# Code No: RR210501

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DISCRETE STRUCTURES AND GRAPH THEORY ( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology, Computer Science & Systems Engineering and Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Show that P → (Q → R) ⇔ P → (⌉ QVR ) ⇔ (P ∧ Q) → R (b) Show that (⌉ P ∧ (⌉ Q ∧ R)) V (Q ∧ R) V (P ∧ R) ⇔ R 2. (a) Show that when a relation R is symmetric, so is any Rk for any k > 0, where Rk is the kth power of the relation R. [8+8] (b) Let R be a relation on the set N of positive integers deﬁned by the equation x2 + 2y = 100, ﬁnd the domain of R, range of R and R −1 . 3. (a) Let L be lattice. Then prove that a ∧ b = a if and only if a ∨ b = b. [8+8] [8+8]

(b) Deﬁne the dual of a statement in a lattice L.Why does the principle apply to L? 4. (a) Describe dijkstra’s Algorithm to ﬁnd the shortest path between two speciﬁed vertices. [10+6] (b) Demonstrate Dijkstra’s algorithm with a suitable example. 5. (a) Deﬁne cut-sets with one example. Show that every cut-set in connected graph G must contain at least one branch of every spanning tree of G. [9+7] (b) For the network shown below determine the maximum ﬂow between the vertices A and D by identifying the cut-set of minimum capacity as shown in the ﬁgure 1.

Figure 1:

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Code No: RR210501

Set No. 1

6. What is a minimum spanning tree? With the help of an example illustration, explain the basic concepts and terminology of minimum spanning tree. [16] 7. (a) Explain about Enumerating permutations with constrained repetitions. [8+8] (b) Compute the number of 10-digit numbers which contain only the digits 1,2 and 3 with the digit 2 appearing in each number exactly twice. 8. Solve the recurrence relation S(k) - 10 S(k-1) + 9S(k-2) = 0, S(0) = 3, S(1) = 11. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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Code No: RR210501

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DISCRETE STRUCTURES AND GRAPH THEORY ( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology, Computer Science & Systems Engineering and Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Without constructing the truth table ﬁnd whether A∧ is valid or not for the following. [8+8] → B, B → (C ∧ D) C → (A ∨ E) and A ∨ E . A← ← ← (b) Establish the validity of A∨C from A→ (B → C), B → (⌉ A∨⌉ C), C →(A∨⌉ B) ← ← ← and B. 2. (a) Let S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and let A = S × S. Deﬁne the following relation R on A such that (a, b) R (a’, b’) if and only if a b’ = a’b. [5+5+6] (b) Show that R is an equivalence relation. (c) Compute A/R. 3. (a) Deﬁne the term ‘lattice’, clearly stating the axioms. [6] (b) Let C be a collection of sets which are closed under intersection and union. Verify whether ( C, ∩, ∪ ) is a lattice. [10] 4. (a) Let dm and dM demote the minimum and maximum degrees of all the vertices of G(V,E), respectively. Show that, for a non directed graph G, dm ≤ 2.|E|/|v| ≤ dM [8+8] (b) Suppose that G is a non directed graph with 12 edges. Suppose that G has 6 vertices of degree 3 and the rest have degrees less than 3. Determine the minimum number of vertices, G can have. 5. Prove that if a connected graph has 2n vertices of odd degree, then (a) n Euler paths are required to contain each edge exactly once. (b) there exists a set of n such paths. 6. What is a minimum spanning tree? With the help of an example illustration, explain the basic concepts and terminology of minimum spanning tree. [16] 7. (a) How many bridge deals are there in which North and South get all the spades ? [8+8] (b) In how many ways can we distribute 10 red balls, 10 white balls, and 10 blue balls into 6 diﬀerent boxes ( any box may be left empty ) ? 8. Solve the recurrence relation an -7an−1+ 26an−2 − 24an−3 =0 for n≥ 2. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1 [16] [8+8]

Code No: RR210501

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DISCRETE STRUCTURES AND GRAPH THEORY ( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology, Computer Science & Systems Engineering and Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Obtain the formulae having the simplest possible form which are equivalent to the formulae given below. [8+8] i. ((P→Q) → (⌉ Q→ ⌉ P)) ∧R. ← ii. (P∧(Q∧S))V(⌉ P∧(Q∧S)) (b) Obtain the principal disjunctive and conjunctive normal forms for the following. → i. (⌉ P∨ ⌉ Q)→(P←⌉ Q) ii. (P→(Q∧R))∧(⌉ P→(⌉ Q∧⌉ R)) Which of the above is (are) tautology (ies). 2. (a) Let S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and let A = S × S. Deﬁne the following relation R on A such that (a, b) R (a’, b’) if and only if a b’ = a’b. [5+5+6] (b) Show that R is an equivalence relation. (c) Compute A/R. 3. (a) If f : X→Y and g : Y→X the function g is equal to f−1 only if g • f = Ix and f •g = Iy .Prove the result . [8+8] (b) Let f : R → R and g : R → R where R is the set of real numbers. Find f • g and g • f where f(x) = x2 - 2, g(x) = x + 4. State whether these functions are injective, subjective or objective. 4. (a) Deﬁne bigraph and their properties. (b) Find the diameter of Bipartite graph Km,n (c) A graph is Bipartite prove that all the cycles of the graph are even cycles. 5. (a) Prove that Petersen graph is neither Eulerian nor semi Eulerian. [8+8] [4+4+8]

(b) Prove that connected graph is semi-Eulerian if and only if it has actually zero or two vertices of odd degree. 6. (a) Prove that a connected graph is a tree if and only if it is minimally connected. (b) Deﬁne a Binary tree. Find the center, radius and diameter of the graph shown in the ﬁgure1. [8+8] 7. (a) How many integral solutions are there of x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 30 where for each; [10] 1 of 2

Code No: RR210501

Set No. 3

Figure 1: i. ii. iii. iv. xi ≥ 0; xi ≥ 1; x1 ≥ 2, x2 ≥ 3, x3 ≥ 4, x4 ≥ 2, x5 ≥ 0; xi ≥ i.

(b) Six distinct symbols are transmitted through a communication channel. A total of 12 blanks are to be inserted between the symbols with at least 2 blanks between every pair of symbols. In how many ways can the symbols and blanks be arranged? [6] 8. Explain the methods of solving recurrence relations with suitable examples. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR210501

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DISCRETE STRUCTURES AND GRAPH THEORY ( Common to Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology, Computer Science & Systems Engineering and Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Describe the Normal forms. (b) Obtain the principal disjunctive normal forms of i. ⌉ PVQ; ii. (P ∧ Q) V (⌉ P ∧ R) V (Q ∧ R). 2. (a) What are the properties of the relation r = ( i, j ) / |i - j| = 2 on the set A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 }. [8+8] (b) Determine all the bijections from { 1, 2, 3 } on to {a, b, c, d}. 3. (a) Deﬁne the term ‘lattice’, clearly stating the axioms. [6] [6+10]

(b) Let C be a collection of sets which are closed under intersection and union. Verify whether ( C, ∩, ∪ ) is a lattice. [10] 4. Prove that any 2 simple connected graphs with n vertices, all of degree 2, are isomorphic. [16] 5. (a) Deﬁne planar graph and show that the following graphs are planar i. Graph of order 5 and size 8. ii. Graph of order 6 and size 12. (b) Explain non-planar graph and prove that the complete graph of 5 varieties K5 is non-planar (Kurtowskis First graph). 6. (a) Use depth ﬁrst search to produce a spanning tree for the given graph. Choose node ‘a’ as the root for the ﬁgure1 [8+8] (b) Use kruskal’s algorithm to ﬁnd a minimum spanning tree for the weighted graph as shown in the ﬁgure2. 7. (a) In how many ways can 10 people be seated in a row so that a certain pair of them are not next to each other ? [8+8] (b) Deﬁne the combinations and permutations. 8. Solve the recurrence relation an -7an−1+ 26an−2 − 24an−3 =0 for n≥ 2. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16] [8+8]

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Code No: RR210501

Set No. 4

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