# Code No: RR210304

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMODYNAMICS ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain thermodynamic system, surroundings and universe, illustrate the same with examples. (b) Distinguish between closed system, open system and isolated system with suitable examples. [8+8] 2. (a) 1.5kg of liquid having constant speciﬁc heat of 2.5kj/kg oC is stirred in a well insulated chamber causing the temperature rise by 15o C ﬁnd the change in energy and work done for the process. (b) One kg of gas at 25oC and occupying a volume of 2m3 is heated at constant pressure to 200o C. Find heat added, work done and change in internal energy. [8+8] 3. (a) Explain : heat engine and heat pump . Also show how a reversible heat engine operates as a reversible refrigerator. (b) The volume of one kg of air increases from 0.5m3 to 1.3m3 while its pressure decreases from 1 MPa to 250 kPa. Then 420 kJ of heat were added to it isothermally. Calculate the total entropy change for the system for the combined processes. Assume for air Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg.K and R = 0.287 kJ/kg.K. [8+8] 4. (a) Explain : “Available energy” and “Availability” and Irreversibility. (b) Deﬁne Melmholtz and Gibbs free energy function. [9+7]

5. (a) Derive an expression for heat transfer in a non ﬂow constant volume process. (b) How much heat would be necessary to raise temperature of 1.5Kg of a gas from 900 C to 2250 C, the volume remaining constant during the heat supply. Speciﬁc heat of gas at constant volume may be taken as 0.71KJ/Kg K. (c) The charge in a gas engine cylinder is compressed through a volume ratio of 5. Find the ﬁnal pressure if the initial pressure is 0.9 bar absolute and the law of compression is pv 1.29 = C. [6+4+6] 6. A 5m3 tank contains 60% H2 and 40% methane by volume at 100 KPa and 300 K Determine the amount of methane to be added at 300 K to change the composition to 50% methane by volume. Also determine the ﬁnal pressure of the mixture in the tank. [16] 7. (a) Compare the eﬃciency of the Otto the diesel and the dual cycle under the conditions. 1 of 2

Code No: RR210304 i. Equal compression ratio and heat input . ii. Constant maximum pressure and heat input.

Set No. 1

(b) In an air standard Otto, cycle the compression ratio is 10, the compression begins at 400 C, 1 bar and the maximum temperature of the cycle is 10200 c. Determine i. ii. iii. iv. The The The The heat supplied per kg of air work down per kg of air maximum pressure of the cycle and thermal eﬃciency.

[8+8]

8. Steam is supplied, dry saturated at 40 bar to a steam turbine. The condenser pressure is 0.035 bar. Calculate for the Ranking cycle for the following. (a) The work output neglecting pump work. (b) The feed pump work. (c) The heat rejected by condenser and the amount of cooling water required through the condenser if the temperature rise of the water is 5.50 C (d) The heat supplied (e) The Rankine eﬃciency. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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Code No: RR210304

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMODYNAMICS ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Distinguish between closed and open systems by giving practical examples. (b) A computer in a closed room of volume 200m3 dissipates energy at a rate of 10kW. The room has 50kg wood, 25kg steel and with all material at 3000k; 100kpa. Assume all the mass heats up uniformly, how long will it take to increase the temperature 100 c. [8+8] 2. (a) State and explain the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics for a cyclic process with the help of Joules experiment. (b) In a system 80 kJ of heat is supplied from state 1 to 2 by constant volume process. The internal energy at state 1 is 90 kJ. The system rejects 95 kJ of heat from state 2 to state 3 by constant pressure process and 30 kJ of work is done on it. The system is brought back from state 3 to state 1 by a reversible adiabatic process. Calculate the adiabatic work. [8+8] 3. (a) State and prove Clausius inequality. (b) Explain the increase in entropy principle. (c) A thermal energy source at 800 K loses 2000 kJ of heat to a sink at i. 500 K and ii. 750 K. Determine which heat transfer process is more irreversible.[6+4+6] 4. (a) Explain third law of Thermodynamics. (b) A tank holds 1 kg of air at 100 kPa, 400 C, and another tank holds 1 kg of air at 200 kPa, 400 C. The atmosphere is at 100 kPa, 200 C. In which tank is the stored energy is greater? Determine the availability of the air in each tank. [6+10] 5. (a) Explain the principle of throttling process with a neat sketch. (b) 0.2Kg of air at a temperature of 1650 C expands reversible at a constant pressure of 7 bar until volume is doubled. Find the ﬁnal temperature, work done and heat transferred. (c) An ideal gas at 300 C and 1 bar is compressed adiabatically from 5m3 to 1m3 . Find the temperature, pressure and the work done. [6+6+4] 6. Two kg mole of Carbon di oxide at a pressure of 1.8 bar, 800 C is mixed in a thermally insulated vessel with 3 kg-mole of Nitrogen is at equilibrium, Determine the ﬁnal temperature and pressure and the change in entropy of the mixture. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR210304

Set No. 2

7. During a test on a four stroke six cylinder engine having 11 cm bore and 16cm stroke and working on the duel combustions cycle, the fuel consumption had been found to be 0.18 Kg/min. the engine runs at 1600 rpm. The compression ratio is 10 and the caloriﬁc value of The fuel is 44000kJ/Kg. At the beginning of the compression the pressure is 0.95 bar and temperature is 450 C. The law of compression and expansion is PV1.35 = constant. Assume that 2/3rd of heat released by the combustion of the fuel is at constant volume and remaining 1/3rd at constant pressure. Calculate (a) Heat supplied per cylinder charge and total. (b) Pressure and temperature at each corner of the cycle. (c) Cycle eﬃciency. (d) Mean eﬀective pressure. [16]

8. An ammonia ice plant operates between a condenser temperature of 350 C and an evaporator temperature of -150 C. It producers 10 tons of ice per day from water at 300 C to ice at -50 C. Assume simple saturation cycle. Using only tables of properties for ammonia, determine: (a) The capacity of the refrigeration plant (b) The mass ﬂow rate of refrigerant (c) The discharge temperature (d) The compressor cylinder diameter and stroke if its volumetric eﬃciency is 0.65, rpm = 1200 and stroke/bore ratio = 1.2, (e) The horse power of the compressor motor if the adiabatic eﬃciency of the compressor 0.85 and mechanical eﬃciency 0.95 and (f) The theoretical and actual C.O.P. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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Code No: RR210304

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMODYNAMICS ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Distinguish between closed and open systems by giving practical examples. (b) A computer in a closed room of volume 200m3 dissipates energy at a rate of 10kW. The room has 50kg wood, 25kg steel and with all material at 3000k; 100kpa. Assume all the mass heats up uniformly, how long will it take to increase the temperature 100 c. [8+8] 2. (a) Derive the governing equation for the adiabatic process. (b) Explain joules experiment in detail. [10+6]

3. (a) State and prove Clausius inequality and hence deduce that the property entropy exist. (b) A cylinder contains 0.5m3 of a gas at 0.1 MPa and 900 C,. The gas is compressed to a volume of 0.125m3 . The ﬁnal pressure is 800 kPa. Determine the heat transferred and the change in entropy of the gas during the process. Assume R = 0.287 kJ/kgK and Cv = 0.713 kJ/kgK [8+8] 4. (a) Show that available energy decreases during heat transfer through ﬁnite temperature diﬀerence. (b) A mass of 6.98 kg of air is in a vessel at 200 kPa and 270 C . Heat is transferred to the air from a reservoir at 7270 C until the temperature of the air rises to 3270 C. The environment is at 100kPa, 170 C . Determine i. the initial and ﬁnal availability of air and ii. the maximum useful work associated with the process. Assume for air Cp= 1.005 kJ/kg.K and R = 0.287kJ/kg.K. [8+8] 5. (a) List out the various non - ﬂow processes when the First law of thermodynamics is applied to closed system. (b) Derive the relationship between the two principle speciﬁc heats and characteristic gas constant for a perfect gas. (c) Find the molecular weight and gas constant for the gas whose speciﬁc heats are as follows: Cp = 1.967KJ/KgK Cv = 1.507 KJ/KgK [6+4+6] 6. (a) Prove :speciﬁc humidity= 0.622 pv /(p-pv ) assuming air as an ideal gas of molecular weight 28.966.

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Code No: RR210304

Set No. 3

(b) A mixture of hydrogen and oxygen is in the ratio of 2 to 1 by volume .determine the mass of hydrogen required and volume of the container per kg of oxygen if the temperature and pressure of the mixture are to be 100kPa and 300kPa respectively. [6+10] 7. (a) What do you mean by air standard cycles? What are the assumptions for air standard cycles. (b) An air standard Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 8. At the start of the compression process, the temperature is 260 C and the pressure is 1 bar. If the maximum temperature of the cycle is 10800C calculate i. The heat supplied per kg of air ii. The network done per kg of air iii. The thermal eﬃciency of the cycle.

[6+10]

8. A refrigerant R-12 vapour compression system operating at a condenser temperature of 400 C and an evaporator temperature of -50 C develops 15 tons of refrigeration. Using p-h chart for R-12, determine: (a) The mass low rate of refrigerant circulated (b) The theoretical piston displacement of compressor and piston displacement per ton of refrigeration. (c) The theoretical horsepower of the compressor and horsepower per ton of refrigeration. (d) The heat rejected in the condenser and (e) The car not C.O.P. and actual C.O.P. of the cycle. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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Code No: RR210304

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMODYNAMICS ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Diﬀerentiate between Microscopic and Macroscopic point of view. (b) Prove that the diﬀerence between speciﬁc heat at constant pressure and speciﬁc heat at constant volume is gas constant. (c) Explain what do you mean by thermal equilibrium. [4+6+6]

2. Explain the physical signiﬁcance of the various terms of the steady ﬂow energy equation & also explain how all the terms in that expression has the same units. [16] 3. (a) State and prove Clausius inequality. (b) Explain the increase in entropy principle. (c) A thermal energy source at 800 K loses 2000 kJ of heat to a sink at i. 500 K and ii. 750 K. Determine which heat transfer process is more irreversible.[6+4+6] 4. (a) Explain third law of Thermodynamics. (b) A tank holds 1 kg of air at 100 kPa, 400 C, and another tank holds 1 kg of air at 200 kPa, 400 C. The atmosphere is at 100 kPa, 200 C. In which tank is the stored energy is greater? Determine the availability of the air in each tank. [6+10] 5. (a) Derive expression for change of internal energy and enthalpy during a process with variable speciﬁc heat. (b) An Otto cycle engine with a compression ratio of 10 uses a petroleum fuel of Caloriﬁc value 48000KJ/Kg. The air fuel ratio is 15:1. The temperature and pressure of the charge at the end of suction are 570 C and 1 bar respectively. Determine the maximum pressure in the cycle with the mean index of compression is expressed as : Cv = 0.7117 + 2.1x10−4 KJ/Kg K, where T is the mean temperature. If the value of cv remains constant at 0.7117kJ/Kg K, and also compression index is unaltered, how will the maximum pressure be aﬀected? [8+8] 6. (a) A gas mixture consists of 60% N2 and 40% CO2 by mole basis. Determine the gravimetric analysis of the mixture analysis of the mixture. (b) A tank of volume 2m3 containing O2 at 600Kpa and 300K is connected to another tank of volume 3m containing CO2 at 150kPa and 290K .The gases 1 of 2

Code No: RR210304

Set No. 4

mix adiabatic ally and come to an equilibrium state. Determine the ﬁnal temperature and pressure of the mixture and the entropy change for the system. [8+8] 7. (a) Explain with the help of suitable graphs the variation of the eﬃciency of the diesel cycle with compression ratio and cut-oﬀ ratio. (b) In an air standard diesel cycle, the compression ratio is 15.Compression begins at 0.1MPa, 400 c. the heat added is 1.675 MJ/Kg. Find i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. The The The The The The maximum temperature of the cycle. work down per Kg of air. cycle eﬃciency. temperature at the end of the isentropic expansion. cut-oﬀ ratio. mean eﬀective pressure of the cycle.

[6+10]

8. A power plant operating on the Ranking cycle has steam entering the turbine at 37 bar and 4250 C. If the turbine output is equivalent to 10,000 Kw, determine the eﬃciency of the cycle and the mass ﬂow rate of steam for condenser pressure of (a) 0.07 bar and (b) 0.035 bar. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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