Enterprises are manufacturers and exporters of martial arts & sports wears. The
Organization is 100% export oriented unit having highly qualified staff at its back having
a vast experience in the manufacturing process and maintaining quality tools to the
International standards and specifications.

We are committed to provide best quality and services to our customers. Our main
objectives are customer confidence, customer satisfaction and provide services at right
Under development program we continuously are working on new materials, Formulas
and Designs to upgrade the performance of our merchandise. Creating/Development had
been upgraded and today our total setup is computerized to meet world's latest demands.

Business Sector

Nat east enterprises Situated in Sialkot under the cluster of Leather, sports wear garments.
Sialkot industry is facing domestically and internationally competition in these products.
Different programmed are initiated to develop this business in the Sialkot industry. The
impressive programmed was initiated in Sialkot by TDAP in collaboration with partner
agencies (UNIDO, SCCI). The government in the trade policy 2008-09 has announced
five clusters. Those clusters are:

• Leather and Leather Products.
• Gloves and protective equipment.
• Sports Goods.
• Sports wear.
• Surgical instruments.

Sialkot Industry composed of different cluster relating to these products. These clusters
play significant rule to initiate business sector locally as well internationally. The
programme includes the detail Nature, product and department which help the industry to
promote this business sector.


Sect oral and geographical concentration of enterprises (especially small ones); produce
and sell a range or related or complementary products and are thus faced with common
challenges and opportunities.

Clusters are considered to increase the productivity with which companies can compete
nationally and globally.

Definition of Leather

Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily
cattle hide. The tanning process converts the skin into durable and long lasting versa bile
nahral material for various uses.

However, in Sialkot, Leather is primarily used in making garments, gloves, and
upholstery items.

Types of Leather

Hides and skins are normally available as cured and raw material. The curing being
carried out in order to prevent bacterial attack and disintegration. Some commonly used
raw materials are:
• Sheep skin (Maysha)
• Goat skin
• Cow Hides
• Cow calf
• Buff hide (Maja)
• Reptiles
• Crocodile
• Fish skin
• Horse and donkey leather

• Camel hide
• Pig leather
• Kangaroos

Leather products

List of leather products is as follows:

• Leather jackets
• Motorbike suits
• Vascoats
• Belts
• Bags
• Automotive leather goods
• Saddler
• Industrial use
• Pouch
• Chapel
• Punishing instruments
• Gloves
• Arms leather goods

Geographical Location of Sialkot

Sialkot is district is situated between Gujranwala, Gujarat, Narowal, and Indian Occupied

It is 829 feet above sea level.

Total Population (district) 300.0000 (Census 2006)

Population (city) 120,000

Area 3016 km’2

Density 903 persons/ km2

Attitude 256 meters amsl

History of cluster

Sialkot is famous for the production of leather products. Leather cluster Sialkot
developed in its current shape as export started here in mid 80’s. In 1978 to 1980 First
Leather Production was established in Sialkot, juki machines were imported in 80’s. 6
juki machines were imported at that time. Master Bashir was pioneer in manufacturing;
he was the first, who started his own Manufacturing. His shop was in Purannagar Street
no 1. He used to produce both local and international standard products.

London was the hub for exports at that time, where Brick lane was the market. Exporters
got orders from there till 1995. Five English persons, Two Indians and four British origin
Pakistanis place orders to Pakistan and other countries like Scandinavia, Germany were
the main market at that time for exporters. The peak period of leather Industry exports
was from 1985 to 2000.

Sialkot leather cluster was the only to manufacture motorbike suits. No other city could
produce motorbike suits at that time and till Date 90% motorbike suits are manufactured
in Sialkot cluster. Then Pakistan started export of finish leather to other countries that
caused prices growth of leather.

Pakistan also exported leather to China till year 2000. Then they stopped importing
leather because it cost them very expensive and became out of reach, that’s why they
stopped importing from Pakistan. But prices never came down and they are still very high
although there is no shortage of leather at current.

Once at that period when Pakistan exported finished leather to other countries 10000
Vendors became jobless and they protested against government. At that time they made

their own R&D to make new designs and patterns and remained successful in shape of
obtaining good orders of export.

Leather cluster in Sialkot

Most of the firms were established in late 80’s and 90’s and so on. Mostly these firms are
situated on Daska Road, Pasrur road, Factory area, Bonkan Pura, Wazirabad Road, and
Head Marala Road. Majority of labour come from Fatehgarh Agency, surrounding areas
of Doburji, Nollmor, Gondal, Godhpur, Marakiwaal, and Siadpur etc.

Trade bodies

Pakistan Leather Garments Manufacturers Exporters Association

PLGMEA established in 2001.role of PLGMEA is that exporter of leather products come
under one umbrella. And discuss their problems and try to remove them. Resolve claim
matters of exporters. Arranging trade fairs for their members.

Since the establishment of our associations leather garments industry

Has facing numerous hurdles particularly after 9/11 and other threats coupled with global
recession sharp decline in export of leather garments?

1. To protect promote and develop Pakistan leather garments and industry & allied
2. For that purpose the management strived for resolving various issues
3. In order to save the industry from the negative factors as well as to encourage
them to face the situation by adopting various positive
4. To settle controversies between the members of the association.
5. To establish and promote contacts in foreign countries and develop trade relations
with them in order to popularize and leather products of Pakistan

6. To lay out, establish maintain. Manage and control of the affairs of the market in
leather garments and allied products.
7. To safeguard and promote the interests of the labour employed by the leather
garments and allied industry.
8. To organize local or international fairs & exhibitions to help the manufacturer of
leather garments & related products to get benefit out of it.

Sialkot Chamber of Commerce and Industry

SCCI was established in 1982. Role of SCCI is to facilitate their registered members by
solving their claiming matters. Arranging trade fairs for their members

With other bodies like TDAP.

It also facilitate their members in visa policy in 2007 to 08 no visa rejection

All visa purposes are been entertained.

SCCI also take special interest is making infrastructure betterment of city.

Establish dry port for facilitate our exporter.

Establish seerat academy

Child labour elimination program

City Package Plan

SCCI made Sialkot international airport, which is huge target, which they achieve.SCCI
also made Sialkot dry port trust. Where shipment is made to Karachi. It gives huge

benefit to this cluster. SCCI also generate funds for other educational and other healthy

Current Institutional Linkages

Trade Development Authority Pakistan (TDAP)

TDAP was established in Sialkot in1963. Its old name was export promotion bureau
Pakistan Purpose of making this body is enhancing the exports of Pakistan.TDAP take
several steps like arranging trade fairs as much their own expense. It is also sponsoring
cluster development program in Sialkot. In also other export oriented cities of Pakistan
like Lahore, Gujarat, and Wazirabad clusters are the main examples of this. Its also do
role as a marketing of Pakistani products of export quality in other Countries. Like Asian
or European countries.

Expo centers arranging exhibitions .it also arrange seminars conferences and workshops
that how exporters increase their export and develop the country and get revenue for this
country. DAP also promote exporters to enter these markets. And get hold of that market.

Vocational Training Institute

Vocational training institute educate employees of cluster that how to handle new
technology. They arranging short and long term courses for training Computer based
education their students trying to produce skilled labour. Their new generations and
getting use to with new technology

SMEDA was established to help small and medium enterprise that how they establish
themselves. Helping them to get micro level financing short terms plans. Convey
knowledge for small enterprises that how much they plan their business present business
development program and facilitate them. Also facilitate program for lower and middle

The provider and facilitator of support services to SME’S the key resource base for SME,
S in Pakistan The voice of SME, S

1. Donor coordination &International linkages (DC&IL)
2. Policy planning & strategy
3. Business Development services
4. Policy, strategy and regulatory advice relating to SME’S
5. Sect oral studies and industry research
6. Coordination of the Government for SME’S development
7. Assistance in raising finance
8. Financial advice
9. Project identification
10. Business plan development
11. Technical advices
12. Marketing advice (Branding, labeling)
13. Packaging, distribution, promotion
14. E Market-electronic commerce support
15. Business Matchmaking
16. Regulations &policy level support
17. Institutional &networking support.

Punjab Small Industries Corporation PSIC

Punjab small industry corporation is provincial institute its role to provide loans to small
industries of Punjab; it has district development office in Sialkot. Establish industrial
areas for small industries. providind credit facilities to small entrepreneur in new existing

business in last three years about 52 cases under credit scheme for small industries (cssi-
2002) was applied and 44 loans were sectioned.


There are 48 banks in Pakistan of which 33 are working in Sialkot and 27 leasing
companies in which 8 leasing companies working in Sialkot. They provide loans to
industrialists. Banks also deal in advances loan they also deal in liability and assets

Private BDS

There are twenty BDS providers in Sialkot. They help entrepreneurs to guide in how to
get ISO certifications.

National scenario

Leather is the second largest industry of Pakistan. Pakistan is at 5 th position among
exporting countries of leather and leather products.

Sialkot cluster is growth oriented of leather products and leather Garments.

Leather export trends (amount in us million$)

Commodities 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08
Leather tanned 251 309 263 316 375

Apparels and 324 326 460 350 490

Total 575 635 723 666 865

Source: PLGMEA

This data of export shows consistent increase from last two years in tanned leather
export. And decreasing factor in apparels and leather garments from last year but in last
year it increases.

Leather exports from Sialkot (value in us million $)

Products 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08

Leather Garments 186 189 182 203.7 241.1

& Goods

Change over

(05-06 to 06-07)


Overview of the Organization

Brief History

NatEast Enterprises is a family concern partnership business which started by 3
family partners a) Mr. Shakeel Ahmed b) Mr. Azamatullah c) Mr. Jameel Ahmed. The
Organization was established in 2002 with few capital resources and at first it got an
order from local market to make some Leather products. The Organization complied with
the order within time and achieved its target successfully.
After that it decided to expand the business and start export business instead
of local market, which was the actual target of the Organization and the
management at that time. To achieve that target Mr. Azamatullah Partner of the
Organization personally visited Korea and got valuable orders concerning Martial
arts and sports wear Goods from there. To comply with this different item orders
management engaged some venders and with the passage of time to comply the
different requirements of different customers it engaged more venders for all other
products. It also expanded their field of trading and frequently works for better
Mr. Shakeel Ahmed, Managing Partner of the Organization highly educated
(M.A.Economics) is a very talented and most experienced person who always leads
the Organization for excellence. He knows the changing environment and demands
of people. With his recommendation the management set its own unit of Martial arts
and with the passage of time started manufacturing of Sports wear for better
Competitive advantage. The management always tries to manage the products
And comply with changes.

Nature of the Organization

As per history I mentioned the Nat East Enterprises is one of the
Leading manufacturer of Martial arts and Sports wear. On the other hand the
Organization is also engaged in the Trading of other Fitness accessories to increase
Annual turnover and give incentive to the buyers. The Organization's legal status is
Family concern partnership. Now this time there are 3-partners of the Organization
With equal distribution of shares.

Organization Nat east Enterprises

Formation 2002

Type of Organization Partnership
Board f Directors Mr. Shakeel Ahmed
Mr. Azamatullah
Mr. Jameel Ahmed

Managing Director Mr. Shakeel Ahmed

Head Office

Business Volume

The Enterprises is family Own business therefore three partner have the Partnership ratio
40% Mr. Shakeel Ahmed, 30% Mr. Azmatullah, 30% Mr. Jameel Ahmed. The

Organization started its working in 2001 with the overall capital of Rs. 80, 000, 00/= and
now at the moment the Nat East Enterprises business volume is Rs, 65 Million = per year.
As we take a look at the previous history of the export, we can find that overall export
increase 14% to 20 % every year, which is a good sign for its improvement. On the other
hand the average profit earned by the Organization in last year was Rs 30 million which
is 30.5% of the total sales.

Product Lines

Martial Arts

Karate Uniform
NT - 1003
Karate Uniform 8-oz in 100% cotton drill dyed “Black”.
Pant with draw string waist with white belt.
Also available in elastic waist and different colors.

Taeko wondo/Kungfu

NT - 1105

Kung Fu uniform 8-oz in 100% cotton drill dyed

Full “Black”. With black neck, black cuff and black buttons.

Pant with draw string waist open bottom. Also available in different colours.

Karate Uniform


Karate uniforms 8-oz in 100% cotton drill white
"Bleached". Pant with draw string waist with belt.
Also available in elastic waist and colors.

Judo uniform
NT - 1206

Judo uniform reversible100% cotton "blue / white".
Reversible pant in drill with full knee Re-enforcements.

Ninja ju-jitsu uniform
NT – 1251

Ninja uniforms 8-oz in 100% cotton drill “Black”.
Also available in special black & white canvas stuff.

NT - 1304

8 Stitch Bi color Fast Color.

Protective equipment

NT - 1604

Heavy weight Silk. Soft Touch

Thai boxing trouser

NT - 1702

Heavy weight silk Soft Touch

Sports wear

NT - 106

Padded Jacket

Outer 10% Polyester Taffeta Up Coated
Inner 10% Polyster10 GRM With Quilt
2 Zipper pockets on chest
2 Zipper pockets on sides
1 Cell pocket inside the inner
2 Button on front flop
Velcro Tape On Arm Opening
Color Royal Blue and heavy blue

Track suit
NT - 1102

Taekwondo uniform 8-oz cord Design 65% polyester & 35 % cotton with "white" or
"Black" collar. Back Embroidery. Pant with elastic waist.

Ladies suit
NT - 201

Smash Ladies Suit

Outer 100% Trinda Polyester Inside Brushed Hooded Upper
And Mesh Penal On Font With Piping 2" Elastic on arm Opening And Trouser
trouser opening 3 button, White panel 3" with net mash arm opening 3 button lower
opening with mesh panel.2 Elastic at waist Belt, Color black and dark gray

Soccer suit
NT - 255

Soccer Kit

Soccer Kit 100% Polyester Jacquards Mesh

T shirts
NT - 307


NT - 352
Fashion Short


Cordura suits
NT - 401

Seam Sealed Water Proof Lining KEVLAR Material on Shoulder & Elbow
Adjustable Strap on Sleeves Full Sleeve Zip Out Quilted Lining with
Insulation Material Soft Collar Reflective Material on Front & Back
Soft Protectors, Shoulder, Elbow & Back Backbone padding
Available Sizes, XS, S, M, L, XL, 2XL, 3XL

Rain suits
NT - 455

Rain suit is guaranteed to keep any working professional dry,
Comfortable and highly visible. The lime green/florescent yellow
Meets certifications standards for background fabric
And reflective material. Available Colors: Lime Green
Available Sizes: Small through 6XL
Fabric & Coating: Polyurethane Coated Nylon

Fitness accessories

Weight lifting belts

NT - 551

6"wide-Embossed- Reinforced
Neoprene belt, Nylon web closure, Roller buckle

Leather lifting Belts

NT – 603

EXTRA FORCE - Genuine Leather lifting Belt.
Top quality cowhide - 2.50 thickness leather - soft suede lining
- Built in foam - Lumber pad - Double prong seamless - Roller buckle - Double stitched
edges, double loop to secure belt tap - Colors available: Light Tan, Dark Tan, and Black


NT - 701

Features neoprene and steel hook in palm.
Wrist padded with foam for extra comfort and support - one size fits all

NT - 705

Protect hands like a glove and use as lifting grip
Neoprene grip strap combined with neoprene padded - Wrist wrap combination ring and
Velcro closure


Neoprene - nylon wrist wrap.
One size fits all


NatEast Enterprises is situated in the Major export industry in the Punjab and also the
Pakistan. Competation is always created for the competitor stage. NatEast succeed the
survival stage now they are facing the competition in the market.
Firm major competitor is those which are established their business before their starting.
Their goodwill in the market is strong as the runing the business many years.

Second competitor is those which are establishing their business with the new technology
and lot of investment in the current market. The penetrate the product.
In the first stage competitor includes
Raja Industries
M/S Leather Field
Silver Star sports
Comet sports
M/S Fair Brothers
In the second stage competitor includes
M/S Mass Sport
M/S Shan Sport
M/S Rabko
M/S Billo Trading

Organization Structure

Organization hierarchy chart



Quality Financial Business Marketing Technical
Assurance Department Departmen Department Departme
t nt

Account’s Quality
Manager control
Accountant After Sales
Quality Manger
Control Assistant


Number and Profile of employee

As the Organization comes in the list of small and medium enterprises that's why it
has 20 employees who are engaged in office work and also in the manufacturing
units of Sports Goods. For the manufacturing of other different products the
Organization has venders and they are also very responsible and skilled according to
their work.
The detail of employees other than partners according to their job specification is as

Name Designation Qualification Experience
Mr.Ahsan Manzoor Business Manager MBA 2 Years
Miss.Naila Help desk B.A 1 Years
Mr.nadeem Admn.assisitant M.A 1 Years
Adnan Yaqoob Computer Operator BCS 1 Years
Mr.Ajmal Production and MBA 4Years
operation Manger
Mr.Ali Purchase manger M.A 3 Years
Mr. Kareem Quality super visor M.A 1 Years
Abas Ali Store supervisor F.A 4 Years
Mr.Azmattulah Senior Manager MBA 10 Years
Mr.Shafqat Ali Sales And MBA 6 Years
Mr.Irfan Ali Export manager M.A 5 Years
Mr.Adnan Saleem Assistant Manager BSC 3 Years

Waqas ahmed Accounts manager MBA,ICMA 3rd 2 Year
Ali Raza Ass.Accountant 1 Year
Danish Ahmed Ass.Accountant 2 Year
Riaz Clerk 1 Year
Razaq Clerk 1 year
Tanveer Mirza Clerk 1 Year
Pervaiz Office Boy F.A
Rafeeq Gate Keeper F.A 5 Year

Plan of internship program
Brief Introduction of Branch

I have worked in the main Branch which is situated at Miana Pura. Organization is
divided in 2 main parts a general and manufacturing area. Manufacturing area is
restricted area for outers and every person going into manufacturing area is strictly
checked by guards.
At the entrance gate there is a sub office of administration where gate pass is issued to
every employee to enter inside the factory and persons who visits the organization. Gate
passes are also issued to vehicles coming and going outside the Organization. On the left
side after a garden there are offices of all the managers and Managing director. This area
is subdivided into Finance Department, Admin Department, and Human Resource

Starting & Ending Dates of Internship

I Started internship on March 10th 2009 and ended on May 1st 2009 In NatEast

Departments of Internship

I did my MBA in Finance so it was necessary to do the internship in the Finance
department. Due to this reason I decided to select the Finance department of NatEast
Enterprises. In this Organization each department is governed by director. Under the
manager Mr. Waqas Ahmed was managing the Finance department. Mr.Shakeel Ahmed
chief executive of the Organization has played a leading role in the Finance aspects of the
products; he is supported by the Mr.Azamatullah fully aware of the international modern
marketing trends. Mr.Azamatullah is the director of the marketing department and Mr.
Shafqat ali is the marketing manager. The production department also include in my
internship programmer because ist necessary for the costing Accounting.

The Fianance department done the work related also for purchase and sales department to
passing the Receipt and payment. Internship period is basically based to collection of all
data to perform the financial analysis of the Organization. Therefore finance department
fully supported me.

Introduction of Departments

Nat East Enterprises is a manufacturer firm they produce the goods which are required all
processing units to convert it into finished goods for customer. In the Department section

here we described the main department function and working under their managers and
supervisors how they coordinate and manage their work.
My mostly work spend on the production department because they are mainly linked with
the finance department. Because how could you asses the cost if you don’t know form
beginning. Accounts relating to this involved the cost activity Like Absorption, marginal
costing, activity based costing, EOQ are the mainly portion to manage it. But here our
prospect is to financial department to made reliable information for the external user. All
other department where I spend the time is also described under this section.

Business and Administration Department

The main function of administration Department to interact all other department to
generate the documentary evidence and monitor their work in the form of stored data.
Admin department ensure the activity and their safety. Each visitor must firstly interact
with the admin department then they move toward the other like the Material supplier in
the Nat East enterprises first interact with First desk staff the move toward the related
department like finance for billing or the Production to negotiate the material terms.

They keep checking all record through their computerized system. Like the visitor first
come to the gate verify their identification and then moved to the forward step in the
In this department there are three major Sections in this deartment.Number of employee
in this department include
Name Designation Qualification Experience
Mr.Ahsan Manzoor Business Manager MBA 2 Years
Miss.Naila Help desk B.A 1 Years
Nadeem Admn.assisitant M.A 1 Years
Adnan Yaqoob Computer Operator BCS 1 Years

Help Desk is the very important post in the admin department their function is to provide
support to staff on all Organization supported applications. Troubleshoot computer

problems and determine source, and advice on appropriate action. Complete application
project-based work. The three employees are working in the Nat east enterprise in this

 Answer staff questions in person and via phone on all Organization supported
 Troubleshoot computer problems.
 Determine source of computer problems (hardware, software, user access, etc.).
 Advise staff on appropriate action.
 Serve as liaison between staff and the technology department to resolve issues.
 Work one-on-one with staff on application projects.
 Provide recommendations on Organization application purchases.
 Document resolutions for future reference.

Administrative Assistant Provide administrative support to a department and/or
Manager. Duties include general clerical, receptionist and project based work. Project a
professional Organization image through in-person and phone interaction.
They are performing the responsibility like

 Answer telephones and transfer to appropriate staff member.
 Meet and greet clients and visitors.
 Create and modify documents using Microsoft Office.
 Perform general clerical duties to include but not limited to: photocopying,
faxing, mailing, and filing.
 Sign for and distribute DHL/Fed Ex/Airborne packages.
 Coordinate and maintain records for staff office space, phones, parking,
Organization credit cards and office keys.
 Setup and coordinate meetings and conferences.
 Maintain and distribute staff weekly schedules.

 Collect and maintain PC inventory.
 Support staff in assigned project based work.
 Other duties as assigned.

Administrative department also relate their function with the business department for
the documentation. There are two Employees working in this department.

Computer Operator Perform a variety of computer operations. Monitor console control
panel and make procedural and/or operational corrections as necessary. No of employee
is one in this department.

Responsibilities are

 Operate and monitor mainframe and mid-range computer and peripheral
equipment to include; printers, tape and disk drives.
 Observe operation of equipment, control panels, error lights, verification
printouts, error messages, and faulty output.
 Monitor console control panel for faulty output or machine stoppage.
 Make procedural and/or operational corrections as necessary.
 Contact appropriate staff to resolve console control panel errors.
 Determine source of computer problems (hardware, software, user access, etc.).
 Advise staff on appropriate action.
 Remove and distribute computer output.
 Serve as liaison between staff and the technology department to resolve issues.
 Provide recommendations on Organization technology purchases.
 Document computer problems and resolutions for future reference.
 Maintain confidentiality with regard to the information being processed, stored or
 Other duties as assigned.

Business and administration departments work together to achieve their objectives.
Business department mainly made their document be collecting all information to the
other department and outsider resource.
Business department provide the data regarding to the searching the parties research
about business innovative policy, customer segmentation toward business opportunity.

Production department

Production is the functional area responsible for turning inputs into finished outputs
through a series of production processes. The Production Manager is responsible for
making sure that raw materials are provided and made into finished goods effectively.
Mr. Ajmal are the manager and Handle all Production Department to make sure that
work is carried out smoothly, and must supervise procedures for making work more
efficient and more enjoyable.

Production department in the NatEast enterprises also done their production from
outsource facility due to un availability of some machinery.

Mr. Ajmal supervises four employees which are performing their duty under their
instruction. About 70 workers are to be engaging in this department which performs
cutting, stiching, embroidery etc.

Name Designation Qualification Experience
Mr.Ajmal Production and MBA 4Years
operation Manger
Mr.Ali Purchase manger M.A 3 Years
Mr.Kareem Quality super visor M.A 1 Years
Abas Ali Store supervisor F.A 4 Years

Five production sub-Functions

In a Nat East Enterprises the production function split into five sub-functions:

1. The production and planning department will set standards and targets for each
section of the production process. The quantity and quality of products coming off a
production line will be closely monitored. In businesses focusing on lean production,
quality will be monitored by all employees at every stage of production, rather than at the
end as is the case for businesses using a quality control approach.

2. The purchasing department will be responsible for providing the materials,
components and equipment Like Knitted Cotton, Leather etc required to keep the
production process running smoothly. A vital aspect of this role is ensuring stocks arrive
on time and to the right quality.

3. The stores department will be responsible for stocking all the necessary tools, spares,
raw materials and equipment required to service the manufacturing process. Where
sourcing is unreliable, buffer stocks will need to be kept and the use of computerized
stock control systems helps keep stocks at a minimal but necessary level for production to
continue unhindered.

4. The design and technical support department will be responsible for researching new
products or modifications to existing ones, estimating costs for producing in different
quantities and by using different methods. It will also be responsible for the design and
testing of new product processes and product types, together with the development of
prototypes through to the final product. The technical support department may also be
responsible for work study and suggestions as to how working practices can be improved.

5. The works department will be concerned with the manufacture of products. This will
include the maintenance of the production line and other necessary repairs. The works
department may also have responsibility for quality control and inspection.

A key aspect of modern production is ensuring quality. There fore Mr. Ajmal ensure that
all Function performed consistently to achieve the desire out put. The emphasis on the
Quality therefore the term quality means fitness for purpose i.e. a product, process or
service should do exactly what is expected of it.

Total quality management

Leather Jacket plants in Nat East build quality into every stage of the production process.
Every employee is expected to take responsibility for managing quality issues in order to
make sure that waste is minimized and quality maximized. This is often referred to as
total quality management and is part of the lean production methods used in modern

For businesses to be competitive, Production and Marketing need to work in an integrated
way. Marketing is concerned with knowing and understanding the requirements of
customers, so that Production can provide the market led products that are required. This
also requires excellent communication systems to be in place.

For that purpose the internal and External Quality Control system must established to
achieved the desire Consumer demand Output.

A quality system - internal

Nat East enterprises adopted the internal Quality system to ensure production department
effectiveness. Internal quality system is a group of interrelated parts that make up a
whole. A quality system therefore consists of parts (such as policies and processes)
designed to ensure quality.

A variety of organizations work with BSI to create standards for QMS. The standard
specifies requirements for a QMS where an organization:

 needs to show that it can consistently provide products that:

a) Meet customer requirements

b) Meet any legal requirements.

 Aims to improve customer satisfaction as a result of applying the system. This
includes continually improving the system.

ISO 9001 sets out eight quality management principles. These include:

 customer focus
 leadership - a commitment to quality by the leaders of the organization
 Involvement of people - everyone in the organization having a part to play
 Making sure that those processes which create quality are identified
 Continual improvement of the system.

A quality system - external

Internal systems are ones that are built inside an organization. However, in addition,
modern businesses need to build external systems. External systems are those that
involve people outside the organization - e.g. suppliers.

Nat East enterprises have long supply chains in which they source materials, parts and
finished goods from across the Different area in Pakistan and also form the Korea and

Take, for example, a Leather Jacket. Some of the components may come from Qasoor,
others from Korea, Like Inner Cotton, Knitted cotton, Woven. These separate
components will then be assembled into a sub-assembly i.e. part of the finished Jacket.
This sub-assembly may take place in other unit, whilst a number of parts may then be
transported and delivered to a final assembly plant. Some Production parts are

This has led to a change in attitude. Instead of an Organization having a 'them' and 'us'
attitude where 'them' are the suppliers, it now makes sense to see the process as a shared
one in which everyone relies on each other. This is known as interdependence.

Operating activities (or operations) are the ongoing activities that a business is involved
in - e.g. processing a customers order in an Main unit, producing a Leather belt or Track
suit in a Pasrur as out sourced because in Sialkot the many outsourced production units
are available at cheap cost and faster production process. It is important that these
operations are controlled effectively to make sure that managers achieve desired


If it is noticed that there is a defect to a single Piece it is essential to put into effect
control procedures so that the line can be put right immediately.

Production variety is inevitable and this can lead to organizational problems. For
example, an increase in the number of component types will require more space in the
stores. Control of variety is essential in reducing storage space, the number of production
runs, types of machines, production aids and in making production control easier. As
firms move towards specialization, opportunities increase for mass production. Mass
production is the production of goods on a large scale.

Typically the greater the volume of mass production, the greater the benefits of
economies of scale as the firm moves towards its lowest unit cost size. It is often assumed
that mass production will affect quality.

However, this is rarely the case. With mass production, quality will be more uniform and
will not depend upon the scale of production but upon the skill of managers.

Automation and robotics have enabled managers to gain far more control over operating
systems. Computer Aided Design (CAD) enables high levels of efficiency in the design
of products. Computer Aided Manufacturing enables high levels of control and
standardization in manufacturing processes.

CAD/CAM - computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. A product is
designed with a CAD programmed and then the design is translated into instructions
which are transmitted to machines that are dedicated to the manufacture of items such as
car parts, or the finished assembly.

Methods of production

Two major processes should come together in the preparation of a product or service for

1. Market research to find out what people want to buy, and how they want it

2. Product design and development to look at different ways of producing a good or

There are several different methods of producing goods.

Job production

Involves the production of single, individual items. Nat East used it when Customer
demand are unique are the Goods are out of routine work like HIGHLY Embroidery Item
Fashion Jackets Trouser etc.

Firms might specialize in producing one-off jobs such as customized motor bikes.

The production process is concerned with transforming a range of inputs into those
outputs that are required by the market.

This involves two main sets of resources - the transforming resources, and the
transformed resources.
The transforming resources include the buildings, machinery, computers, and people that
carry out the transforming processes. The transformed resources are the raw materials and
components that are transformed into end products.

Any production process involves a series of links in a production chain. At each stage
value is added in the course of production. Adding value involves making a product more
desirable to a consumer so that they will pay more for it. Adding value therefore is not
just about manufacturing, but relates to all processes e.g. advertising, promotion,
distribution, etc that make the final product more desirable.

It is very important for businesses to identify the processes that add value, so that they
can enhance these processes to the ongoing benefit of the business.

There are three main types of process: job, batch and flow production.

Job production

Job or 'make complete' production is the creation of single items by either one operative
or a team of operative's e.g. the Humber Bridge or a frigate for the navy.

It is possible for a number of identical units to be produced in parallel under job
production, e.g. Leather cutting of Jacket of a similar type. Smaller projects can also be
seen as a form of job production, e.g. hand cutting a Leather, Embroidery, etc.

Batch production

The term batch refers to a specific group of components, which go through a production
process together. As one batch finishes, the next one starts.
For example on Monday, Machine A produces a type 1 Track suit part, on Tuesday it
produces a type 2 Track suit, on Wednesday a type 3 and so on. All Track suit will then
go forward to the final assembly of different categories of suits.

Batches are continually processed through each machine before moving on to the next
operation. This method is sometimes referred to as 'intermittent' production as different
job types are held as work-in-progress between the various stages of production.

Flow production

Batch production is described as 'intermittent' production and is characterized by
irregularity. If the rest period in batch production disappeared it would then become flow
production. Flow production is therefore a continuous process of parts and sub-
assemblies passing on from one stage to another until completion. Therefore the Nat east
adopted it to made the gloves, bike gloves, Martial belts.

Units are worked upon in each operation and then passed straight on to the next work
stage without waiting for the batch to be completed. To make sure that the production line
can work smoothly each operation must be of standard lengths and there should be no
movements or leakages from the line, i.e. hold-ups to work-in-progress.
For flow production to be successful there needs to be a continuity of demand. If demand
varied, this could lead to a constant overstocking of finished goods.

Like the Gloves, Working Gloves unit mostly adopt this type of process in the Nat east

Stock control

Stock control is play a massive role in the Nat east enterprises because they hold the
stock to accomplish the orders at that limit where the quantity can be utilized at effective
cost no extra cost will be bear on extra unit take.

Businesses hold stocks in a variety of forms:

• raw materials

• work-in-progress

• finished goods

• consumables

• Plant and machinery spares.

The aim of stock control is to make sure that a business always has sufficient stocks to
meet its own needs and those of consumers. However, it needs to keep the minimum
amount of stock that it can so as to avoid damage and waste, and to minimize the cost of
holding stock.

Having too high or too low a stock is harmful. High stocks represent money lying idle
when it could be put to better use, whereas low stocks could result in not being able to
take on and meet orders. The table illustrates the disadvantages of having the 'wrong'
stock levels:

Analysis of Business Operation

Business operation carries the all production material which is required to complete the
production unit. Therefore their source, quantity utilization is essential for the production
department. In the Nat east enterprises following material are to be used and the source of
material can be described in this phase.

Raw Material

Raw Leather in Pakistan comes from slaughterhouses from different regions. Leather of
every region has its own characteristics and qualities. Raw leather is brought to Karachi,
Kasur, Lahore, Multan, and Sialkot, for further processing so it can be used for export


Different sorts of threads are used in manufacturing of leather items, among which cotton
and nylon threads are very common and those are easily available in local market.


Buttons are also easily available in local market both best and low quality


All kinds of zips used in manufacturing are imported from China, Korea, Japan, and


Sundries are easily available in local market.


It is a process, used to emboss logos and designs on the product. It is done through
heating the product where screens are used for printing. Locals emboss leather garments.


Embroiders are available in the market. It is a separate business as mostly Embroidery is
done out of factory out sourcing.


Screening work is also done in market on very competitive rates.

Rubber Logo

Logo processing is done both inside the factory and out of factory.

Beads work plus Frill and Studwork

It is used in motorbike garments for American market.

Production operations

Production operation includes the activity which is performed to achieve the productivity
of the system. As described above which material are used in the Nat East enterprises
Production department, now it’s the time to made output for the customer. The operation
involves the activity and processing of unit For Material generation to Quality control
step. There fore here we are taking some single unit Like Leather product who they are
generating through different phase.

Pattern making

Pattern making is a design or sample prepared on demand of customer or importer. What
type of product he wants. In Leather and leather products cluster, most pattern making is
done manually. There is also computer based pattern making but our pattern masters are
not aware about such techniques due to lack of technological skills. Some institutions
have installed computer based pattern making courses like invesmark (PGS Model),
invesmark (GENMA), Invesmark (WINTRO), Invesmark (LECT), Invesmark

Digitizing of manual pattern making for grading

Computerized pattern Grading of Manual pattern

Use of plotter for pattern making


Cutting is the most important phase of product making. Cutting should be up to mark (as
according to pattern design) and as per customer demand.

It gives actual shape that what pattern makers do. Modern technology saves time with the
help of electric cutters but unfortunately our cutter masters are not very much keen on
using this technique.


Embroidery is a kind of stitching. It is a kind of punch stitching in leather jackets and
suits. This technique is used to attach names, logos and brand names.


Stitching is basically to unite different cutting pieces. It gives actual shape to the product
after pattern making and cutting process

Stitchers charge more then pattern and cutting master. In factories there is a specialized
chain system, one person making shoulder will make only shoulders. One person is busy
in back making side and one in front. But outsider stitcher did single handedly from
cutting to stitching stitcher make product up to standards as a demand from importer.

One-needle lock stitch machines are used for stitching

Open stitch (kinaray ki salai)

Double stitch (cheervy salai)

Raw edge (kachi lab)

Button Taking

It is done through manual machines and through button dies.

Line Checking

Line checking is to check whether all process of making product manufacturing up to
mark. If there is any hurdle, n he checks that process and removes that difficulty.

In Sialkot cluster there are many brands like juki, Mitsubishi machines are being used for
this process. These machines are available in market also second hand machines are
also available in market. Now china made juky machines available in market, at cost


Finishing is to give final touch to a product that as it is done on customer demand. Infect,
it is a kind of final checking. It sees that is there any fault if there is any fault it could be


In house and outsource manufacturer available in market there are 250 makers in Sialkot.
Marakiwall, pasrur road, S I E state. Most of the tanneries in ugoki road and capital road.
These manufacturers fulfill the demand of cluster.


Local makers are available in cluster they are mainly situated in pull Aik, defence road,
hajji Pura road, s I e area. They fulfill 60% of total demand of industry reqirements. Their
rates are bit high relatively compared with in house making.

Raw material Supplier

Raw material suppliers are present in the Sialkot cluster. Other raw material suppliers are
in Kasur, Lahore, and Karachi.

Machinery seller

Machinery sellers are present at market on defense road, shahab pura, Raja bazaar, China
made juky machines are also available in market. Second hand Japanese made machines
are available in market. Customer pay more focus on second hand Japanese machine
because it more durable then china made machine china made machine contain same
working ability and fine quality. Japanese second hand machine and china made new
machine has no such difference.


In Cluster nearly 200 makers who make products for firms they make quality products of
export quality most of firms make their from these makers. Especially small firms make
their from these makers.

Future Cluster Map


Raw material
Machinery Principal Firms
suppliers (130) Large (20-25) (PLGMEA) Importers /
SME’S (425) (PLGMEA) Buyers

Private BDS
(20) End Product



Week Relation …………………… (1,2,3)

Good _______________ (4,5)

Value chain of leather jacket (40ft cow leather)

Raw leather Pattern
Rs 3000 making
Rs. 20

Rs. 30
Rs. 15

Sewing Checking
Rs 250 Rs. 20

Packing Checking
Rs. 50 Rs. 20

Rs. 275/Kg

Fusing Rs 15
Solution (kiwi) Rs. 10
Thread (sunbeam) Rs. 4
Electricity Rs. 7
Button Rs. 10
Aster cutting Rs. 100
Logos Rs. 15 depend on order size
Rubber logo 12 inch Rs. 10
Printing ink Rs. 15
Embroidery 1000 stitches Rs. 5
Needle machine Rs. 20
Kilting Rs. 45
Poly-thane bag Rs. 5
Box width Rs. 10 for 1 jacket

Division of leather making jacket

Shoulder 12 ft

Front 10 ft

Back 10 ft

Lining 03 ft

Remaining leather use for lining and pockets

Weight of jackets

Cow made leather 2.5 kg

Sheep made leather 2.0 kg

Value chain of Motorbike suit

Raw leather Pattern Making
Rs. 6000 Rs. 20

Checking Cutting
Rs. 20 Rs. 50

Stitching Checking
Rs. 500 Rs. 15

Final Lining
Checking Rs. 30
Rs. 10

Rs. 50

Fusing Rs. 30

Slotion making Rs. 20

Electricity Rs. 15

Aster cutting Rs. 150

Freight charges Rs. 275

Hanger Rs. 5

Logos Rs. 15-25 (depend on order)

Embossing Rs. 5/1000 stitches

Qulting Rs. 90

Hanger Rs. 18

Poly thane Rs. 10

Nocks Ross logo Rs. 5

Printing ink Rs. 30

Protectors Rs. 120

Costing of zips can go up to above Rs. 1500 as special order

Weight of motorbike suit is 4.50-5 kg

Division of leather in motorbike suit

Shoulder 12 ft

Front 10 ft

Back 10 ft

Leather pant 35 ft

Maximum gage of motorbike suit is up to 1.6

Many firms have permanent employment system, they pay their employees six to eight
thousand rs on average, excluding overtime. Overtime is paid 1.5 times higher than the
normal wage rate. Some firms pay as per piece manufactured by the labour.

Marketing Department
Almost all the major activities like marketing, production, finance, administration

etc. are controlled through the partners. All the major decisions are taken by

management executives in weekly meetings and then communicate further to the


All the power is exercised in the head office because the Managing Partner and 2

partners sit over there. The marketing research unit works under the supervision of

Senior Export Executive and Partner of the Organization Mr. Azamatullah. He is

also the in charge of:

1: Marketing Department.

2: Export Department.

3: Quality Assurance Department


The task of marketing department IS to creating, promoting relations, delivering
goods & serving to the customers. This department is responsible to managing the
demand of products, increasing sales volume, collecting market information and

taking decisions about quality control. Senior export executive is the head of this

Export department is sub-section of marketing department. Basically in export
department and marketing department, some of the functions are intermingled,
which we cannot be separate to maintain the quality control and goodwill of the
firm. The export department functions are Correspondence with Customers,
Documentation, Rebate Claims, and Dealing with Cargos, Managing Schedules,
Dealing with Banks in export transactions and dealing with other export related
This department has also responsibility to forward orders and its instructions to
Production department for meet the customer requirements. Export is a very risky
business, when order is received then this department checks that how much risk is
involved in this order or how can we fulfill the entire requirements.

Number of Employees working in the Marketing Department.

Name Designation Qualification Experience
Mr.Azmattulah Senior Manager MBA 10 Years
Mr.Shafqat Ali Sales And BSC 6 Years
Irfan Ali Export manager BSC 5 Years
Adnan Saleem Assistant Manager M.A 3 Years

The main work of the marketing department is to control all the marketing
Activities like product planning, advertising and promotional campaigns, pricing,

Packaging & Forwarding. All the decisions regarding the above are taken in the Head
Office at Sialkot.
The Chief Export Executive manages to forward the goods through different
cargo agencies and also responsible how to save time regarding shipments.

Marketing Operation:
3 main persons of this Organization handle the marketing operation.

Chief Export Executive:

In the absence of Mr. Azamatullah, Mr. Jameel Ahmed handles Marketing & Export

Department and he is well talented and experienced person. All the major decision

related to Marketing department taken by the Senior Export Executive Mr. Jameel

Ahmed with the coordination of Managing Partner.

He also personally visits to customers and discuss for mutual interest. He is the one who

also participate in the Trade Fairs for getting more business.

Sales & Marketing Manager (Korea):

The Organization has also engaged a person in Korea who covers the Korea and

few countries near to Korea. Mr. Azamatullah Mostly lived in Korea therefore he has

been Engage in the Marketing Policy for their Own Business to insure the Customer

searching and their demands full fill as their satisfaction. Nat east lasso import the Fabric

like Woven, Knitted cotton.Mr Azamatullah also deal with the supplier about the terms in

Korea. Organization from the last two years and has a good grip due to Mr. Azamatullah

Korean & Japans languages.

Export & Marketing Manager (Pak):

The third one person Mr. Irfan related to marketing department is an Export Manager

who is working in the Main office for the betterment of business. His main job is to find

customers through Internet by using search engines and by sending mails. He is also

responsible for the export documentation, rebate claims, bank documentation and

sampling with the assistance of Mr. Shafkat ali how works as Marketing manager in

the absence of Mr. Azamatullah.

Marketing Strategy:
In concern with the sportswear, Organization is more willing to expand their
Business in Europe. On the other hand there are different market segmentations
Available in Europe as related to Sports Wears and Garments range which is
Shown in below said table.

High price luxury
Limited collections, Doice &
segment High fashionable
made Gabbana, Prada,
Collections. Exclusively
with special care; Georgio
designed materials and
sometimes handmade, Armani,

high quality materials,
Designer /brand name artworks Trend-setting
Market share 5
stands for exclusivity Donna Karan. in
and fashion
fashionable clothes

Large Variety of styles
Max Mare,
Collections are and
Upper middle produced Of materials. Styling
Hugo Boss,
price segment after presale; extra and
attention to fitting and Fitling are vitally

Accessories. '
Brand-name goods;
Market share 15 Strenesse, Marc Product in line with the
Percent cain largest fashion trends.
quality materials; broad
ranae in desion

Collections are
Middle price French Good fitting is important
segment Connection, In- Recognizable by brand-
after presale; good to
Medium quality
wear, Benetlon, name visible on outside

Trend-following or S. Oliver,
Market share 30
classical assortment; Esprit,
brand-name aoods Mexx

Produced in larger Private labels, Collections with a view
Low to middle
quantities to lower the like C&A, to
price segment
price; basic styles, less Promod, We, current fashions

Source: CBI market information database URL:

As per table we saw there is much segmentation available in the market
In which:
• First one is high price luxury segment, which have 5% share of the
Market. In this fermentation only big brands survive with superior quality
Products and they got extra profit margin from the buyers.
• Second is upper middle price segmentation which covers 15% share
Of the market business. In this segmentation there are also brands survive
Which have their own registered designs and products are
Also perfect according to requirements.
• Third segmentation available is middle price segmentation, which
Covers 30 % market share with B quality products of the different brands.
The sales volume is sufficient in this segmentation because the products
Are affordable for middle class buyers.
• Low to middle price segmentation covers the 40% share of the market.
In this segmentation different importers sell the product with their own private
Labels and names. In this segmentation the prices are low and affordable
For the customers and on the other hand most of the companies in Europe
Are dealing in these things with their own names.

Nat East Enterprises also try to focus their business upon this segment because the
buyers are more in this segment and quality required is in middle class range.
• Low or very low price segment covers 10% share of the market. In this
segment no brands survive with lower quality of products. The products are
of standard formats and no extra worries involve in this segmentation. But
quantities required are very cheap which helps only in improving turnover
instead of increasing profit margin.

• The Organization has more potential for improvement and business gain. But
due to more competitors within the countrywide market and from India,
Taiwan, china etc., the Organization is facing a swear competition and
because of this the export management is keenly in touch with their strategies.
• The management is always committed to attract the old and existing
customers. For this purpose it is offering 5% to 7% extra goods on each and
every order. It is also offering promotional items to retain the customer.
• The management is also committed and working to attract new customers
with competitive price offer strategy and new + innovative designs of
products. It is always committed to satisfy the customers through quality
improvement and for this purpose Organization adopts ISO Certification in
• The management ;s also working as a trader through which it can easy and
better facilitate their customers and also increase the annual turnover of the

Product Planning, Development & Management:
It is a reality that the overall Organization or marketing department of the

Organization is not seriously concerned with the new product planning or

development, which is not good for its future.

The management or marketing department is working to comply with the different

requirements of different customers but with existing products, designs available in

the market or some similar to the brands. The Organization also engaged venders to

comply with these different product orders, which is the cause of no more

improvement towards innovation.

Pricing Strategy:

As the Organization is export oriented and due to this it always considered about
competition within the market where it is going to export or offer prices.
In pricing strategy the Organization's first focus is upon:-
• To achieve a target return
• To maximize profit
• To increase sales volume
• To maintain and increase market share...
It also consider about market situation and country's economic situation. All the other
factors for pricing like different costs and profit margins will come later in its pricing
Near about 50% business of the Organization is on advance basis, which covers the
commercial risk and lot of problems to manage resources for orders and all of
This is due to good reputation of the Organization, which created creditability
All the buyers. 30% of the business in EU is on L.C. at sight or C.A.D. basis, which
is also very secure for the Organization and management to handle orders. Only
20% business of the total export is on 30 to 60 days credit basis.
As I observed by myself the executives always reduce and increase their different
markets or for different customers. Some times in few competitive products it also
offer profit margin from 7% to 40% after calculation of fixed & variable costs for
Prices lower than its cost for just to retain the customers.
That's why customers considered Nat East Enterprises as a trust worthy firm.
Distribution Strategy:

The opportunities for Nat east enterprises to chose its distribution channel depends
on external factors (demand and requirements of importers/buyers) and internal
factors. In Europe the main distribution channels are as under:

Source: CBI market information database URL:


By buying on his own account, the importer/wholesaler takes title to the goods and

is responsible for its further sale and distribution in-his country. He is familiar with

local markets and can supply considerable information and guidance to the exporter

in addition to the primary business of buying and sealing such as administration of

import/export procedures and holding of stock. The development of a successful

working relationship between exporting manufacturer in developing countries and

importing/wholesaler or importer can lead to a high level of co-operation with

regard to appropriate designs for the market, new trends, use of materials and

quality requirements.

Retail organizations:

Buyers at clothing multiples, Horne shopping companies and variety stores, which

have mainly or exclusively private labels in their assortment, divide their budgets

between the purchase of finished products via direct imports (sourcing ready-

made products) from low-wage countries and sourcing from own design. Home

shopping companies are keener than other retail distributors about reorder facility.

They want to start with small orders to test the market and make a firm, but not

final, bulk commitment a few months later. If an item sells like a hot cake, they

expect subsequent supply of maybe three folds

Agents are intermediaries between manufacturer and retailer, receiving a

commission from the former. Capital requirements are limited because this

cooperation is based upon commission. However, agents mainly work with brand

names and are therefore less interested for most exporters in developing countries.

As concern to Nat East Enterprises the management is adopting to find

Wholesalers and Retailer organization in their distribution strategy with the help

of their Sales & Marketing Manager Mr. Shafqat Ali.

Promotional Strategy

To promote the export of Organization products in market, Nat East Enterprises is
applying following tools: Trade Fairs Participation: This is by far the most important
promotion tool, as the Organization has the opportunity to present its products in
front of importers, agents, manufacturers and retailers. Organization representative
participates in ISPO, Euro-Bike, Intermit fairs in Germany & ECMA in Italy as an
exhibitor or visitor.
Organization brochures and Catalogues: Organization uses broachers and product
catalogues for providing relevant information to potential customers. Organization
sends by air and distributes freely printed brochures and catalogues in trade fairs to
potential customers.

Visit of different Buyers and firms

As personal contacts always work best in any sector, the Organization is investing
time and money to visit different buyers and firms. Representative spends additional
weeks after a trade fair to follow up on contacts and to make appointments with the
most promising trade partners.
Organization stationary:
In order to build the right image for Organization, the management uses printed
stationary in shape of order book, Letter pad, Fax message, Invoice and Packing

New Year & X-MAS Card:
Organization also sends New Year and Christmas card to customers for building
profitable business and personal relations.
This applies to the use of e-mail and website. Organization has 2 different websites:
Export department has engaged in sending e-mails to Potential Importers about
Organization and its products.
Sampling is a very important tool to increase sales of Sports Goods & Sports Wear.
Before placing the order, every customer wants to see original product and with
required logo so that samples are playing good role in sales promotion.
Organization send samples to customer free of cost through DHL, TCS or TNT

Human Resource department

Human resources are the people that work for an organization, and Human Resource
Management is concerned with how these people are managed. Nat east enterprises
Human Resource Management (HRM) has come to mean more than this because people
are different from different Location and the other resources that work for an
organization. People have thoughts and feelings, aspirations and needs.HRM has thus
come to refer to an approach, which takes into account both:

1. The needs of the organization
2. The needs of its people.

Human Resource Manager mainly Provide leadership and coordination of Organization
Human Resource functions. Develop and implement corporate Human Resource strategy
and programs including the

Primary Responsibilities

 Create Organization strategic recruitment and selection plan.
 Coordinate Organization equal opportunity programs to achieve diversity goals.
 Create Organization strategic training and organizational development plan to
meet personal, professional, and organizational needs of Organization employees.
 Oversee compensation programs to ensure regulatory compliance and competitive
salary levels.
 Oversee the design and development of compensation strategy and programs.
 Direct the administration of benefit programs to include: health, retirement, death,
disability, and unemployment.
 Evaluate and recommend improvements to benefit programs.
 Coordinate the administration and negotiation of union contracts.
 Develop and coordinate grievances and mediate workplace disputes.
 Evaluate procedures and technology solutions to improve human resources data
 Recommend and maintain an organizational structure and staffing levels to
accomplish Organization goals and objectives.
 Evaluate Organization culture and provide recommendations on changes to
accomplish Organization goals and objectives.
 Evaluate and recommend human resource outsourcing opportunities and identify
potential vendors.

In the Nat east enterprises Different individuals have their own needs and aspirations.
HRM therefore involves finding out about the needs and aspirations of individual
employees, through the appraisal process and then creating the opportunities within

the organization (e.g. through job enlargement) and outside the organization (e.g.
through taking up Training opportunities) for employees to improve themselves.

HRM therefore relates to every aspect of the way in which the organization interacts
with its people, e.g. by providing training and development opportunities, appraisal to
find out about individual needs, training and development needs analysis, etc.

HRM Department comprises of the HR Manger, Two Assistant Manger and a payroll
assistant. Mainly there are 5 people which deal with the HR department. Each person
performing their duty according to their responsibility.

HR Department run different programmed to trained the employee and for the new
worker which is helpful to retain the worker.

During the duration of my training following main functions are to be analyzed deeply
How they performed and managed and the HR Management.

Training and development needs analysis

An analysis of the opportunities and experiences that is required for individuals to train
and develop in order to meet organizational and personal objectives. A training and
development plan can run under the Hr manger which is assist by the assistant. Then
created set out how these needs can be addressed in practical steps.

In the Cutting Department new worker can’t manage their functions for that purpose the
four day programmed introduced by the Nat east enterprises to train the new worker. The
training and development programmed designed for technicians at the Organization.
Technicians are appraised by their line managers to identify their personal training and
development needs. They then work with a professional consultant on development

training activities as well as attending relevant courses either at the training centre or on
external courses.

Employer/Employee relations

Employer/employee relations refer to the communication that takes place between
representatives of employees and employers. Much of the employee relations involve
employees and employers working together. Indeed, part of the aim of the Sialkot Labour
association policy today is to create a system of shared responsibility of employers and
employees for working practices, conditions and other areas of working life. This policy
of shared responsibility is called co-determination.

Discussions between employers and employees typically cover the following areas:

• pay

• bonuses

• the work environment

• disputes

• work schedules

• grievances

• health and safety

• hours of work

• Production targets.

Successful employer/employee relations involve striking a balance of interests. From the
employer's point of view, industrial relations is about having the right to manage - the
ability to plan for the future so that a Nat east enterprises can continue success, to make
profits for its Partners and to keep its employees motivated. From the employee's point of
view, it is all about securing the best possible conditions and living standards for
High labour turnover

Where employees are not happy with working conditions this frequently leads to high
labour turnover, bad timekeeping, and high levels of absenteeism. It may also occur in the
form of slackness by individuals, poor working, and deliberate time wasting and similar
practices. Other evidence of discontent will be revealed in complaints, friction, ignoring
rules and apathy.

There are a number of forms of organized trade union action, including:

• withdrawal of goodwill

• a go slow

• working strictly to the rules set out in work rulebooks and sticking rigidly to only
doing tasks set out clearly in a job description

• refusing to work overtime

• Going on strike.

All of these actions are undesirable:

• they reduce Organization profitability, and its' ability to fulfill orders

• they harm employment prospects, and reduce wages of employees

• they lead to festering discontent

• They cause problems for customers and the economy as a whole.

Nat east enterprises accommodate other Healthy facility to manage theses discrepancies
which enhance the employee working condition. Thus it is very important to create
harmonious workplaces for the benefit of all concerned. The work of HR Department in
the enterprises is primarily concerned with outlining good practice and models of
harmonious working practice.

Structure of Finance Department
Finance department is containing 3 rooms. Finance manager’s Office is situated there
along with accounts office, 2 Assistant accountants, and 2 Clerk.

Departmental hierarchy





No of Employees

NatEast Enterprises Finance department composed of 6 employees are working on
permanent basis/status at the moment.

Finance and Accounting operation

In Accounts Office, Accounts manager, two Assistant accounts manager and 3 more
persons are there to handle the all the accounting process.
Tasks handled by accounts office are
• Daily Journal Vouchers
• Cash payment Vouchers
• Cash Receipt Vouchers
• Bank Payment Vouchers
• Bank Receipt Vouchers
• Posting the vouchers in work sheet (Registers of accounts).
• Taking Vouchers from Sales and Purchase office and posting them on excel work
sheet Accounts.
• Generating Report of Cash flow, Income statement and Balance sheet.

Finance Functions

• Budget preparation
• Budget administration

• Cost allocation
• Accounts payable
• Contract administration
• Billing
• General accounting records
• Fixed assets records
• Custody of funds
• Investments
• Debt administration

During my internship period following activity will be performed under the instruction of
the senior.
Daily Journal Vouchers

I learned here how to fill the Daily voucher as in first we have to recognize the type of
transaction. Lets say 1 of our debtor asked to take money from 1 of our creditor and our
creditor is willing on this then we are going to pass a journal entry in which we will debit
our creditor and credit our debtor so the entry will be



For entering this transaction we first write the date at the top right corner of the voucher.
Then we write the names of creditor debtor in particular column we have to write the
name of debtor which is being credited with a bit space as mentioned above. After that
we write the amount of money in specific columns then at the end of these columns we
write the total amount of money being transacted in this transaction. If there are more
then 2 accounts involved then the total amount will be different from at least 1 individual
account. At the end we write the money in words and signature there.

Cash Payment Vouchers

Cash payment voucher is prepared for keeping record of Cash’s payment which includes
payment to creditors and payment for daily cash expenses. In this kind of vouchers only
Cash account is credited and other accounts like daily expenses accounts and creditors’
accounts are debited. Daily expense accounts consists a lot of expense which are used in
Organization, it depends on type of Organization and resources used in Organization.
Such as if we are giving cash for stationary or cash for Mobil oil for Vehicle used for
transport of employees.

For writing this kind of voucher first and important thing is to recognize the type of
expense such as to which account a particular expense belongs say. For example if there
is a bill of fuel then we have to recognize where is it used, there is 2 usages of fuel one
for vehicle for transport of employees and other is used for generator, so we have to
check where it is used and then particular account should be debited.

Admin & selling Exp -------xxxxx

Creditor’s name------xxxxx


Here cash will be sum of both the Admin & Selling expense and creditor. After filling the
voucher the entire supporting are attached along with voucher.

Cash Receipt Vouchers

Cash Receipt voucher keeps record of all the payments received by any source of income.
It might be against advance given to employees or cash received from debtors. In this
kind of vouchers cash is debited and debtor or other accounts against which cash is being
received is credited. For example if we received cash from our debtor then the entry will

Cash ----------- xxxxx
After filling the date we write the cash a/c and debtor in particular and their amount in
specific columns, then total amount at the end and amount in words. A cash receipt slip is
also filled by accountant whose one copy is given to debtors and other copy is attached
with the voucher.

Bank Receipt Vouchers

Banking related issue is also handled by Accounts office. Nat East Enterprises is doing
business with 2 bank located in Sialkot. Standard Chartered Bank and Muslim
Commercial Bank. When payment is received by any debtor or Organization it submits
some money in bank account then Bank Receipt Voucher is filled to keep the information
about the bank account and transaction. In this case Bank account is debited and other
account will be credited which might be debtor or cash.

Bank Name/Account--------xxxx

Bank Payment Vouchers

Banking related issue is also handled by Accounts office. When payment is made by bank
to some particular account such as creditors or when Organization withdraws payment for
office used then Bank Payment Voucher is filled. In Bank Payment Voucher Bank is
always credited against some particular account which might be a creditor or drawing for
office or owners’ personal drawing. In this case the transaction being posted in Voucher
will be

Drawing ---------xxxx
Bank Name/Account--------xxxx

Posting the vouchers

After filling the vouchers these are checked by accountant and the manager then these are
these are given to subordinate for posting one person post them on hard copy and other
one on computer. Cash payment voucher are first posted on Cash book which is daily
maintained and shows cash flow of NatEast Enterprises, then these are posted on ledger.
In first we write the date on cash book and then we write Cash in hand on the left side of
cash book then we write amount in particular column ahead of description column.
Then we write the cash Receipt voucher’s Voucher no. at the left hand of page then
description such as against which account cash has been received then after write the
amount in amount column we write the total amount of cash in last column. After that we
write the total amount at the bottom on the page.
Then we go to right hand page where we post all the cash payments made. We have to
keep track of voucher number so we write the first voucher first after sorting the entire
cash payment voucher. We write the voucher number in first then description of voucher
in which we write the all the account names against which cash has been paid then we
write the amount in the right column. After that total cash payment is written at the right
most columns.
At the end we write the cash in hand which is subtraction of total cash amount at the left
side and all the expenses made to date. For convenience we write the Total amount at the
bottom of right page then we subtract the expenses and write it on the row before the total
Then Cash payment and Cash Receipt voucher are posted in general ledger. I first find the
account’s page from index of accounts then open that page and write the voucher number
and description, in description if there is any supporting with voucher then particular

reason or some other detail from supporting is written on description cell then amount is
written in right side.
Bank book is also prepared in the same way we write the bank payment and bank receipt
voucher number then we write the cheque number and the name of person to whom or by
whom the amount is being given or received. Then we write the particular amount in
Debit or Credit side. If we are receiving money then we write it in Debit column and if
we are Giving or drawing money then we write in credit column. At the end of we write
the total amount which is always Debit amount and can’t be credit.
When I finished my posting in general ledger, cash and bank book I was sent on
computer to post the vouchers on computer. It was much easier then posting in hard copy.
There were different links for pages where we can post all the entries. For example for
posting cash voucher there was different link which opens a new window and we write
the voucher number and description and amount. Not like the paper cash book there was
only one column for amount which was for cash payment or cash Receipt, it depends on
the page opened. And all the same things happen with other vouchers, bank payment and
bank receipt had different links.
I was told about the software that it safes all the data in MDB format which is used for
Microsoft access database and it can be easily converted to excel format.
It was a bit difficult for me to use Microsoft access database and retrieve data from there
and convert them into excel format.
After posting the vouchers it was checked by accountant either it is correctly posted or

Sales and Purchase Vouchers

Sales and Purchase Vouchers keep information about the transactions of Sale of products
and Purchase of goods or raw material, which might be against cash or credit. Sales and
Purchase departments fills and post these vouchers on computer which directly saves in
Organization’s main computer where database is located. Then these vouchers are sent to
accounts office to post them on hard paper, general ledger. Posting the voucher of sales

and purchase is same as above mentioned vouchers. Their voucher no. and description
then amount and total amount is posted in general ledger. We have to note their credit and
debit balance either an account is being debited or credited.
Taking Vouchers from Sales and Purchase office and posting them on hard copy Registers
of Accounts. Generating Report of Cash flow, Income statement and Balance sheet.

Sales Office

Sales office takes the Order from Customers and inquires about the availability of the
product. Store In charge gives them the quantity available of a particular product. Then
Sales department send the invoice to customer by fax or mail. Before the departure of
explosives Van Gate keeper issue a Road Permit and Outward Gate pass to van driver. On
copy of Road Permit and outward gate pass is given to driver and 2nd copy is sent to sales
office and one is kept by gate keeper.
Then sales office prepares the sales voucher. After filling the voucher that is posted in
computer which is stored in main computer.

Sales Voucher

Sales Office take the Road Permit and Gate outward pass from Gate In charge. If both
tally with the information of the order issued to store department then sales voucher is
prepared. We write the date then description of the transaction and amount in Debit or
Credit column the total amount and amount in words.

Purchase Office

Purchase officer keeps track of purchase of inventory for the Organization. It takes
information about the requirement of the production by store in charge then inquires
about the rates of inventory form our sellers and purchase goods by issuing purchase
order. When goods are reached at factory then first their Gate inward are issued by Gate
keepers. When these goods are reached to store then store in charge issue a Goods

Receipt Note. One copy of all the things GRN, Inward and Purchase Order and with any
supporting or bills provided by seller is sent to Purchase officer then they fill the voucher
and post them into computer.

Purchase Voucher

Filling the purchase voucher is not much different then filling and posting sales voucher.
In first we check all the supporting and tally all the invoices then we fill the voucher and
debit the goods and credit our seller.

Function of Finance Department

Accounting System of the Organization

NatEast Enterprises is following the Double Entry system for accounting. Double entry
system help full for accounts department because they have dual affect and the error can
be tracked easily. Convenience and easiness for the Accounts department is keeping
record of their accounts both manually on Hard copies like Voucher, ledger, and control
accounts in the register and on soft copy on computer. Accounts department also include
the record of following department like Debtors, creditors, Sales and purchase fill the
voucher and keep them in files after checking by authorized person then they submit the
transactions on computer which is saved into their main server. For 1 or 2 days Sales and
purchase department sends their voucher to Accounting department to keep their hard
copy registers up to date so that manual accounting system should be maintained.
Nat east Enterprises using the periodic inventory system. They are annually mange their
inventory account. The depreciation method is on the straight line bases. The Mostly
Asset relates to short term basis and their market value can be easily availing. Like
stitching machinery, leather cutting equipment.
Nat east has a Limited network of computers which are not linked to outer world
(Internet). Network of computers are spread in the office department which are not linked

to the other factory department. All the IT related issues are also handled by IT
Department in the main office department.

Finance system of the organization

Finance department in the NatEast is done their function on the limited basis because the
finance matter are mostly discuss and decided by the three partners and then given to the
accounts manager for the approval and adjustment. Nat east enterprises are partnership
firm therefore the finance department taken keen interest about the finance. Therefore
each and every rupee can be reported to the three partners. Finance department mostly
check the customer payment period which authenticate their behavior for the future
dealing in the current orders.
The Debtor management is done through the finance because the bettor delay occur and
cash utilization is decreased which disturb the over all operating cycle period.
Creditor confidence hold is also the responsibility of this department. Maximize the
creditor period to utilize the cash but also ensure not to loose the supplier.
Other funding is also managed under this department like before issuing the payment
cheque verification and the person identity can be enter in the data base.
Day to day expenditure also managed through this department. Due to the growing nature
NatEast also need to some rebursment procedure by the excusive usage of fund among
the partners.
All this function managed by IT department. It department is not too vast but growing as
business growth. They are using a custom build accounting software which is used to
record the transactions and they use MS Excel for report generation.
Each transaction is authorized by head accountant and manager.
Another challenge of creating and maintaining useful financial organizing systems knows
which papers and files to keep and which to toss. Though there's no master list of records
retention guidelines that will work for everyone. NatEast Enterprises have established
guidelines for what financial papers to keep and how long to keep them and how to sort
they and they keep the supporting of vouchers and other papers for long term and other

are shredded immediately. Neatest store things like tax returns in a sturdy file box
separate from other current files with a label on it. It leaves them with more room to work
with and makes it easier to find what they need without having to wade through papers
from past years.

Use of electronic data in decision making

Electronic data play important role in the decision making of NatEast Enterprises. Data
can be gathered quickly for the management and transformed into information as they
required. Data files can be created which separate the manual work time which the
accountant utilize to manage other work.

Spreadsheet work can be done in the NatEast which gives a good and quick presentation
about the reporting and monthly budgeting for the management.

During my work I attend to how the debtors can be processed by the Using Information
system and their Balance. first of all their due balance can be verified easily and quickly
by their unique id and Customer name then the request for the material issued to the
management gives exact values and figures which top level management required.
Because of electronic data they came across to know those minute things which impact a
lot on final place. Through this they can measure exact bad Debts Figure and help out to
mange the debtor accounts.

Assets and liabilities up to a maximum and minimum level can be managed through it.
Electronic data can be interconnected in the finance department therefore the Cost
Department also managed under same department.

The Cost department related function like

• Cost of material used in production
• Value of raw material in inventory

• valuation of work in progress and finished goods
• Cost of labor
• Cost of other expenses in the period
• Labor in and out
• Profitability of each product

All theses function required quick assessment which enhances the department function
and employee satisfy their worth in the office time and stress out from the overtime
burden. From where they can decide which should be kept and which is not necessary.
Through this top level management is able to decide which product should be taken into
course for further level or which should stop. Electronic data make management able to
take decision at any point of time.

After making Reports by accountant using MS Excel these are sent to Finance manager
one hard copy and he can attain softcopy any time via wired network.

Mobilization of funds

NatEast Enterprises are partnership firm therefore the mobilization of fund is limited due
to source and generation of fund. There are a number of ways of raising finance for a
business. The type of finance chosen depends on the nature of the business. Large
organizations are able to use a wider variety of finance sources than are smaller ones.
Savings are an obvious way of putting money into a business. NatEast enterprises can
also borrow from families and friends. In contrast, companies raise finance by Retaining
profit in the Organization.

NatEast partner are joint family therefore their profit share are reinvest in the
organization. That is major utilization of profit in the bossiness.
NatEast gain extra finance for business, take out a loan from a bank or other financial
institution. The lender of money (Bank) needs to know all the business opportunities and
risks involved and will therefore want to see a detailed business plan. Therefore Nat east
main utilization of fund is in the production center for the short term basis due to nature
of machinery. Funds cab generates many ways but effective use is the best decision for
the finance manager.
Funds can be reinvesting in the production department which can increase the production.
Technology is changing now day by day therefore new machinery is necessity for the
production department.
Partners now days deciding to stop outsource some of its production material like
skinning of leather, Leather tendry, stitching material. They are thinking to incorporate
their own plant to produce cost effective and quality material.
Training and retaining of employee need also some fund. Due to this many worker can
attain set target of production and their wages can be decrease due to this descripencies.
Management decide to invest in this section also to retain existing employee an appoint
the new with confidence.
Marketing department also need some fund therefore the manager demand for it. In the
last period of my internship Mr. Azamatullah came from Korea and decided to place their
own show room in the Korean market.
Some of fund can be utilize for the welfare of the worker, by the medical allowance,
worker children education expense.

Generation of funds

Sources of finance are where finance comes from.

• Bank loans

• Owner's (share) capital

• Trade credit.

External: Overdraft, leasing, hire purchase, loans, and mortgages.

Sources of funds

The major source of finance is the buyers or customer Domestic and international. Funds
can be generate and utilized again for the customer satisfaction in the shape of quality

Allocation of funds

AOC’s funds are allocated to the following departments.

Production & Operations
Human Resource

The Organization major focus is on short term financing. Major allocations of funds are
on these divisions.

Critical Analysis
My Mostly Work the Nat east enterprises related to the financial department and also

relate to the some extent to production because the finance department and production

department are too relating at some extent then other department. Therefore critical

analysis and financial statement analysis are measured accordingly.

Note: Private Limited companies is limited to publish their financial statement on publish

and their shares are not permissible to trade in the stock market. So I skip my investment

ratios and market trend of their capital analysis as Virtual University mention in the given


Relate the theoretical concepts with my practical experience during my internship with

the finance Department.

Financial Analysis

Financial Analysis is a process which involves reclassification and summarization of
information through the establishment of ratios and trends. NatEast Enterprises Balance
sheet for the year 2007 and 2008, and Income statement for 2007 and 2008 is given at the

As per instruction of VU staff, here I calculate ratio of NatEast enterprises.

NatEast Enterprises Financial statement are Composed in it. Also the two year data which

are used for the analysis ration described below.


2008 2007

Sales 66,801,816 58,176,596
Cost of sales 39,810,912 32,119,221
GROSS PROFIT 26,990,904 26,057,375
Operating expenses 6,128,502 7,676,036
OPERATING PROFIT FOR THE YEAR 20,862,402 18,381,339
Non operating expenses 707,946 650,653
Provision for taxation 153,127 483,583
I) Gross profit margin 40.40% 44.79%
II) Operating profit margin 31.23% 31.60%
III) Net profit margin 30.39% 29.64%
IV) Fixed Asset turnover ratio 1.54 times 1.38 times
V) Return on investment 0.45 times 0.38 times
VI) Return on Equity 0.29 times 0.30 times

Balance Sheet
For the Year Ended Nov 30,2008,2007

% Notes 2008 2007
Equity and Liabilities Rupees Rupees

Mr.Shakeel ahmed 18,011,586 18,011,586
Add Net Profit 40 62 10,348,262
Less Drawing 85 855,685
63 22,330,031

Mr.Azmatullah 89 13,508,689
Add Net profit 30 71 5,174,130
Less Drawing 45 769,745
15 17,913,074

Mr.Jameel ahmed 89 13,508,689
Add Net profit 30 71 5,174,130
Less Drawing 23 589,623
37 18,093,196

15 58,336,301

Long Term debt
Liability against Asset subject to Finance
Lease 3 12,722,5 13,725,526


Current Liabilities
Short term running finance 2 000 6,455,000
Creditor 3 25 1,106,125
1,0 2,519,51
14,418 8
Accrued and other liabilities 4
543 10,080,643

84 82,142,470


Tangible Fixed asset

Property Plant and Equipment 5 35,091,143 34,000,143
Loose Tool 5 78 8,068,978
43,160,121 42,069,121
Non Current asset
Long term security deposit 13,867,988 10,067,895

Current Asset

Stock in trade 6 8,907,877 6,907,877
General reserve Fund 7,458,796 7,761,587
Security deposit 6,580,531 4,008,837
Trade debtors 8,068,978 7,065,678
Advance receivable and prepayment 7 5,292,858 3,202,758
Cash and bank balance 8 1,660,717 1,058,717
66 30,005,454

94,997,8 82,

84 142,470

Finance manager Director

A) Current ratio: Current Asset/Current liabilities 3:1 2.8 : 1
B) Acid test ratio: Quick Asset/Current liabilities 1.8 : 1 1.9 : 1
C) Cash ratio: Cash Equivalent/Current liabilities 0.1 times 0.9 times
D) Receivable Turnover period: Average
debtors/Credit sales/ 365 44 days 41 days
E) Creditors Turnover period: Average
Creditors/Credit purchase/ 365 20 days 28 days
F) Inventory Turnover period: Average
inventory/Cost of sales x 365 158 days 134 days
G)Operating cycle 182 days 147 days
H) Working capital Turnover ratio: Sales/Working
Capital 2.6 times 2.9 times

Fixed asset ratio: Net fixed Asset/Long term fund 3.39 times 3.06 times
Proprietor ratio: proprietor fund/Total asset 0.47 times 0.78 times
Debts to net worth: Long term debt/Partner fund 0.61 times 0.76 times

FOR THE YEAR ENDED NOV 30, 2008,2007

2008 2007


Sales during the period 66,801,816 58,176,596

Less: Variable cost -Production (note 1) 39,810,912 32,119,221

Gross Contribution 26,990,904 26,057,375

Less: Other variable cost (note 2) 4,128,50 70,76,036


Net Contribution 22,862,402 18,981,339
Less: Fixed cost (note 3) 3 17,34,236

Net Profit before taxation 23,001,329 17,247,103

Contribution/sales Ratio in (%) 34.22% 32.62%

Break Even Sales:

Fixed cost divided by c/v ratio 88,79,804 53,164,80
Margin of Safety

Total sales minus Break even sales 57,922,011 52,860,115

Percentage of Variable cost to Sales 66.18% 67.36%

Percentage of Fixed cost to Sales 3.22% 2.98%

Net Profit Margin 30.06% 29.66%

NATEAST ENTERPRISES %age to 30-09-08 %age to 30-09-07
FOR THE YEAR ENDED NOV 30 2008,2007 sales (RUPEES) sales (RUPEES)

VARIABLE COST -Production cost:

Material consumed (note 1.1) 31.04% 20,734,075 35.25% 10,358,844

Processing Charges 2.56% 1,019,159 1.82% 586,175

Manufacturing charges 13.0% 5,175,418 8.43% 2,709,256

Power and fuel 10.1% 4,020,902 8% 2,569,537

Consumable tools 3.30% 1,313,760 1.70% 546,026
60.0% 12 55.20% 32,119,221

1.1) Material Consumed:

Opening stock 10,358,844 10,004,581

Add: Purchases during the year 19,273,118 14,284,706

29,641,962 24,289,287
Less: Closing stock 8,907,887 13,930,443

20,734,075 10,358,844


Freight and forwarding 2.0% 2,738,874 7.07% 500,276

Packing expenses 1.49% 1,128,951 2.03% 143,644

Insurance 0.25% 239,819 0.31% 21,936

Advertisement and Agency commission 0.10% 72,814 0.14% 9,906

Free samples and postage 0.51% 480,305 1.07% 75,713

Foreign guests entertainment 0.19% 613,909 0.14% 9,906

Foreign tour 0.59% 507,026 1% 70,760

Export development surcharge 0.69% 466,945 0.24% 16,982

Cartage 0.36% 400,142 0.16% 11,321
6.18% 502 12.16% 70,76,036

NATEAST ENTERPRISES. %age to %age to
(ON THE BASIS OF TOTAL FIXED COST) fix. 30-09-08 fix. 30-09-07
FOR THE YEAR ENDED NOV 30 2008,2007 cost (RUPEES) cost (RUPEES)


Staff salaries and benefits 31.0% 886,933 25.96% 450,208

Repair and maintenance 7.0% 200,275 8.49% 147,237

Charity and donations 5.0% 142,054 9.60% 166,487

Vehicle running and maintenance 2.0% 71,813 7.28% 126,252
Printing and stationery 1.5% 2 1.00% 17,342
Legal and professional charges 2.81% 6 0.52% 9,018

Telephone, fax and internet 2.10% 60,083 2.29% 39,714

Electricity/ Sui gas bills 12.50% 357,634 18.91% 327,944
Fee and subscription 2.84% 9 1.38% 23,932
Newspapers and periodicals 1.22% 20 2% 34,685
Postage, telegram and courier 5.52% 46 6.58% 114,199
ISO certification expenses 2.51% 7 2.41% 41,882
Miscellaneous expenses 1.16% 3 1.11% 19,337

Depreciation 12.84% 367,361 12.65% 219,381

100% 2,861,073 100% 17,34,236



Ratio Formula Year 2008 Year 2007
Gross Gross profit/Net 26,99,904/66,801,816x100 26,057,375/58,176,596
profit sale =40.40% x100
margin =44.79%
Operating Operating 20,862,402/66,801,816x100 18,381,339/58,176,596
profit profit/Net sale =31.23% x100

margin =31.60%
Net profit Net profit/Net 20,307,583/66,801,816x100 17,247,103/58,176,596
margin sales =30.39% x100
Sale to Sale/Fixed Asset 66,801,816/43,160,121 58,176,596/42,069,121
Fixed =1.54 =1.38
Return on Profit/Investment 20,307,583/18,011,586+18,011,586 17,247,103/45,028,964
investment +18,011,586 =0.38
Return on Net income/Equity 20,307,583/69,804,815 17,247,103/58,336,301
Equity =0.29 =0.30
Current Current
ratio Asset/Current 37,696,775/12,470,453 30,005,454/10,080,643
Liabilities =3 : 1 =2.8 : 1
Acid Test Quick Asset(C.A-
Ratio Inventory- 37,696,775-8,907,887- 30,005,454-6,907,877-
Prepaid)/Current 5,292,858/12,470,453 3,202,758/10,080,643
Liabilities =1.8 : 1 =1.9 : 1
Cash ratio Cash
Equivalent/Current 1,660,717/12,470,453
liabilities 1,058,717/10,080,643
=0.1 times =0.9 times
Debtors Average
turnover debtors/Credit 8,068,978/66,801,816/365 7,065,678/58,176,596/365
Period sales/ 365 =44 days =41 days
Creditors Average
Turnover Creditors/Credit 1,106,125/19,273,118/368 1,106,125/14,284,706/368
Period purchase/ 365 =20 days =28 days
Inventory Average 10,358,844+8,907,887/2 10,004,581+13,930,444/2
Turnover inventory/Cost of /39,810,912/365 /32,119,221/365
Period sales/365 =158 days =134 days
Operating Debtor days+
Cycle Inventory days- 44+158-20 41+134-28
Creditor days =182 days =147 days
Working Current Asset- 37,696,775-12,470,453 30,005,454-10,080,643
Capital Current Liabilities =25,226,322 =19,924,811
Working Sales/Working 66,801,816/25,226,322 58,176,596/19,924,811
Capital Capital =2.6 times =2.9 times
Fixed Net fixed
Asset ratio Asset/Long term 43,160,121/12,772,526 42,069,121/13,725,526
fund =3.39 times =3.06 times

Proprietor proprietor 18,011,586+13,508,689+13,508,689 18,011,586+13,508,689+
Ratio fund/Total asset /94,997,887 13,508,689/82,142,470
= 0.47 times =0.78 times

Debt to Long term 12,722,256/18,011,586+ 13,725,256/18,011,586+
Net Worth debt/Partner fund 13,508,689+13,508,689 13,508,689+13,508,689
=0.61 times =0.76 times


Gross profit Margin
Gross profit is an Organization’s residual profit after selling a product or service and
deducting the cost associated with its production and sale. In 2007 its 44.79 and in 2008
its 40.40.Its decreasing which occur due to its purchasing cost and some production
relating expense which increase in the current year.
Operating Profit margin
Its tell us the operating expense utilization how they contribute in the each dollar of sales
to earn the profit. Nat east OP margin in year 2007 31.60 is and in Year 2008 31.23.There
are not much difference which affect the ratio. Therefore the utilization in both years of
operating expense is same.
Net profit margin
This ratio tells the earning at each dollar of sales by the Organization. NatEast NP Margin
in 2007 is 29.64 and in 2008 its 30.39.ration is increasing but not effective as they need.
Organization needs to decrease the expense or increase the sales or by decrease the sale
price per unit to increase the sale.
Sale to fixed Asset
Its tell us the investment done in the asset is efficient to product goods and the asset can
take effective part in the production of sale. NatEast sale to fixed asset ratio in 2007 1.38
and 2008 1.54.The ratio increasing its means the asset are effectively contribute their
investment in the production of unit.

Return on investment
Performance measurement to tell us the effective use of investment by the Organization.
NatEast ROI in the year 2007 0.38 and in 2008 its 0.45.ROi is increasing which create
the investment efficient.
Return on Equity
ROE of NatEast comprises of Partners fund which are invested in the shape of retained
profit and loans. The ratio in 20070.30 and in 2008 0.29.The ratio can’t create any
difference because the fund or partners capital same in the both year. Profit is not also to
fluctuate as much.
Current ratio
The ratio tells us how many companies possess current asset to pay the current liabilities.
the considerable ratio is2:1.Nateast Current ratio in 2007 and in 2008 which is
considerable good because they have 2 rupee to pay for each 1 rupee liability.
Acid test ratio
Acid test ratio tells the most liquid asset which is easily convertible into cash and paid the
current liabilities. In the year 2007 NatEast Acid test ratio is 1.8:1 and in the year 2008 its
1.9:1.its means the Organization may increase the inventory or prepaid which possible to
decrease the Quick asset.
Cash ratio
Cash ratio tells us how much you have cash in hand including bank which is most fastest
easy to paid the current liability.2007 ratio is 0.1 times and 2008 0.9 times.
Debtor turnover period
Debtor days tell us the receivable period .the customer paid their bills in how much days.
In 2007 41 days its and the year 2008 44 days.
Creditor turnover period
Tells us to pay the creditor during the credit period. In the year 2007 its 28 days and 2008
its 20 days which is decreased due to this the cash utility is also decrease.
Inventory turnover period

A ratio showing how many times a Organization’s inventory is sold and replaced over a
In year 2007 its 134 days its mean 2.72 times in a year 2008 154 means 1.9 times a day
this period relate too much time to convert the material because the large unit production
on the Bulk quantity.
Operating Cycle
Operating cycle defined the period to convert the raw material into finished goods
available for sales. In the year 2007 the OP period is 147 days and in the year 2008 158
Working Capital
Working capital tells us the Organization how much current asset have to pay the current
liability. The showed the efficiency of the Organization. In the year 2007 19,924,811 is
and in the year 2008 25,226,322.
Working capital Turnover
A measurement comparing the depletion of working capital to the generation of sales
over a given period. This provides some useful information as to how effectively an
Organization is using its working capital to generate sales. In the year 2007 2.9 times,
2008 is 2.6 times.
Fixed asset turnover
A financial ratio of net sales to fixed assets. The fixed-asset turnover ratio measures an
Organization's ability to generate net sales from fixed-asset investments - specifically
property, plant and equipment (PP&E) - net of depreciation. A higher fixed-asset turnover
ratio shows that the Organization has been more effective in using the investment in fixed
assets to generate revenues. In the year 2007 3.06 the ratio is and in the year 2008 the
ratio is3.39.
Proprietor ratio
Shows the partners or director contribution in the organization. The ratio is 2007 0.78
times and 2008 0.47 times.
Debt to net worth

Organization to pay its debt by utilizing its total worth in the organization. The ratio is
2007 0.76 times, 2008 0.61 times.


Accounts Receivable: A short-term asset, usually representing a credit for a completed


Cash: Money on hand in checking, savings or redeemable certificate accounts.

Current Assets: The sum of a firm's cash, accounts receivable, inventory, prepaid

expenses and marketable securities which can be converted to cash within a single

operating cycle.

Current Liabilities: Measurable debt owed within one year, including accounts payable,

accrued liabilities, taxes due and short-term notes due.

Inventory: The stockpile of unsold products.

Long Term Debt: Liabilities due in more than one year.

Cost of Sales: COS includes the purchase of raw materials and manufacturing finished

products. For non-manufacturing classifications, Cost of Sales includes providing the

services the entity sells. Other costs are included in the cost of sales to the extent that they

are involved in bringing goods to their location and condition ready to be sold. Non-

production overheads such as development costs may be attributable to the cost of goods

sold Costs of bring electricity to the point of transmission, or administrative screening,

appointment and delivery of services to patients (including supervision), could be

included in COS for electric utilities or medical offices respectively. The costs of services

provided will consist primarily of personnel directly engaged in providing the service,

including supervisory personnel and attributable overhead.

Net and Gross Profit: Gross Profit is sales minus the cost of the product or service. Net

Profit reduces the Gross Profit with selling and general & administrative expenses

(including depreciation), miscellaneous other income and expenses, such as interest

expense and taxes.

Labor Costs: While labor expenses are most explicitly reflected in the Payroll expense

line item, additional costs may be included in Other SG&A, Cost of Sales, or Net profit

categories. These may include overhead, supervisory, administrative and contract wages

and salary, as well as owner profit taken as salary or wages. The spread of these costs

varies from industry to industry. . In the Startup-Sole Proprietorship Cash Flow series, the

labor portion of Cost of Sales is broken out as a percentage of total sales.

Net Working Capital: Current assets minus current liabilities.

Net Worth: Current assets plus fixed assets minus current and long-term liabilities.

Sales: Annual volume of sales.

Total Assets: The sum of current assets and fixed assets such as plant and equipment.

Total Liabilities: Current liabilities plus long term liabilities such as notes and mortgages

due over more than one year.

SWOT Analysis of the Nat East Enterprises


 Strong business background

 Experienced labour

 Competing international challenges in limited recourses

 Direct link with importers

 Dry port and airline cargo services available

 Quality leather producer

 Doing marketing their own.

 Produce short and big orders

 Marketing through IT (cd,s web sites)


 Unskilled labour

 Hesitate to get bring new technology

 No R&D at any level.

 Not enough chemical industry to fulfill local requirements

 Not healthy environment for employees.

 Shortage of labour

 No branding

 Shortage of Raw Material &accessories.

 No quality industry of accessories.

 Most of Entrepreneurs are un educated

 Trust level is very low among each other.

 Negative price coating to importer

 Not much opportunities for new exporters


 Business development services by TDAP, SMEDA

 Association office present in cluster

 By strengthen the capacity of institutions VTI (TEVTA)

 Can produce skilled labour in good number

 Low rate financing can built the capacity of Production

 Enter new markets

 Attend trade fairs with the help of (TDAP)

 Get help from SMEDA to built their strategy for establish their


 Worst law and order situation is Pakistan

 Old methods of production will cause lot of damage in future

 Rates of interest are increasing by banks. Globalization

 Importers moving to other countries because they are getting cheaper rates than

 In the scenario of WTO regime, Pakistani Exporters are also required to go for the
compliance of the issue regarding Environment standards, quality control, and
quality valuation.

Conclusion & recommendations
NatEast enterprises working well in the Sialkot business sector but due to technology
advancement and quality product create massive competition among the Organization.
NatEast needs some forward step which put him toward the top manufacturer
organization in the business sector. Therefore they need to take some necessary steps in
every department which are generally recognized during my internship period.
In the production department their basic need to get better access to Raw material
Markets by organizing better local marketing policies. Trade fairs and better
advertisement are published in the local as well nation magazine try to achieve the
auctions which are stated in the magazine for the best interest of the Organization.

To retain the labour its massive step if the Nat east want to growth because the Sialkot
area have talented and hardworking Labour which are available at cheap and timely
pattern. Therefore give incentive and bonuses to their labour and also time relaxation
because during the Power load shedding worker need some mind healthy activity which
are motivate them.

Electricity is the major problem now theses days which are addressed almost every
sector. To remove this, capitalize their fund in the form of Heavy power Generator not to
get access of power at short term basis.

International market to be analyzed deeply through international magazine which are not
monitored marketing department. Better awareness can be get through trade magazines
and association and also strengthen the association.

Make a research and development department for the current product and future product
because grip the market done through future product orientation for that purpose
sampling department can research in the current product and introduce new changes in
the current as well new product.
Making better links between cluster and Training facilities for workers financed partly by
the Sialkot exporters and the government for a more skilled supply of labor in the that
To bring better innovation techniques through research and development. Arrange
seminars of cost reduction and production productivity courses like (NPO)
Making networks combine them in joint purchases, exchange of labor.

Reference & Source




CPC: Cleaner production center
PLGMEA: Pakistan Leather Manufacturing and Exporters Association
PSIC: Punjab Small Industries Corporation.
SCCI: Sialkot Chamber of Commerce & Industry
SME: Small and Medium Enterprises
SMEDA: Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority
TDAP: Trade development authority of Pakistan
TEVTA: Technical Education & vocational training authority
UNIDO: United Nation Industrial Development Organization
VTI: Vocational Training Institute

Diary Sheet for the month of April 2009

Name of student: Yaseen Ahmad Virtual university Reg No: Mc070400494 Training Organization: NatEast

Brief description of work analysis of work experience (in hour)
PERIOD (Highlight new skills and HR MD POM FD IT ADM

10.03.2009 Performed the Training in the NatEast
enterprises. Worked on various Department
to of organization including Human resource
01.05.2009 department, production department,
Marketing department, Finance department


Legend : HR = Human Resource
MD=Marketing Department
POM = production operation
FD=Finance department ___________________ ___________________
ADM=Administration department Signature of Student Signature of Supervisor
(Name: )