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Essential Questions
Enduring Understandings
-What causes optimal growth and development?
- An individual’s health at different life stages is dependent on heredity, environmental factors and lifestyle

About Emotional renewal 110®
Emotional wellness and health are paramount for a happy productive life. There is a whole
list of human emotions which include positive, negative and neutral emotions. This
emotional wellness recording is designed to help you to gently release and let go of the
negatives and build again positive emotions and bring a return to balance and harmony.

Packed with relaxation and imagery it provides an aid towards emotional balance, healing
and wellness. There should be no compromise on your emotional health, just as there would
be non on your physical health.

The program is available on CD or MP3 Download.
Comprising 4 CDs containing 11 tracks and a structured listening schedule. Approx total
play 230 minutes.

A premier audio programme aiding the gentle releasing of negative thoughts and feelings,
and bringing structure and processes to aid the building of emotional wellness and renewal
for now, and the future.

Gentle and enjoyable from a therapist who really cares, and who has been making a
positive difference to the lives of others since 1986.
An optional aid to emotional recovery for those who:
• Have undergone surgery and the emotional recovery is lagging behind,
• Victim of mugging,
• Survivor of physical or emotional abuse,
• Victim of crime,
• Been involved in an accident,
• Experienced emotional or physical bullying,
• Trauma of a relationship break-up,
• Those suffering of low self esteem, or high anxiety.
• Working through personal issues to name a few.
• When you feel you are ready to start your recovery, or feel ready for your next step in
emotional recovery consider this programme
Dealing with emotional recovery may leave you feeling a bit vulnerable and
perhaps you could do with some extra support ~ The Emotional Renewal
Program stands on its own to provide you with the tools you need. But if you
wish to enhance your well-being even further into other areas, these additional
titles of gentle guided imagery and hypnotherapy may provide that extra cushion
of care to help ease the process ~
10 Simple Ways to Restore Your Inner Peace
Beyond wealth, beyond autonomy, even beyond happiness, if you have inner peace you can feel that all is right with
the world. It’s the place where nothing can bring you down; make you angry or cause you harm, because inside you
are all right.
And it’s the place so many of us need now, more than ever.
We don’t have to tell you that stress is rampant all around us, and our lives are getting increasingly hectic, rather
than simple. You probably already feel it, and live it.
But amidst all the chaos, inside you can have peace.
“Inner peace is natural to each and every one of us,” says Hale Dwoskin, CEO and director of training of Sedona
Training Associates. “Yet most of us keep ourselves so busy and so externally focused we don't realize that right
within us is the peace and happiness we are trying to create with our external action.”
To restore your inner peace, or achieve it in the first place, all you have to do is realize that you are separate from
your thoughts. And when your thoughts start to go toward chaos -- bills, arguments, projects at work, errands to run
-- you can let them go, quickly, by using The Sedona Method.
“In this moment could you allow yourself to notice that the peace you are looking for is already right within you?
Now as best you can, could you welcome this peace that you are?” Dwoskin asks. “Could you simply let go and
“be” just for this moment … the more you allow yourself to let go and be moment to moment, the more you won't
notice both inner and outer peace -- and the more you will reap the benefits of allowing this peace to support you
and enliven you.”
Releasing with The Sedona Method is actually one of the simplest, fastest and most direct ways of restoring inner
peace, because it instantly frees you from the thoughts that are weighing you down. And we all know it’s our
thoughts that keep us up at night, make us feel anxious and panicked, and sometimes make it hard to even smile.
When you let go of that negativity, you are free to feel peaceful. Realize you can feel that way at any time, and ALL
the time, because peace is always at your core.
Now, there are other methods, too, that can help you get to that place of inner peace we all crave. Along with using
The Sedona Method, the following simple pleasures will also help you to find calm and balance in an otherwise
hectic world, so we recommend you do them all, and do them often.
1. Smile and, even better, laugh
2. Pet an animal
3. Meditate
4. Watch children at play (and join in)
5. Spend time in nature
6. Watch the sun rise or set
7. Take a deep breath, then another, and another
8. Do something kind for someone
9. Listen to music you love
10. Do some yoga or other gentle exercise (stretching, Tai Chi, etc.)

Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), also called tapping, is a psychological, or emotional,
version of acupuncture that does not involve needles. This therapy is based on the idea that
unresolved negative emotions contribute to many physical pains and illnesses. Supporters of EFT
claim that stimulating the acupuncture points helps get rid of emotional blockages from the
system, thus restoring the mind and body's balance.
EFT is based on the same philosophy as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to
Chinese medicine theory, the human body contains a network of energy pathways through which
vital energy, called "chi," circulates. These pathways (also called meridians) contain specific
points that function like gates, allowing chi to flow through the body. In acupuncture, needles are
inserted into these points to regulate the flow of chi. Illness and symptoms are thought caused by
problems in the circulation of chi through the meridians.
Unlike acupuncture, EFT does not involve needles. Instead, a person taps his/her fingertips on
specific meridians on the body along. This is combined with positive voice affirmations. The
tapping supposedly stimulates chi and corrects the negative emotions that have detrimental
effects on the body's flow of energy. In this way, proponents believe that practicing EFT helps
return the body's system to balance and reduces physical symptoms.
People can practice this therapy themselves. However, EFT should not delay diagnosis or
treatment with more proven techniques or therapies, and it should not be used as the sole
approach to illnesses.
EFT was developed by Gary Craig in the mid 1990s to treat a variety of health problems,
including depression, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stress, common cold, cancer,
phobias, and various types of addictions. According to Craig, EFT can be used to treat just about
any physical or mental ailment. EFT is a simplified version of Roger Callahan's bodywork
techniques, which were part of the energy psychology movement.
A variety of books have been published by EFTs founder and others on tapping. Instructional
videos and DVDs are also available. A number of Web sites are devoted to tapping. Many
practitioners advertise their services online.
Three human studies on EFT have been published in three peer-reviewed journals. These studies
evaluated the emotional and physical effects of EFT in humans. These small studies found that
EFT might have positive effects on people who have phobias and stress. However, these studies
were not well-designed and did not discover a definitive mechanism of action. Additional
research is needed to determine if EFT is an effective treatment.
As a procedure that is usually self-administered, healthcare professionals may be interested in
learning more about tapping because it is inexpensive and non-invasive.
Acupoints, acupuncture, affirmations, body tapping, chi, EFT, emotional freedom technique,
Gary Craig, meridians, meridians, Roger Callahan, tapping, TCM, traditional Chinese medicine.

The Emotional Challenges of Physical Therapy
and How to Overcome Them
It’s estimated that more than half of those who need physical therapy do not stick with their programs, and
as a result may face continued pain or another injury. This high rate of abandonment is a serious issue,
as it is often physical therapy, not surgery or drugs, that ultimately helps people with physical disabilities
or injuries get back on their feet.
The American Physical Therapy Association says, “When a physical therapist sees a patient for the first
time, he or she examines that individual and develops a plan of care that promotes the ability to move,
reduces pain, restores function, and prevents disability. The physical therapist and the patient then work
side-by-side to make sure that the goals of the treatment plan are met.”
In other words, it is up to YOU to make sure you follow through with the exercises and recommended
treatment, even though it takes time and might be painful-- AND even though immediate gains may not be
Pushing through and ultimately recovering is therefore often dependent on your attitude, and your ability
to overcome the emotional challenges of physical therapy. If you allow negative emotions to take hold,
depression, anxiety and frustration can easily sideline your treatment.
You may be at risk of succumbing to your emotions if you often feel:
• Overwhelming feelings of frustration
• Doubts that the regimen will help you
• Dreading the days you go to physical therapy
• Feeling that you’ve been put through enough
• Thoughts of just giving up
Even if these thoughts do not occur to you (and especially if they do), it is still essential to treat your
emotions and not just your body when going through physical therapy, and one of the best ways to do this
is using The Sedona Method.
The Sedona Method works by directing your thoughts away from your anxieties, toward a more neutral or
positive focus. More specifically, the Method shows you how to let go of the negative thoughts that are
holding you back.
The Sedona Method can be learned in a matter of days, and it takes only an instant to release your
negative thoughts and anxieties. Best of all, you can use The Method anywhere, even in the midst of
physical therapy, to let go of any thought that troubles you.
“The purpose of physical therapy is to work through the blocks caused by injury and illness. And the most
powerful way I know to succeed in removing these blocks in addition to the physical activity, is to welcome
the sensations and memories and let them go,” says Hale Dwoskin, CEO and director of training of
Sedona Training Associates.
“The more you allow yourself to release along with doing physical therapy, the quicker and more easily
you'll see results,” he continues. “It is also extremely helpful to release on any impatience, frustration,
resistance or any other emotion that may be coming up as you try to follow through on your physical
therapy routine. This will help you to enjoy the sessions more as well as follow through on any
assignments you get from your physical therapist.”
Letting go using The Sedona Method in combination with physical therapy is highly effective. To find out
more about how The Sedona Method has helped people with their health and wellness challenges, read
through these amazing testimonial. Making it through your physical therapy program, and ultimately
healing, is well within your reach when you learn to let go.

Robert Havighurst: Developmental Theorist
Developmental Task Theory
(Robert Havighurst: teachable moments)
Infancy - Early Childhood (birth to 5 years)
Middle Childhood (6 to 12 years )
Adolescence (13 to 18 years)
Early adulthood (19 to 29 years)
Middle Adulthood (30-60 years)
Later Maturity (60>)
The idea of "developmental task" is generally credited to the work of Robert Havighurst who
indicates that the concept was developed through the work in the 1930s and 40s of Frank,
Zachary, Prescott, and Tyron. Others elaborated and were influenced by the work of Erik Erikson
in the theory of psychosocial development. Havighurst states:
"The developmental-task concept occupies middle ground between two opposed theories of
education: the theory of freedom—that the child will develop best if left as free as possible, and
the theory of constraint—that the child must learn to become a worthy, responsible adult through
restraints imposed by his society. A developmental task is midway between an individual need
and societal demand. It assumes an active learner interacting with an active social environment"
(1971, p. vi).
The Developmental Task Concept
From examining the changes in your own life span you can see
that critical tasks arise at certain times in our lives. Mastery of
these tasks is satisfying and encourages us to go on to new
challenges. Difficulty with them slows progress toward future
accomplishments and goals. As a mechanism for understanding
the changes that occur during the life span.

Robert Havighurst(1952, 1972, 1982) has identified critical
developmental tasks that occur throughout the life span.
Although our interpretations of these tasks naturally change over
the years and with new research findings. Havighurst's
developmental tasks offer lasting testimony to the belief that we
continue to develop throughout our lives.

Havinghurst (1972) defines a developmental task as one that
arises at a certain period in our lives, the successful
achievement of which leads to happiness and success with later
tasks; while leads to unhappiness, social disapproval, and
difficulty with later tasks. Havighurst uses lightly different age
groupings, but the basic divisions are quite similar to those used
in this book. He identifies three sources of developmental tasks
(Havighurst, 1972)
• Tasks that arise from physical maturation. For example, learning to walk, talk, and
behave acceptably with the opposite sex during adolescence; adjusting to menopause
during middle age
• Tasks that from personal sources. For example, those that emerge from the maturing
personality and take the form of personal values and aspirations, such as learning the
necessary skills for job success.
• Tasks that have their source in the pressures of society. For example, learning to read
or learning the role of a responsible citizen.

According to our biopsychosocial model, the first source
corresponds to the "bio" part of the model, the second to the
"psycho," and the third to the "social" aspect. Havighurst has
identified six major age periods:
• infancy and early childhood (0-5 years),
• middle childhood (6-12 years)
• adolescence (13-18 years),
• early adulthood (19-29 years),
• middle adulthood (30-60 years), and
• later maturity (61+).
Table presents typical developmental tasks for each of these periods.
The developmental tasks concept has a long and rich tradition.
Its acceptance has been partly due to a recognition of sensitive
periods in our lives and partly due to the practical nature of
Havighurst's tasks. Knowing that a youngster of a certain age is
encountering one of the tasks of that period (learning an
appropriate sex role) helps adults to understand a child's
behavior and establish an environment that helps the child to
master the tasks. Another good example is that of acquiring
personal independence, an important task for the middle
childhood period. Youngsters test authority during this phase
and, if teachers and parents realize that this is a nomal, even
necessary phase of development, they react differently than if
they see it as a personal challenge(Hetherington and Parke,
For example, note Havighurst's developmental tasks for middle
adulthood, one of which is a parent's need to help children
become happy and responsible adults. Adults occasionally find it
hard to "let go" od their children. They want to keep their
children with them far beyond any reasonable time. For their
own good, as well as that of their children. Once they do, they
can enter a happy time in their own lives if husbands and wives
are not only spouses but friends and partners as well.
Havighurst is not alone in the importance he places on the
developmental task concept (Cole, 1986; Goetting, 1986;
Cristante & Lucca, 1987; Cangemi and Kowalski, 1987). For
example, Goetting (1986) has examined the developmental tasks
of siblings and identified those that last a lifetime, such as
companionship and emotional support. Other tasks seem to be
related to a particular stage in the life cycle, such as caretaking
during childhood and later the care of elderly parents.

Identifying and mastering developmental tasks help us to
understand the way change affects our lives. Another way to
understand life span changes is to identify those needs that must
be satisfied if personal goals are to be achieved. To help you
recognize the role that needs play in our lives, let's examine the
work of Abraham Maslow and his needs hierarchy.

Developmental Tasks of Infancy and Early Childhood:

1. Learning to walk.
2. Learning to take solid foods
3. Learning to talk
4. Learning to control the elimination of body wastes
5. Learning sex differences and sexual modesty
6. Forming concepts and learning language to describe social and physical reality.
7. Getting ready to read

Ages birth to 6-12
1. Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games.
2. Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as a growing

3. Learning to get along with age-mates
4. Learning an appropriate masculine or feminine social role
5. Developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and

6. Developing concepts necessary for everyday living.
7. Developing conscience, morality, and a scale of values
8. Achieving personal independence
9. Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions

Developmental Tasks of Adolescence:

Ages birth to 12-18

1. Achieving new and more mature relations with age-mates of

both sexes
2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role
3. Accepting one's physique and using the body effectively
4. Achieving emotional independence of parents and other

5. Preparing for marriage and family life Preparing for an

economic career
6. Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to

behavior; developing an ideology
7. Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior

Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood

1. Selecting a mate
2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role
3. Learning to live with a marriage partner
4. Starting a family
5. Rearing children
6. Managing a home
7. Getting started in an occupation
8. Taking on civic responsibility
9. Finding a congenial social group

Super” Vocational Development Stages
1. Growth B-14 Development of Abilities, Interests, Needs

Associated with Self-Concept
2. Exploration 15-24 Tentative Plans, Choices Narrowed

not Finalized
3. Establishment 25-44 Stable Career Identity
4. Maintenance 45-64 Small Adjustments
5. Decline 65 + Reduced Productivity and Retirement

Super” Adolescent Attitudes and Competencies (Vocational


1. Oriented to Vocational Choice? Knows choices need to

be made and emotionally engaged.
2. Information and Planning? Has information and engages

in long term planning including educational plans.
3. Consistent Vocational Preferences? Has stable vocational

goals and plans.
4. Vocationally Independent? Makes decisions

5. Wise Decisions? Decisions fit aptitude, ability, resources

Robert James Havighurst (June 5, 1900 in De Pere, Wisconsin – January 31, 1991
in Richmond, Indiana) was a professor, physicist, educator, and aging expert. Both
his father, Freeman Alfred Havighurst, and mother, Winifred Weter Havighurst, had
been educators at Lawrence University. Havighurst worked and published well into
his 80s. According to his family, Havighurst died of Alzheimer's disease at the age of

Intellectual Contributions
Havighurst's educational research did much to advance education in the United States.
Educational theory before Havighurst was underdeveloped. Children learned by rote and little
concern was given to how children developed. From 1948 to 1953 he developed his highly
influential theory of human development and education. The crown jewel of his research was on
developmental task. Havighurst tried to define the developmental stages on many levels.
Havighurst identified Six Major Stages in human life covering birth to old age.
• Infancy & early childhood (Birth till 6 years old)
• Middle childhood (6-12 years old)
• Adolescence (13-18 years old)
• Early Adulthood (19-30 years old)
• Middle Age (30-60years old)
• Later maturity (60 years old and over)
From there, Havighurst recognized that each human has three sources for developmental tasks.
They are:
• Tasks that arise from physical maturation: Learning to walk, talk, control of bowel and
urine, behaving in an acceptable manner to opposite sex, adjusting to menopause.
• Tasks that arise from personal values: Choosing an occupation, figuring out ones
philosophical outlook.
• Tasks that have their source in the pressures of society: Learning to read, learning to be
responsible citizen.
The developmental tasks model that Havighurst developed was age dependent and all served
pragmatic functions depending on their age.
Developmental Tasks
(Ages 0-6)
• Learning to walk. * Learning to crawl. * Learning to take solid food. * Learning to talk. *
Learning to control the elimination of body wastes. * Learning sex differences and sexual
modesty. * Getting ready to read. * Forming concepts and learning language to describe
social and physical reality.
(Ages 6-12)
• Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games. * Learning to get along with age
mates. * Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as a growing organism. * Learning
on appropriate masculine or feminine social role. * Developing concepts necessary for
everyday living. * Developing conscience, morality and a scale of values. * Achieving
personal independence. * Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions.
(Ages 12-18)
• Achieving new and more mature relations with age mates of both sexes. * Achieving a
masculine or feminine social role. * Accepting one’s physique and using the body
effectively. * Achieving emotional independence of parents and other adults. * Preparing
for marriage and family life. * Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide
to behavior. * Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior.* Selecting an
(Ages 18-30)
• Selecting a mate. * Learning to live with a partner. * Starting family. * Rearing children.
* Managing home. * Getting started in occupation. * Taking on civic responsibility. *
Finding a congenial social group.
(Ages 30-60)
• Assisting teenage children to become responsible and happy adults. * Achieving adult
social and civic responsibility. * Reaching and maintaining satisfactory performance in
one’s occupational career. * Developing adult leisure time activities. * Relating oneself to
one’s spouse as a person. * To accept and adjust to the physiological changes of middle
age. * Adjusting to aging parents.
(60 and over)
• Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health. Adjusting to retirement and reduced
income. * Adjusting to death of a spouse. * Establishing an explicit affiliation with one’s
age group. * Adopting and adapting social roles in a flexible way. * Establishing
satisfactory physical living arrangements.

Havighurst Quotes
"Family life is the source of the greatest human happiness. This happiness is the simplest and
least costly kind, and it cannot be purchased with money. But it can be increased if we do two
things: if we recognize and uphold the essential values of family life and if we get and keep
control of the process of social change so as to make it give us what is needed to make family
life perform its essential functions."
"The modern world needs people with a complex identity who are intellectually autonomous and
prepared to cope with uncertainty; who are able to tolerate ambiguity and not be driven by fear
into a rigid, single-solution approach to problems, who are rational, foresightful and who look
for facts; who can draw inferences and can control their behavior in the light of foreseen
consequences, who are altruistic and enjoy doing for others, and who understand social forces
and trends."
"A successful mother sets her children free and becomes free herself in the process."
"The two basic principle processes of education are knowing and valuing."
"The art of friendship has been little cultivated in our society."
"A developmental task is a task which is learned at a specific point and which makes
achievement of succeeding tasks possible. When the timing is right, the ability to learn a
particular task will be possible. This is referred to as a 'teachable moment.' It is important to keep
in mind that unless the time is right, learning will not occur. Hence, it is important to repeat
important points whenever possible so that when a student's teachable moment occurs, s/he can
benefit from the knowledge."

James W. Fowler "Stages of Faith"
Fowler's research and theories are similar to the work of two
famous psychologists. Jean Piaget was famous for his
cognitive development theories while Kohlberg is known for
his work in moral reasoning. Fowler's theory of spiritual
development stretches from infancy to old age. Although not
an age- related stage theory, Fowler believes that all people
go through stages of spirituality during their lives. Click on a
stage to the right for an explanation.
More info on Dr. Fowler at Emory University ETHICS | THEOLOGY
I think that Fowler's stage theory is a great way to look at things. However, even he
admits that faith development is hard to pin down into clear stages. It is hard enough
to define words like faith and spirituality. One thing is certain, most people wonder
about what is out there beyond what we know through science and reason.

Stages of faith development
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A series of stages of faith development was proposed by Professor James W. Fowler, a
developmental psychologist at Candler School of Theology, in the book Stages of Faith. This
book-length study contains a framework and ideas, which have generated a good deal of
response from those interested in religion.
It proposes a staged development of faith (or spiritual development) across the lifespan. It is
closely related to the work of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, and Lawrence Kohlberg regarding
aspects of psychological development in children and adults.
Faith is seen as a holistic orientation, and is concerned with the individual's relatedness to the
• Stage 0 – "Primal or Undifferentiated" faith (birth to 2 years), is
characterized by an early learning of the safety of their environment (ie.
warm, safe and secure vs. hurt, neglect and abuse).
• Stage 1 – "Intuitive-Projective" faith (ages of three to seven), is
characterized by the psyche's unprotected exposure to the Unconscious.
• Stage 2 – "Mythic-Literal" faith (mostly in school children), stage two persons
have a strong belief in the justice and reciprocity of the universe, and their
deities are almost always anthropomorphic.
• Stage 3 – "Synthetic-Conventional" faith (arising in adolescence)
characterized by conformity
• Stage 4 – "Individuative-Reflective" faith (usually mid-twenties to late
thirties) a stage of angst and struggle. The individual takes personal
responsibility for their beliefs and feelings.
• Stage 5 – "Conjunctive" faith (mid-life crisis) acknowledges paradox and
transcendence relating reality behind the symbols of inherited systems
• Stage 6 – "Universalizing" faith, or what some might call "enlightenment".