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Exercise 4 09年8月9日 下午9:24

Exercise 4 - Effects of Controls Page 7

Aim:- To teach the effects of the controls in forward flight
Airmanship:- (Awareness & Safety Sense)

Good - (Do not stare at the instruments.) It is the
responsibility of the pilot to avoid other aircraft and objects - not that of
the ATC
Location - Position in relation to the airfield
Handover of controls
Instructor to student “You have control” - student “I have control”
Instructor to student “I have control” - student “You have control”

The Cyclic Stick
Controls Disc Attitude and hence Fuselarge Attitude
Fore & Aft movement controls Airspeed
Stick forward lowers nose - Increases Airspeed - Loss of Height
Stick aft raises nose - Decreases Airspeed - Gain in Height
Lateral movement controls direction Left or Right (Causes roll
and turn in the same direction)
The ‘teetering’ of the T bar
enables transfer of control of
the cyclic between the left and
right seat (instructor and the
student). This ‘teetering’
movement has no effect
whatsoever on the control of
the helicopter

Properties of Cyclic:-
Very sensitive
Not self centering
Lag between input &
effect 頁面 1∕10
Exercise 4 09年8月9日 下午9:24

Requires some right and forward pressure to maintain cruise
flight - (can be lessened with use of the trim knob). - Fine
adjustment of the ‘Cyclic Trim’ may be achieved by use of the
adjustment knob located on the left side panel of the console.
NB. ‘Cyclic Friction’ should only normally be used for holding
the cyclic in a central position whilst the aircraft is on the
Helicopters are naturally unstable and require continuous input
to hold them steady especially in the hover, which basically
means Never Take Hands Off The Controls!

The helicopter is said to be Statically Stable and Dynamically
Statically Stable
If, when disturbed, a body tends to return to its original
position it is said to be statically stable

Dynamically Unstable
If, when returning to its original position, a disturbed body
starts to oscillate with increasing amplitude through this
point of origin then it is said to be dynamically unstable

Collective Lever
‘Collectively’ increases or decreases the
pitch of the main rotor blades and
therefore controls total rotor thrust i.e.
controls height. Via the correlator and
governor it also controls engine power

Collective Lever Height MP RPM Yaw
Collective Lever Height MP RPM Yaw

As pitch is applied the drag generated by the rotor blades is increased.
In order to maintain a constant RPM (stop the blades slowing down)
more power is required and this is primarily achieved on the R22 by a
device known as the correlator, which is basically a link between the
collective and the carburettor. As the collective is raised the correlator
opens the throttle
allowing more fuel and air mix 頁面 2∕10
Exercise 4 09年8月9日 下午9:24

(charge) into the engine and more
power to be produced. Governor
systems (see later) will also maintain
a constant RPM by
increasing/decreasing the engine
power as necessary

Properties of the Collective:-
controls lift being generated by the main rotors - Controls height
Via the correlator and governor controls the engine power (MP)
Feel is proportional to the friction applied
Counter-sprung to hold its position if hand is removed
As with the cyclic collective friction should normally only be
applied on the ground

Twist Grip Throttle
Controls Engine & Rotor RPM
(affects power (MP) but does not control it - because of the correlator
and governor the collective is the primary control of power) 頁面 3∕10
Exercise 4 09年8月9日 下午9:24

Increase Throttle RPM Manifold Pressure Yaw
Decrease Throttle RPM Manifold Pressure Yaw

Properties of Throttle
Very, Very Sensitive !!!
Controls RPM

RPM Governor
The purpose of the governor is to automatically maintain the RPM at
its optimum operating range of around 104%. This is achieved by use
of electrical sensors situated within the engine’s right magneto which
detect any variation in RPM. An electrical motor connected to the
throttle linkage will automatically increase or decrease the throttle as
necessary in order to maintain the RPM at its correct operating range.

A clutch system within the throttle twist grip allows the pilot to
manually override the governor by physically twisting the throttle in
the desired direction, under normal circumstances this would only be
necessary in the event of a governor malfunction.
The governor may be turned
on or off as required with a
toggle switch located at the
end of the collective lever.
Turning it off will not cause any initial change to RPM i.e. the
throttle will remain in its current position. Turning it on will cause
changes to the RPM only if not already positioned at its optimum
setting of 104%. (Note:- the governor only operates above 80%

It is necessary to have the governor switched off during start up and
shutdown when the RPM should be maintained between 75% and
80% in order to either let the engine warm up or cool down. It should
be noted that flight is prohibited with the governor selected off except
for in-flight systems malfunction or emergency procedure training.

Torque Reaction 頁面 4∕10
Exercise 4 09年8月9日 下午9:24

Newton’s 3rd Law - for
every action there is an
equal and opposite reaction

Raise Collective or open Throttle - Increase MP- Yaw Right
Lower Collective or close Throttle - Decrease MP - Yaw Left

Yaw Pedals
Control Tail Rotor Thrust
Left Pedal - nose yaws left - tail rotor pulls to the right
Right Pedal - nose yaws right - tail rotor pushes to the left

Governor Off Effect on RPM Effect on Power
Left pedal increases Slight decrease in RPM Remains constant
pitch on tail rotor
Right pedal decreases Slight increase in RPM Remains constant
pitch on tail rotor

Governor On Effect on RPM Effect on Power
Left pedal increases Governor maintains Increases
pitch on tail rotor RPM (Increases
Right pedal decreases Governor maintains Decreases
pitch on tail rotor RPM (Decreases

Properties of Pedals:-

Light & sensitive
Yaw in natural sense
Used for direction control in hover
Used to maintain aircraft in balance during forward flight (Yaw
string / Balance ball) 頁面 5∕10
Exercise 4 09年8月9日 下午9:24

Once input is applied it must be held

Effect of Airspeed On RPM
In ‘still’ air a relative wind is
produced by the rotor blades due to
their horizontal rotational movement
through the air. With pitch applied the
effect is to change this still air into a
column of descending air. This
descending air is known as ‘Induced
flow’ and is felt as downwash beneath
the helicopter.

Hover out of ground effect

In the hover the large vertical induced flow alters the direction of the
blades relative wind and reduces its angle of attack. This means a greater
collective pitch setting is required in order to maintain the necessary lift.

As air speed increases turbulence and vortices developed by the rotors are
left behind and a greater horizontal mass of airflow becomes available to
the rotor system. This ‘more horizontal’ airflow reduces the blades
induced flow component thereby increasing the angle of attack and
overall rotor efficiency. 頁面 6∕10
Exercise 4 09年8月9日 下午9:24

Just as the main rotor system becomes more efficient with increase of
airspeed so to does the tail rotor requiring a ‘lesser’ pitch setting to
compensate for engine torque. The increased air flow over the vertical tail
fin (due to forward air speed) also assists in maintaining the helicopters
direction (weathercocking) and again reduces the overall power
requirements of the tail rotor.

This increase in efficiency with increase of air speed is known as
translational lift and exists throughout the entire air speed range of the
aircraft. It is most noticeable at around 10 kts to 15 kts airspeed (referred
to as ‘effective translational lift’ - ETL) but tends to be ‘cancelled out’ at
higher airspeeds due to the ‘parasite’ drag of the aircraft. With a constant
power setting (MP) an RPM increase of around 5% can be observed
between the airspeed of 40 kts and 90 kts which means in an ungoverned
aircraft the throttle may need to be reduced slightly with increase in
airspeed in order to avoid an overspeed.

Governor Off Effect on RPM Effect on Power 頁面 7∕10
Exercise 4 09年8月9日 下午9:24

Increase of airspeed Increase in RPM Remains constant
Decrease of airspeed Decrease in RPM Remains constant

Governor On Effect on RPM Effect on Power
Increase of airspeed Governor maintains Decreases
RPM by decreasing
Decrease of airspeed Governor maintains Increases
RPM by increasing

Effect of Disc Loading on RPM
Disc loading is a function of the weight of the helicopter and the
centrifugal forces acting on the rotors by virtue of their rotational speed
(RRPM). Whilst on the ground, with no collective pitch applied, the
centrifugal forces acting upon the rotor blades will tend to maintain them
in a horizontal position. On application of collective pitch the rotor blades
will develop lift and rise up. The combined effect of centrifugal and lift
forces will cause the rotor blades to assume a conical path known as
The greater the weight of the helicopter the greater is the lift required to
support this load and the greater the coning angle (horizontal angle
between the blade root and the blade tip) will be.

When moving in a straight line at a constant altitude and airspeed the load
(helicopter weight) on the rotor blades remains constant. However when
assuming a curved flight path (flare or steep turn) the additional ‘G-
forces’, produced by these manoeuvres, increase the effective weight of
the aircraft. This in turn increases the overall loading on the blades. The
tighter the curved flight path or the tighter the flare the greater the loading
on the blades will be.
This increase in loading will cause the blades to ‘cone’ up about their
coning hinges, and in turn cause the centre of gravity of the blades to
move in towards the blade root. As the blades centre of gravity changes
so too will the RPM - increasing with turn and flare, and likewise
decreasing when reassuming straight and level flight. - Analogous to the
skater who spins faster when she brings her arms in.

Excessive coning should be avoided because it places undesirable stresses 頁面 8∕10
Exercise 4 09年8月9日 下午9:24

on the blades and reduces total lift because of a decreased total disc area.

Governor Off Effect on RPM Effect on Power
Increase in disk Increase in RPM Remains constant
Decrease in disk Decrease in RPM Remains constant

Governor On Effect on RPM Effect on Power
Increase in disk Governor maintains Decreases
loading RPM by decreasing
Decrease in disk Governor maintains Increases
loading RPM by increasing

Further Effects of the Collective - Autorotation
When lowered fully down:- (Autorotative State)
Needles split
Engine RPM drops (throttle is closed by the correlator)
Rotor RPM stays in operating range
Low MP (throttle is closed by the correlator)
Large yaw to the left 頁面 9∕10
Exercise 4 09年8月9日 下午9:24

Nose will drop

Discussion Points
Mixture Control
Carburettor Air Temperature Gauge & Control
Rotor Brake

Air Exercises
Cyclci Stick Cyclic Trim
Collective Lever Carburettor Heat
Twist Grip Throttle Effects of Disc Loading - RPM Increase
Use of Governor Effects of Airspeed - RPM Increase
Yaw Pedals Further Effect of Collective Lever -

© R & K Aviation Ltd 頁面 10∕10