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Dong Gang , Huang Dongming, Fan Xiumin

School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030, PR China

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030, PR China

a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 19 January 2009

Received in revised form 9 June 2009

Accepted 4 July 2009

Available online 22 July 2009

Keywords:

Cone crusher

Crushing chamber

Optimization

Size reduction

Flakiness index

The chamber geometry is one of the key factors that inuences the performance of a cone crusher. The design

of the chamber geometry should take product quality and crushing efciency into account. In this paper the

kinematics of rock material in a crushing chamber, as interparticle breakage occurs, has been analyzed and

the chamber division is achieved. Based on the chamber division and a population balance model, the

method for chamber geometry design is presented. Combining the empirical model for predicting particle

shape with the size distribution model, a akiness prediction model is proposed. With the size reduction

model and akiness prediction model as constraints, an optimization of the crushing chamber is achieved.

Finally, the validity of the crushing chamber optimization model has been veried by an appropriate

prototype test.

2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Cone crushers are widely used in the mining and aggregates

industry to crush blasted rock material. The chamber geometry is one

of the key factors that inuences the cone crusher performance,

measured by productivity, particle size and particle shape of the

product. Previous research in this area (Evertsson, 2000; Gauldie,

1953) has studied the behavior of a particular cone crusher, which

made it possible to model the kinematics of the rock material and

proposed the method for dividing the crushing chamber into several

crushing zones. In order to predict product quality, Evertsson (1997)

presented a size reduction model. Magnus and Evertsson (2006) have

studied the factors that may inuence product akiness and presented

an empirical model for predicting the product particle shape. However

this model could not be used directly for chamber optimization.

Most previous research has focused on modeling of the relation-

ships between the key parameters, and only a few have been about

improving the models, combining the models and optimization with

the models. As the chamber geometry is crucial for the performance of

a cone crusher, the method for crushing chamber optimization under

multiple constraints will be useful for improving its performance.

2. Crushing chamber geometry optimization

The purpose of chamber geometry optimization is to design the

geometry of the concave chamber surfaces given that the key

parameters, including rotational speed n, eccentric angle , height of

pivot point h and base angle of cone , have been given.

The two main crushing parts of cone crusher are the mantle and

the concave. The axis of the mantle intersects the axis of the crushing

chamber at point O, which is a pivot point. The angle between the two

axes is , which is an eccentric angle, as shown in Fig. 1. As the crusher

is working, the mantle moves around the axis of the crushing

chamber. In the cross section of the cone crusher, the mantle is

performing a pendulum movement with O as the center. As the

mantle swings between the closed and open sides, it periodically

approaches and leaves the concave surface. When rock materials get

into the crushing chamber, they keep falling until they meet the

mantle. Then the rock materials are pushed against the concave

surface by the mantle and get crushed.

While the rock particle is falling in the crushing chamber, the

movement can be expressed by Eq. (1). While the particle is pushed

against the concave surface, the movement could be regarded as a

combination of circular motion and simple harmonic motion, and the

two motions could be expressed by Eq. (2). As a result, it is possible to

trace the movement of the particle, as it passes through the crushing

chamber.

As shown in Fig. 2, the pivot point O is taken as the origin of the

coordinate system, A

0

is the intersection point of the choke level and

the open side, and its coordinates are (X

0

, Y

0

). Generally, it is

reasonable to take A

0

as the initial position of the particle. The particle

keeps falling until it reaches the mantle at A

1

, whose coordinates are

(X

1

, Y

1

). Obviously, X

1

is equal to X

0

and Y

1

can be calculated with

Eqs. (1) and (2). Eq. (1) is the equation of falling motion, where t

1

is

the time. Eq. (2) is the equation of simple harmonic motion, where n

is the rotational speed specied in rpm, (X

P

, Y

P

) are the coordinates of

Int. J. Miner. Process. 93 (2009) 204208

Corresponding author. School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong

University, Shanghai 200030, PR China. Tel.: +86 21 62933362; fax: +86 21 62932070.

E-mail address: dgang@sjtu.edu.cn (D. Gang).

0301-7516/$ see front matter 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.minpro.2009.07.005

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Int. J. Miner. Process.

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ i j mi npr o

the pivot point O,

Y

P

Y

0

XP X

0

is the slope of the open side and

Y

P

Y

1

XP X

1

is the

slope of the mantle's edge when the particle reaches the mantle, and

cos

nt

1

30

_ _

is the angle between the two lines at time t

1

.

Y

1

Y

0

=

1

2

gt

2

1

1

cos

nt

1

30

_ _

= arctan

Y

P

Y

0

X

P

X

0

_ _

arctan

Y

P

Y

1

X

P

X

1

_ _

: 2

Subsequently, the particle is pushed against the concave surface

and reaches the closed side at A

2

, whose coordinates can be calculated

with Eq. (3) and the equation of the closed side. Eq. (3) is the equation

of the rst circular motion, where R

1

is the distance between A

1

and O.

X

2

2

+ Y

2

2

= R

2

1

: 3

Repeating the steps above, the whole trace of the particle in the

crushing chamber can be calculated. In this paper, n is supposed to be

greater than the critical rotational speed, so that the particle will not

slide along the mantle.

Based on the theory of interparticle breakage, when such breakage

occurs in the crushing chamber, rock materials are crushed only once,

in a single crushing zone. Accordingly, the study described above not

only traces the movement of rock materials but also reveal how to

divide the crushing chamber into crushing zones. Obviously, each

turning point of the trace is on the boundary between two crushing

Fig. 1. The crushing chamber and cone crusher working principle.

Fig. 2. The kinematics analysis of material and the division of the crushing chamber.

205 D. Gang et al. / Int. J. Miner. Process. 93 (2009) 204208

zones. In the cross section of the crushing chamber, the outline of each

crushing zone is a quadrangle. Using the formalism described above,

the three sides of the quadrangle can be dened. The next step is to

dene the fourth side, which is to design the curve of concave surface

in each crushing zone.

As the closed side setting (CSS) should be given by the user of

crusher, the design should be started in the discharge gate of the

crushing room. However, in the course of the design of the concave

surface there are two key factors that should be taken into account.

Firstly, based on the theory of population balance, while the crusher is

operating, the mass of rock materials in one crushing zone must be

equal to that in the next crushing zone so that materials do not get

jammed in the crushing chamber. Secondly, the nip angle of each

crushing zone should be less than the given nip angle so that materials

do not slide along the mantle. In the Chinese Standard, the nip angle of

the crushing chamber should be less than 27 (Lang, 1998).

As the cone crusher can only work on the premise of no jamming,

the minimum standard deviation of the mass of material in each

crushing zone is taken as the objective of the crushing chamber

geometry optimization. As shown in Eq. (4), m is the total number of

crushing zones, V

i

is the volume of crushing zone i,

i

is the

volumetric lling ratio of crushing zone i and is the density of the

material, so M

i

(V

i

,

i

, ) is the mass of material in crushing zone i.

M

1

(V

1

,

1

, ) is the mass of materials in crushing zone 0, which is

the closest to the discharge gate. In fact M

1

(V

1

,

1

, ) is the mass of

material that falls out of the crushingchamber duringa single rotationof

the mantle, and it reects the productivity of the cone crusher. The

productivity of the cone crusher could be calculated knowing M

1

(V

1

,

1

, ), the rotational speed n and some empirical correction coefcients,

such as K

s

and K

h

(Lang, 1998). The coefcient K

s

describes the inuence

of the size distributionof the feedoncrusher output, andthe valuerange

is 11.4. The coefcient K

h

describes the inuence of material hardness

on crusher output, and the value range is 0.751.

F x =

m

i =1

M

i

V

i

;

i

; M

1

V

1

;

1

;

2

m 1

_

4

0 V

i

V

min

: 5

The second factor is taken as the boundary constraint in the

crushing chamber geometry optimization. As shown in Eq. (5),

i

is

the nip angle of crushing zone i. With the method above, a crushing

chamber geometry optimization can be achieved, as shown in Fig. 2.

3. Constraints of product quality

3.1. Size reduction model

The crushing process in each crushing zone has been presented by

Evertsson (1997). In that process the material ow through the

crusher is modeled as a series of successive crushing events, as shown

in Fig. 3 and Eq. (6), where P

i +1

represents the feeding material of

crushing zone i, P

i

represents the discharge materials of the same

zone, S

i

is the selection function and B

i

is the Breakage function.

P

i

= B

i

S

i

+ 1 S

i

P

i + 1

6

P =

m

i =1

B

i

S

i

+ 1 S

i

F : 7

As the entire process of crushing is modeled as a series of

successive crushing events, the size distribution of the nal product

can be calculated using Eq. (7), where P represents the nal product

and F represents the initial feed.

The values of S

i

and B

i

are determined by the parameter (s/b)

i

,

which is the compression ratio of crushing zone i. This parameter

describes how much the rock material is compressed and is

determined from the location of the crushing event and the crusher

dynamics. Actually, following the work on the crushing chamber

geometry optimization, the compression ratio of each crushing zone

has already been calculated. As shown in Fig. 2, (s/b)

i

is just the value

of S

C1C2C3C4

/ S

C1C2C5C6

, where S

C1C2C3C4

is the area of quadrangle

C

1

C

2

C

3

C

4

and S

C1C2C5C6

is the area of quadrangle C

1

C

2

C

5

C

6

. So it is

possible to take the size distribution of nal product as the constraint

in the crushing chamber optimization.

3.2. Flakiness prediction model

Generally the product akiness is tested according to European

Standard EN 933-3, which is a part of the European Standard for

classication of aggregate characteristics.

Magnus and Evertsson (2006) revealed that the akiness of the

product can be estimated with the knowledge of the CSS and the

average size of the feed, and presented an empirical model for

predicting product akiness in cone crushing, as shown in Eq. (8),

where FI(F

, CSS, P

SIZE

) is the akiness index, F

the feed and P

SIZE

is the particle size of the product.

FI F; CSS; P

SIZE

_ _

=

0:24

F

1:25F + 20

CSS

_ _

2

P

2

SIZE

1:25x + 20

CSS

_ _

P

SIZE

+ 1:25F:

8

Based on this empirical model and the size reduction model, the

percentage of aky particles in the nal product can be calculated, as

shown in Eq. (9).

FI

total

=

K

j =1

P

j

FI

j

F; CSS; P

SIZEj

_ _

: 9

In Eq. (9) P

SIZEj

is the average size within size range j, FI

i

(F , CSS,

P

SIZEj

) is approximately the percentage of aky particles in size range

j and P

j

is the product matrix of the crushing zone j. Actually, the value

of P

j

is the percentage of the particles in size range j with respect to

the total product. Obviously FI

total

is the percentage of total aky

particles in the nal product. The akiness prediction model can also

be taken as the constraint in optimization of the design of the crushing

chamber.

4. Crushing chamber optimization under multi-constraints

Based on this method for crushing chamber geometry optimiza-

tion, taking the size reduction model and akiness prediction model

as constraints, a crushing chamber optimization model is achieved.

As shown in Eq. (10), the rotational speed n, eccentric angle ,

height of pivot point h, base angle of cone and average nip angle of

Fig. 3. The model of the i crushing process.

206 D. Gang et al. / Int. J. Miner. Process. 93 (2009) 204208

chamber

nip

are taken as the design variables. The other structural

and working parameters, such as the eccentric distance and length of

the stroke, can be determined by the parameters above.

X = x

1

; x

2

; x

3

; x

4

; x

5

= n; ; h; ;

nip

_ _

: 10

The objective of the crushing chamber optimization is to produce

the minimumstandard deviation of the mass of discharge materials of

each crushing zone as shown in Eq. (11). The size reduction model and

akiness prediction model are taken as performance constraints, as

shown in Eq. (12). P

CSS

is the percentage of material whose size is less

thanCSS, andit is akeyparameter for estimatingthecrusher performance.

P

CSS min

is the expected value of the minimum P

CSS

. FI

total max

is the

expected value of the maximumFI

total

.

F x =

m

i =1

M

i

V

i

;

i

; M

1

V

1

;

1

;

2

m 1

_

Ymin 11

P

CSS

z P

CSS min

FI

total

V FI

total max

:

_

12

To ensure that the optimization would succeed and the outcome

would be useful, there should be boundary constraints on the design

variables as shown in Eq. (13). The cone crusher chamber optimiza-

tion is implemented with Matlab, the corresponding owchart is

shown in Fig. 4.

n

min

V n V n

max

min

V V

max

h

min

V h V h

max

min

V V

max

0 V V

min

:

_

_

13

In this work a PYB900 cone crusher (made in China) is taken as an

example. The structural and working parameters of PYB900 are taken

as the initial input for the crushing chamber optimization. The

outcome of the optimization, including these parameters and the

crushing chamber geometry, and the corresponding performance

prediction, are shown in Table 1 and Fig. 5. With the akiness

prediction model, the akiness index of the nal product is calculated,

as shown in Fig. 6.

To verify the validity of the cone crusher chamber optimization

model, we cooperated with the Shanghai Jianshe Luqiao Machinery Co.,

Ltd to redesign the PYB900 cone crusher in accordance with the

outcome of the optimization. The corresponding prototype has been

made. It has been working in a quarry in Huzhou China. The

performance of the prototype has been tested, as shown in Table 1.

The productivity and P

CSS

of the prototype are respectively 105.56t h

1

and 48.15%, which are both greater than those of the original PYB900.

The FI

total

of the prototype is 25.95%, which is less than that of the

original PYB900. Actually, the improvement of output is mainly because

of the increase in the volume of the crushing chamber and the rotation

speed of the shaft. The improvement of product quality is because

interparticle breakage occurs in the process of crushing and rock

materials get crushed thoroughly. The performance of the prototype did

not matchthe outcome of optimization, and several factors such as cone

Fig. 4. The cone crusher chamber optimization owchart.

Table 1

The outcome of optimization and prototype test.

Type of parameters Structural and working parameters Performance parameters

n (r min

1

) (deg) h (mm) (deg) (deg) Q (t h

1

) P

CSS

(%) FI (%)

Initial parameters 270 2 344 40 22 80 45 30

Parameters optimized 332.46 1.8 382.46 44 24.3 125.12 54.88 22.13

Parameters of prototype 330 1.8 380 44 24 105.56 48.15 25.95

Fig. 5. The optimized chamber geometry of PYB900.

207 D. Gang et al. / Int. J. Miner. Process. 93 (2009) 204208

crusher operating conditions, feeding conditions, assumptions of those

models and cone crusher manufacturing deviations, may lead to those

discrepancies. However, basically the validity of the crushing chamber

optimization is veried by the corresponding prototype test.

5. Conclusions

In this paper, in which we have studied rock material in a crushing

chamber, the motion of the material has been traced and the method

for dividing crushing chamber into crushing zones is presented. Based

on the chamber division and population balance model, the method

for the design of the chamber geometry is presented. Combining the

empirical model for predicting particle shape with the size distribu-

tion model, a akiness prediction model is proposed. Using the size

reduction model and akiness prediction model as constraints, the

crushing chamber design optimization is achieved. All this work will

be useful for future cone crusher optimization strategies.

With the cooperation of cone crusher manufacturer, the PYB900

cone crusher has been redesigned in accordance with the outcome of

the optimization procedure. The corresponding prototype has been

working in a quarry in Huzhou China. The validity and reliability of the

crushing chamber optimization have been veried with the prototype

test.

References

Evertsson, C.M., 1997. Output prediction of cone crushers. Miner. Eng. 11, 215231.

Evertsson, C.M., 2000. Cone Crusher Performance. Ph.D. thesis. Chalmers University of

Technology.

European Standard. 1997. EN 933-3. CEN European.

Gauldie, K., 1953. Performance of Jaw Crushers. Engineering. October 9, 1953, 456458;

October 16, 1953, 485486.

Lang, B.X., 1998. Cone Crusher, rst ed. Mechanical Industry Publishing Company,

Beijing.

Magnus, B., Evertsson, C.M., 2006. An empirical model for predicting akiness in cone

crushing. Int. J. Miner. Process. 79, 4960.

Glossary

Roman

B

i

breakage function of crushing zone i

F

i

feeding matrix of crushing zone i

F feeding matrix of initial feed

F

FI akiness index

FI

i

percentage of aky particles of size range j

FI

total

mass of total aky particles to the mass of total product

g gravitational acceleration

h height of pivot point

k total number of size range

K

s

feed size distribution coefcient

K

h

material hardness coefcient

m total number of crushing zones

M

i

mass of materials in crushing zone i

n eccentric shaft speed

P

i

product matrix of crushing zone i

P product matrix of nal product

P

CSS

product weight percentage undersize

P

SIZE

particle size of the product

P

SIZEj

average particle size of size range j of the product

Q productivity of cone crusher

S

i

selection function of crushing zone i

S

troke

stroke of discharge gate

(s/b)

i

utilized compression ratio of crushing zone i

t

i

time of the ith falling motion

V

i

volume of crushing zone i

Greek letter

base angle of cone

i

nip angle of crushing zone i

nip

average nip angle of crushing chamber

eccentric angle

density of material

i

volumetric lling ratio of crushing zone i

Acronyms

CSS closed side setting

Fig. 6. The akiness index of the nal product.

208 D. Gang et al. / Int. J. Miner. Process. 93 (2009) 204208

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