This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
http://www.melanet.com/clegg_series/diop.html Legrand H. Clegg II, Editor & Publisher * olu!e I, Edition III, "ebruar# 1$$7
%e&ei'e ())* +e,s 'ia E-(ail
-+E* +.*E/There was and is wide mingling of the blood of all races in Africa, but this is consistent with the general thesis that Africa is predominantly the land of the Negroes and Negroid peoples, just as Europe is a land of Caucasoids and Asia of Mongoloids. We may gi e up entirely, if we wish, the whole attempt to delimit races, but we cannot, if we are sane, di ide the world into whites, yellows, and blac!s, and then call blac!s white. W.E.". #u"ois, The world and Africa$ An %n&uiry into the part which Africa has played in world history. %nternational 'ublishers, New (or!, )*+), p. ))*
We would li!e to inform our readers that a remar!able disco ery has ta!en place in the ,-ueen.s Chamber, of the /reat 'yramid0 According to a report published on the %nternet on #ecember ), )**+, by 1obert 2ancoc!, "ritish author of the best selling boo!s, ,The 3ign and the 3eal, and ,4ingerprints of the /ods,, the /antenbrin! e5periment) was conducted in the /reat 'yramid on 6ctober 78, )**+. This project entailed an e5ploration of the narrow passage leading up from the southern shaft of the ,-ueen.s Chamber, in the /reat 'yramid. 4or se eral years, Egyptologists ha e !nown that a door e5ists at the upper end of the ,-ueen.s Chamber,, but until 6ctober 78, no one had penetrated it. 2ere, then, are the words of 2ancoc! regarding the e ents of
that date$ ,At the end of the ascending passage, 9 inches s&uare, leading from inside the /reat 'yramid.s .-ueen.s Chamber. is a small .door. with two metal .handles.. 6n 6ctober 78, )**+, #r. El "as and two assistants sent a fiber optic camera lens through a flaw in this door. What was allegedly found was a 7 meter by ).: meter chamber inside of which was a statue. The statue seemed to be in the image of a blac! male, holding an an!h in one hand. 6n
the opposing wall of
this chamber was a round shaped passage leading out.,7 ;Emphasis added< While citing three reliable sources for this report, 2ancoc! nonetheless cautions that it has not been completely erified. =ess restrained is American author and astronomer 1ichard 2oagland. 3pea!ing on Art "ell.s early morning nationwide tal! show ;>A"C radio< on #ecember 78, )**+, 2oagland de oted a considerable amount of time to a discussion of the same report and defended it with confidence. 2e also noted that, after the information lea!ed out, one of the sources was immediately fired and subjected to other se ere discipline.? We cite this report because, if true, it is an e5ample, among many, of a re olutionary disco ery made in secrecy by a group of specialists who may or may not re eal the total truth about what they ha e found. 4ortunately, because a number of laymen, academicians and scientists ha e been closely following de elopments on the /i@a plateau for se eral years, it was difficult for officials to suppress this e5periment. Ne ertheless, as of this writing no major media ha e published information on this disco ery. As Afrocentrists we stand in awe wondering how many other statues of "lac! males, and females for that matter, ha e been found in Egyptian archaeological sites and then hidden from public iewA
This recent disco ery ser es as a perfect segue into our topic for 4ebruary, "lac! 2istory Month$ ,The .racial. origin of the Ancient Egyptian people., As we noted in the #ecember issue of MAAT, e ery major newspaper and maga@ine in the nation and much of academe ha e attac!ed Africentrists as pseudoscientists. Especially scorned ha e been those scholars who claim that the Ancient Egyptians were "lac! Africans. 3ince the o erwhelming majority of the critics of Africentrism ha e engaged in nothing more than shadow bo5ing ;ne er pro iding their opponents with an opportunity to respond to their assaults<, we thin! a true debate is long o erdue. Therefore this issue of MAAT has been e5clusi ely de oted to a reprinting of an article written by the late 3enegalese nuclear physicist, anthropologist, Egyptologist, linguist and historian, Cheikh Anta Diop. Entitled "Origin of The Ancient Egyptians," the article was first published in BNE3C6, /eneral 2istory of Africa, ol 7, Ancient Ci ili@ations of Africa. EditedCtranslated by /. Mo!htar. Copyright ;c< )*98 BNE3C6.D This article pro ides a comprehensi e summary of the Africentric position on the race of the Ancient Egyptians. While the MAAT newsletter in ites a full spectrum of responses to this subject, we are ne ertheless setting two ground rules as fundamental re&uirements for a serious, ci il and objecti e discussion or debate$ ). %t must be recogni@ed that Egypt is and always has been on the continent of Africa. 1eferences to this country as a part of the Middle East, Near East, Mediterranean or e en the 4ertile Crescent, to the e5clusion of its location in Africa, is a blatant, racist distortion. 7. The color blac! cannot be defined as white. The only reasonable definition of the "lac! race is the following pro ided by #iop$ ,There are two ariants of the blac! race$ ;a< straightEhaired, represented in Asia by the #ra idians and in Africa by the Nubians
and the Tubbou or Tedda, all three with jetE blac! s!insF ;b< the !in!yEhaired blac!s of the E&uatorial regions.,: We flatly reject the specious reasoning of the early Egyptologist G. G. ChampollionE4igeac and modern anthropologists, who insist that ,HtIhe two physical traits of blac! s!in and !in!y hair are not enough to stamp a race as negro. . .,+ They then proceed to transfer some of the blac!est people in the world to the white race, if the blac!s in &uestion are the progenitors of an ad anced ci ili@ation. %f blac! s!in is insufficient to &ualify one for inclusion in the blac! race, then, what on earth is0A The brilliant African American historian W.E.". #u"ois, recogni@ed the contempt that the Western academic establishment has had for "lac! people and addressed it nearly +8 years ago$ "The Negro has long been the clown of history; the football of anthropology; and the slave of industry. I am trying to show here why these attitudes can no longer be maintained. I reali e that the truth of history lies not in the mouths of partisans but rather in the calm !cience that sits between. "er cause I see# to serve$ and wherever I fail$ I am at least paying Truth the respect of earnest effort."% We welcome you to join us as truth see!ers. The feature article in the March issue of MAAT will be "New Discoveries On The Giza Platea ! "hat are the #$plications %or &lack People'" J=egrand 2. Clegg %% is an attorney, historian and producer of the awardEwinning ideotape, ,When "lac! Men 1uled The World$ Egypt #uring The /olden Age., ;To order the ideotape, please call )E988EK99EC=E//<
http://www.I =ea!ey. form the substance of the last report presented by the late #r. %.anw. 1.-.ingerprints of The (ods: The -vidence of -arth*s .irst edition$ &020@ ArausBThomson 8rgani ation . More than ):8. Ibid$p.com/hancoc#/updates. IC.) %t means that the whole human race had its origin. just as the ancients had guessed." *HE )+CIE+* EG0P*I)+/ b# Chei1h )nta 2io3 The general acceptance. 5. 'udolf (antenbrin#$ a (erman robotics engineer$ built a robot to climb the southern shaft of the ")ueen*s +hamber. )uoted in "8rigin of The 9ncient -gyptians$" :99T Newsletter$ .imited$ :illwood$ N$>. <.=. and others which it would ta!e too long to recapitulate here. . &3.%ootnotes &. 4u=ois$ =lac# . beings morphologically identical with the man of today were li ing in the region of the great la!es at the sources of the Nile and nowhere else. &0%1$ p. 23&. of the hypothesis of man!ind.ost +ivili ation$ +rown /ublishers$ Inc.ol#: Then and Now$ New >or# ?. /ermission for reprinting the article was granted by the 7niversity of +alifornia /ress.htm. 3. =ea!ey at the 3e enth 'anE African Congress of 'reE2istory in Addis Ababa in )*K).%IGI+ . &.888 years ago. as a se&uel to the wor! of 'rofessor H=ouis ". 2.com 6. This notion." (raham "ancoc#$ .$ &001$ p.ebruary$ &0%%$ p.s monogenetic and African origin.artbell. ma!es it possible to pose the &uestion of the peopling of Egypt and e en of the world in completely new terms. (raham "ancoc#$ "Newsflash from (i a as of 4ecember &$ &005$" http://www. Against all e5pectations and in defiance of recent hypotheses it was from this place that men mo ed .. at the foot of the mountains of the Moon.
the findings of the anthropologists would dissipate all doubts by pro iding reliable and definiti e truths. introduces so much scientific hairE splitting that there are times when one wonders whether the solution of the problem would not ha e been nearer if we had not had the ill luc! to approach it from this angle.s basin was ta!en o er progressi ely by these negroid peoples. the whole of the ri er. the 3ahara and the Nile alley.b< there were only two routes a ailable by which these early men could mo e out to people the other continents. he was bound to ha e brown pigmentation from the start and and it was by differentiation in other climates that the original stoc! later split into different racesF .a< of necessity the earliest men were ethnically homogeneous and negroid. 4rom the Bpper 'alaeolithic to the dynastic epoch.s law.7 2ence if man!ind originated in the tropics around the latitude of the great la!es. Evi(ence of Physical Anthropology on the )ace of the Ancient Egyptians %t might ha e been thought that. This is by no means so$ the arbitrary nature of the criteria used. /loger. which would also appear to be applicable to human beings. as well as abolishing any notion of a conclusion acceptable without &ualification.eumelanin<. wor!ing on physiological e idence. 4rom this two facts of capital importance result$ .out to people the rest of the world. %t is the latter region which will be discussed here. . namely. lays it down that warmEblooded animals e ol ing in a warm humid climate will secrete a blac! pigment . to go no farther.
Ne ertheless.%nstitut d.Ethnologi5. These measurements. the auricular height.)< negroid . A sample follows$ An attempt was made by Thompson and 1andall Mac% er to determine more precisely the importance of the negroid element in the series of s!ulls from El. Egypt . %n the total height of the s!ull. though both are blac! races. which would lea e an open choice between the two e5tremes represented by the negro and the /ermanic races. nasal length. They di ided them into three groups$ . %t is not possible in this paper to cite all these conclusions$ they will be found summari@ed in Chapter L of #r. gi e an idea of the elasticity of the criteria employed.s 2istoire et protohistoire d. Emile Massoulard. We shall &uote selected items only.Amrah. 'aris. height of orbit. %t is worth noting that the nasal indices of Ethiopians and #ra idians would seem to appro5imate them to the /ermanic peoples. length of palate and nasal inde5 it would seem closed to the /ermanic peoplesF accordingly the 'reE#ynastic Negadians are li!ely to ha e resembled the negroes in certain of their characteristics and the white race in others. they still spea! unanimously of the e5istence of a negro race from the most distant ages of prehistory down to the dynastic period. the length and breadth of the face. although the conclusions of these anthropological studies stop short of the full truth. )*D*<. Abydos and 2ou. Miss 4awcett considers that the Negadah s!ulls form a sufficiently homogeneous collection to warrant the assumption of a Negadah race. cephalic inde5 and facial inde5 this race would seem to appro5imate to the negroF in nasal breadth.
.p. The proportion of negroids would seem to ha e 7DM of men and )*M of women in the early 'reE#ynastic and 7:M and 79M respecti ely in the late 'reE#ynastic. .7< nonEnegroid s!ulls .?< interE mediate s!ulls . %t may also be remar!ed that the distinction between negroid. that if the criterion were applied to the )D8 million negroes now ali e in blac! Africa a minimum of )88 million negroes would emerge whitewashed. still less so. . 'reE#ynastic to our own day.4al!enburger reopened the anthropological study of the Egyptian population in a recent wor! in which he discusses ). 2is opinion is that if the same criteria were applied to the study of any series of contemporary English s!ulls. the sample would be found to contain appro5imately ?8M of negroid types.s proposition could also be asserted. 2e distinguishes four main groups.pp. long narrow face and narrow nose<. D78E)< The con erse of >ieth.assignable to one of the two pre ious groups on the basis of either the facial inde5 or on the e idence of the nasal inde5.K9K male s!ulls arying in date from the old.facial inde5 abo e :D and nasal inde5 below :8. 3hort broad face and broad nose<F . does not mean of white race and .e. plus indi iduals marginal to either group<.nonEnegroid. i. . The sorting of the predynastic s!ulls . >ieth has disputed the alue of the criterion selected by Thompson and 1andall Mac% er to distinguish the negroid from the nonEnegroid s!ulls. nonEnegroid and intermediary is unclearF the fact is that . D7)<.s!ulls .intermediary.those with a facial inde5 below :D and a nasal inde5 abo e :8. namely.
a third of Mediterraneans. a tenth of CroEMagnoids and a fifth of indi iduals crossbred E to arying degrees.. Thus they are all incompatible with the theories that the negro element only infiltrated into Egypt at a late stage.#o 4al!enburger.brown. published a study of the races of Egypt in the 'reE#ynastic and 'rotoE . The proportion of negroids is definitely higher than that suggested by Thomson and 1andall Mac% er.. .white. 4ar otherwise... . ??M Mediterranean. in this conte5t refers to s!in colour and is simply a euphemism for negro. %f they are accurate. D77<. . particularly when we note once more that . barring an infiltration of white nomads in the protoEdynastic epoch %n 'etrie.Mediterranean..s .p. The term .Elliott 3mith classes these 'rotoEEgyptians as a branch of what he calls the brown race.? it is thus clear that it was the whole of the Egyptian population which was negro. is not a synonym for . or Mediterranean race being nearer to the mar!. the facts pro e that it was preponderant from the beginning to the end of Egyptian history. . ElliottE3mith. though >ieth considers the latter too high. 'etrie .s figures reflect the realityA %t is not our tas! to decide this.?+M negroid. The point about all these conclusions is that despite their discrepancies the degree to which they con erge pro es that the basis of the Egyptian population was negro in the 'reE#ynastic epoch. . comprised at least three distinct racial elements E o er a third of negroids.s study of the Egyptian race we are introduced to a possible classification element in great abundance which cannot fail to surprise the reader.into these four groups gi es the following results for the whole predynastic period$ .brown. the 'reE #ynastic population far from representing a pure bred race. ))M CroEMagnoid and 78M of indi iduals not falling in any of these groups but appro5imating either to the CroEMagnoid or to the negroid. as ElliottE3mith has said.
jutting beard. type almost certainly from the Arabian #esert$ a .Egyptians<. "e that as it may.?*)< The abo e mode of classification gi es an idea of the arbitrary nature of the criteria used to define the Egyptian races. /oing on the images. there would thus ha e been se en different racial types in Egypt during the epochs we are considering.p. he distinguishes si5 separate types$ an a&uiline type representati e of a whiteE s!inned =ibyan raceF a . .plaited beard..or red< s!inned whites . who belong among the whites of the northern or Mediterranean periphery and hence are many steps remo ed from the brown . it is clear that anthropology is far from ha ing established the e5istence of a white Egyptian race and would indeed tend rather to suggest the opposite. type from Bpper Egypt. type from =ower EgyptF and a .sharpEnosed. . "ut there is no such basis. type belonging to an in ading race coming perhaps from the shores of the 1ed 3ea.tiltedEnose.narrowEnose.D . a misnomer au initio since Africa contains many other peoples besides the soEcalled =ibyans.. And so generation after generation has been misled. Ne ertheless. Apart from the steatopygian race. a .=ibya. Many authorities s!ate around the difficulty today by spea!ing of redEs!inned and blac!Es!inned whites without their sense of common logic being in the least upset.The /ree!s call Africa . in current te5tboo!s the &uestion is suppressed$ in most cases it is simply and flatly asserted that the Egyptians were white and the honest layman is left with the impression that any such assertion must necessarily ha e a prior basis of solid research. %n the pages which follow we shall see that study of the s!eletons seems to pro ide little authority for these conclusions.#ynastic periods wor!ing only on portrayals of them. as this chapter has shown. type from Middle EgyptF a .
who are all shown as ser ile foreign elements ha ing reached the alley by infiltration . * $an #$ages of the Protohistoric Perio(! Their Anthropological +al e The study of human images made by 4linders 'etrie on another plane shows that the ethnic type was blac!$ according to 'etrie these people were the Anu whose name.The 3corpion >ing . when in fact there was really a single and by now practically homogeneous people. Tera NeterK and the 3corpion !ing whom 'etrie groups togetherF . !nown to us since the protohistoric epoch.the great negro. moreo er he worshipped Min and 3et. . belonged to the preceding race of Anu. The nati es of the country are always represented with unmista!able chiefly emblems for which one loo!s in ain among the infre&uent portrayals of other races.9 As we shall see later Min.whites.A "lac! is distinguished less by the colour of his s!in .<. flattened nose . was called by the tradition of Egypt itself . is always . with three pillars on the few inscriptions e5tant from the end of the fourth millennium before our era. .: %t is only through these twistings of the basic definitions that it has been possible to bleach the Egyptian race. . and particularly in 4rance.written..cf..for there are blac!E s!inned . but continue unthin!ingly to apply the old methods to the nonEEuropean societies. .+ Today 6ccidentals who alue their national cohesion are careful to a oid e5amining their own societies on so di isi e a hypothesis.< than by his features$ thic! lips. li!e the chief gods of Egypt. %t is worthwhile calling to mind the e5aggerations of the theorists of anthropoEsociology in the last century and the beginnings of the present one whose minute physiognomical analyses disco ered racial stratifications e en in Europe.%n a te5tboo! intended for the middle secondary school we find the following sentence$ . ..
a name determined by the word . Amelineau lists in geographical order the fortified towns built along the length of the Nile alley by the Annu blac!s. we find that they occupied southern Egypt and Nubia. opposite to it. The ne5t place in the south is Aunti . Tera Neter. in the following terms$ "esides these types. Annu Menti..6n.Esneh< H2ieroglyphicsI NAn Nthe southern . The subject ramifies too doubtfully if we include all single pillar names. or Annu. H2ieroglyphicsI NAntN. .written with three pillars< who became a part of the historic inhabitants. belonging to the North and East. the Anu. people .. but loo!ing for the Annu written. the traditional birthplace of %sis H2ieroglyphicsI N A town also called . there is the aboriginal race of the Anu. and beyond that AunytE3eni .'alace of the Anu in 2emen city. . As to the southern Egyptians. Tera Neter. 'etrie describes the latter. we ha e the most essential document. was the palace of Annu of the south. and the name is also applied in 3inai and =ibya..6n. roughly modelled in relief in green gla@ed faience. in the name of Tinis H2ieroglyphicsI NThe town called the northern . found in the early temple at Abydos. one portrait of a chief.now 2ermonthis< H2ieroglyphicsI N#enderah.6n. Erment.Esneh<. the renowned city of 2eliopolis The common ancestor of the Annu settled along the Nile was Ani or An. 2emen was the name of the god of Tuphium.After a glance at the arious foreign types of humanity who disputed the alley with the indigenous blac!s. 'receding his name his address is gi en on this earliest of isiting cards. with the three pillars./efeleyn<.
!het< and which. is less than that of the preceding items.)7 "y reference to the faces reproduced in the figure it is easily percei ed that there is no ethnic difference between the two lots. and both belong to the blac! race."oo! of the #ead. indeed recall that is also surnamed by . just as %sis is the sister of 6siris. which was not found in situ but in the possession of a merchant. the archaeological alue of this object. The god Anu is represented alternately by the symbol HhieroglyphicsI and the symbol HhieroglyphicsI.6siris Ani.s interpretation$ .. The identity of the god An with 6siris has been demonstrated by 'leyteF)8 we should. Are the Auna! tribes now inhabiting the upper Nile related to the ancient AnnuA 4uture research will pro ide the answer to this &uestion. dating from the earliest ersions of the ."elow is the blac! ship at 2iera!onpolis belonging to the blac! men who are shown as con&uering the red men.HhieroglyphicsI .who is himself a 'haraoh e en at that date as his headEdress shows< and a dynastic people worshipping the falcion and probably represented by the 'haraoh. 'etrie thin!s it possible to ma!e a distinction between the predynastic people represented by Tera Neter and the 3corpion >ing ..)? The /ebelEelEAra! !nife haft shows similar scenes$ .There are also combats of blac! men o ercoming red men. The mural in tomb 3# +? . onwards.3e&uence #ate +?< of 2iera!onopolis shows the nati eEborn blac!s subjugating the foreign intruders into the alley if we accept 'etrie.s Narmer.A< the AnouF .)D >hase!hem. is gi en to the god 6risis..)? 2owe er. 3ane!hei and Ooser. The wife of HhieroglyphicsI the god Ani is the goddess Anet HhieroglyphicsI who is also his sister. What the abo e shows is that the images of men of the protohistoric and e en of the dynastic period in no way s&uare with the idea of the Egyptian race popular with .
but in ariably as con&uered foreigners. 'etrie found a pla&ue showing an %ndoEEuropean capti e in chains with his hands behind his bac!. ery blac!.)+. . it is e idently negroid. %n contrast.*. a Cameroon type. The rare portrayals found are always shown with the distincti e mar!s of capti ity.Western anthropologists.)9 Menthuhotep. The characteristics of the object itself show that it was intended as the foot of a piece of furniture and represented a con&uered race.)D showing %ndoEEuropean and 3emitic prisoners.first dynasty< at Abydos. founder of the ele enth dynasty.): and ). The dynastic epoch has also yielded the documents illustrated in 'ls ). Where er the autochthonous racial type is represented with any degree of clearness.Narmer. third dynasty. the actual founder of the 'haraonic lineF Ooser.)D A protodynastic figurine represents an %ndoEEuropean prisoner with a long plait on his !nees. ha e been included deliberately to contrast them with the &uite dissimilar physiognomies of the blac! pharaohs and to demonstrate clearly that there is no trace of either of the first two types in the whole line of 'haraohs if we e5clude the foreign =ibyan and 'tolemaic dynasties.): 6ften the portrayal is deliberately grotes&ue as with other protoEdynastic figures showing indi iduals with their hair plaited in what 'etrie calls pigtails. first dynasty.)* 3esostris )F -ueen Ahmosis NefertariF and Amenhophis %< show that all classes of Egyptian society belong to the same blac! race. with his hands bound tight to his body. by whose time all the technological elements of the Egyptian ci ili@ation were already in e idenceF Cheops. and ).)+ %n the tomb of >ing >a . hands tied behind the bac! or strained o er the shoulders. the typically negroid features of the pharaohs . showing the %ndoEEuropean and 3emitic types. 'ls ). Nowhere are the %ndoEEuropean and 3emitic elements shown e en as ordinary freeman ser ing a local chief.)K ElliottE3mith considers that the indi idual represented is a 3emite. the builder of the /reat 'yramid.
a< straightE haired. broadly spea!ing. 3eti % and 1amses %% in the Cairo . show a melanin le el which is nonE e5istent in the whiteEs!inned races.b< the !in!yEhaired blac!s of the E&uatorial regions. despite a tenacious legend that the s!in of mummies.eumelanin<. tainted by the embalming material.ee de l. .78 There is thus all the more reason for it to be readily reco erable in the s!ins of Egyptian mummies. e en where the latter has mostly been destroyed by the embalming materials. all three with jetEblac! s!insF .%t is usual to contrast the negresses on the tomb of 2oremheb with the Egyptian type also shown. is no longer susceptible of any analysis. the chemical body responsible for s!in pigmentation. "oth types entered into the composition of the Egyptian population.elanin Dosage Test %n practice it is possible to determine directly the s!in colour and hence the ethnic affiliations of the ancient Egyptians by microscopic analysis in the laboratoryF % doubt if the sagacity of the researchers who ha e studied the &uestion has o erloo!ed the possibility. There are two ariants of the blac! race$ .7) Although the epidermis is the main site of the melanin. represented in Asia by the #ra idians and in Africa by the Nubians and the Tubbou or Tedda. Melanin . is.77 The same method is perfectly suitable for use on the royal mummies of Thutmoses %%%. The samples % myself analy@ed were ta!en in the physical anthropology laboratory of the Mus. This contrast is surely a false oneF it is social and not ethnic and there is as much difference between an aristocratic 3enegalese lady from #a!ar and those anti&ue African peasant women with their horny hands and splay feet as between the latter and an Egyptian lady of the cities of anti&uity.2omme in 'aris off the mummies from the Marietta e5ca ations in Egypt. the melanocytes penetrating the derm at the boundary between it and the epidermis. insoluble and is preser ed for millions of years in the s!ins of fossil animals.
The Egyptian )ace Accor(ing to the Classical A thors of Anti. the osteological measurements are perhaps the least misleading . in round figures. which are in an e5cel state of preser ation. This study was made by the distinguished /erman sa ant =epsius at the end of the nineteenth century and his conclusions remain alidF subse&uent methodological progress in the domain of physical anthropology in no way undermines what is called the . belong to the same /roup " as the populations of western Africa on the Atlantic seaboard and not the A7 group characteristic of the white race prior to any crossbreeding.=epsius canon.ity .7D %t would be interesting to study the e5tent of /roup A7 distribution in Egyptian mummies. which presentEday techni&ues ma!e possible. the Egyptians belong among the blac! races. Osteological . 4or two years past % ha e been ainly begging the curator of the Cairo Museum for similar samples to firstname.lastname@example.org contrast to craniometry< for distinguishing a blac! man from a white man. the preparations being a few um in thic!ness and lightened with ethyl ben@oate. No more than a few s&uare millimetres of s!in would be re&uired to mount a specimen. particularly in Bpper Egypt. gi es the bodily proportions of the ideal Egyptian.Museum. They can be studied by natural light or with ultraE iolet lighting which renders the melanin grains fluorescent. which. Either way let us simply say that the e aluation of melanin le el by microscopic e5amination is a laboratory method which enables us to classify the ancient Egyptians un&uestionably among the blac! races. "y this criterion. shortEarmed and of negroid or negrito physical type. also.eas re$ents Among the criteria accepted in physical anthropology for classifying races.7? &loo( Gro ps %t is a notable fact that e en today Egyptians.
se eral Egyptians told me that in their opinion the Colchidians were descended from soldiers of 3esostris.7+ . a further strong proof to my mind is that all those 'hoenicians trading to /reece cease to treat the pudenda after the Egyptian manner and do not subject their offspring to circumcision.s race will be difficult to minimi@e or pass o er. As between the Egyptians themsel es and the Ethiopians % could not say which taught the other the practice for among them it is &uite clearly a custom of great anti&uity. These are the only races which practice circumcision and it is obser able that they do it in the same way as the Egyptians. ED98.To the /ree! and =atin writers contemporary with the ancient Egyptians the latter.s e idence on a physical fact as salient as a people. . . thic!E lipped. The 'hoenicians and 3yrians of 'alestine themsel es admit that they learnt the practice from the Egyptians while the 3yrians in the ri er Thermodon and 'athenios region and their neighbors the Macrons say they learnt it recently from the Colchidians..A< to ED7:. With regard to the origins of the Colchians7: he writes$ it is in fact manifest that the Colchidians are Egyptian by race ..s physical classification posed no problems$ the Egyptians were negroes. % had conjectured as much myself from two pointers. As to the custom ha ing been learnt through their Egyptian connections. 3ome of the following e idence dri es home the point.the father of history.a< 2erodotus. firstly because they ha e blac! s!ins and !in!y hair .to tell the truth this pro es nothing for other peoples ha e them too< and secondly. and more reliably for the reason that alone among man!ind the Egyptians and the Ethiopians ha e practiced circumcision since time immemorial. !in!yEhaired and thinEleggedF the unanimity of the author..
.A< to P)*8.79 2e relied on the fact that it neither rains or snows in Ethiopia . scientist.describing a young Egyptian<$ . and when they add that the do e was blac! they gi e us to understand that the woman was Egyptian. /ree! writer.2erodotus re erts se eral times to the negroid character of the Egyptians and each time uses it as a fact of obser ation to argue more or less comple5 theses. According to him.7* . his hair worn in a plait behind shows that he is not a freeman.Those who are too blac! are cowards. . one of his arguments is the following$ . The e idence of =ucian is as e5plicit as that of the two pre ious writers.. to establish a correlation between the physical and moral natures of li ing beings and lea es us e idence on the EgyptianEEthiopian race which confirms what 2erodotus says.and the heat there turns men blac!. =ycinus . the comple5ion of courage is between the two.c< =ucian. the Egyptians and Ethiopians. philosopher and tutor of Ale5ander the /reat.. with une5pected nai ete.. Aristotle attempts. .6asis of Gupiter Amon< respecti ely. P)7:.. 2erodotus did not share the opinion of Ana5agoras that the melting of the snows on the mountains of Ethiopia was the source of the Nile floods.. =ycinus and Timolaus. %n one of his minor wor!s. . "ut those who are e5cessi ely white are also cowards as we can see from the e5ample of women. who start a con ersation.This boy is not merely blac!F he has thic! lips and his legs are too thin.7K The do es in &uestion E actually there were two according to the te5t E symboli@e two Egyptian women who are said to ha e "EEN carried off from the Egyptian Thebes to found the oracles in /reece at #odona and in =ibya .?8 . . . Thus to pro e that the /ree! oracle at #ondona in Epirus was of Egyptian origin. li!e for instance. 2e introduces two /ree!s. E?9* to E??7. .b< Aristotle.
?D There is no doubt whate er as to 3trabo. climbs a hilloc!... . =ycinus.Aegyptos con&uered the country of the blac!E footed ones and called it Egypt after himself.?7 . ppliants. first century before our era.% can see the crew with their blac! limbs and white tunics.?? A similar description of the Egyptian type of man recurs a few lines later in erse KD:.s notion of the Egyptian. loo!s out to sea and describes the Aegyptiads at the oars afar off in these terms$ .f< Achilles Tatius of Ale5andria. fleeing with his daughters.d< Apollodorus.Timolaus$ . tragic poet and creator of /ree! tragedy. who see! to wed their cousins by force. #anaos. and pursued by his brother Aegyptos with his sons.. /ree! philosopher. the Aegyptiads. All freeborn children plait their hair until they reach manhood. 2e compares the herdsmen of the #elta to the Ethiopians and e5plains that they are blac!ish. the #anaids. 3trabo isited Egypt and almost all the countries of the 1oman empire.?) . %t is the e5act opposite of the custom of our ancesE tors who thought it seemly for old men to secure their hair with a gold brooch to !eep it in place.e< Aeschylus. 2e concurs in the theory that the Egyptians and the Colchoi are of the same race but holds that the migrations to Ethiopia and Colchoi had been from Egypt only . E:7:.Egyptians settled in Ethiopia and in Colchoi. . %n The .g< 3trabo.s race for he see!s elsewhere to e5plain why the Egyptians .A< to ED:+.."ut that is a sign of really distinguished birth in Egypt. E:9 to about P7:. . li!e halfEcastes.
. the greater part of their laws. With him we reach the sunset of the 1oman empire and the end of classical anti&uity. There are about nine centuries between the birth of Aeschylus and 2erodotus . of any attempt at confusing . founder of the stoic 3chool .. =atin historian and friend of the Emperor Gulian.. Apollonius of Tyre says of him that he was gaunt. a proportion of the people emigrate to new territory<. about E+? to P)D. The Ethiopians say that the Egyptians Qare one of their colonies. a circumstance which would permit the refutation. certain people called him an Egyptian ineEshoot. with o erpopulation.?: which was led into Egypt by 6siris. carrying down ast &uantities of loam from Ethiopia in its flood waters. . According to #iodorus it was probably Ethiopia which coloni@ed Egypt .the 2indu and Egyptian races.?K .in the Athenian sense of the term.j< Ammianus Marcellinus.E??? to E7+)<$ .Oeno son of Mnaseas or #emeas was a nati e of Citium in Cyprus. They add that the Egyptians ha e recei ed from them. hence the fact that. a /ree! city which has ta!en in some 'hoenician colonists.are dar!er than the 2indus. about P?? to P)88. signifying that. as from authors and their ancestors. if needed. according to Chrysippus in the 4irst "oo! of his 'ro erbs. They claim that at the beginning of the world Egypt was simply a sea but that the Nile.h< #iodorus of 3icily.?+ . 2e wrote the following about Oeno.i< #iogenes =aertius. . finally filled it in and made it part of the continent. Timotheus of Athens describes Oeno as ha ing a twisted nec!. %n his /ives. /ree! historian and contemporary of Caesar Augustus. ery tall and blac!.
4or my part % consider the Colchoi are a colony of the Egyptians because. in a word. an ancient race of Egyptian origin. on isiting the 3phin5. they are blac! s!inned and !in!yEhaired. and made the following obser ations on the true Egyptian race.?* 2e also confirms the e idence already cited about the Colchoi$ .and the death of Ammianus Marcellinus. who tra elled in Egypt between P)K9? and P)K9:. all this crossbreeding should not ha e succeeded in upsetting the racial constants. the two alternati es between which presentEday Egyptology constantly oscillates. race shows that the e5tent of agreement between them is impressi e and is an objecti e fact difficult to minimi@e or conceal. "eholding that head characteristically Negro in all its features.. . li!e them."eyond these lands are the heartlands of the CamaritaeD8 and the 'hasis with its swifter stream borders the country of the Colchoi.the men of Egypt are mostly brown and blac! with a s!inny and desiccated loo!. % was tempted to attribute this to the climate until. %t can be said without e5aggeration that in Egypt one household in ten included a white Asiatic or %ndoEEuropean sla e. namely the Copts$ All of them are puffyEfaced.. the loo! of it ga e me the clue to the egnima. An e5ception is the e idence of an honest sa ant. hea y eyed and thic!Elipped. amid a sea of white races. .. %n other words the ancient Egyptians were true negroes of the same . steadily crossbred. real mulatto faces. the same which produced the 'haraohs. % recalled the wellE!nown passage of 2erodotus which reads$ .e. %ndeed Ammianus Marcellinus writes$ . nine centuries during which the Egyptians. Rolney. at the pea! period of negro sla ery. i. despite its intensity..D) This cursory re iew of the e idence of the ancient /raecoE=atin writers on the Egyptians.?* %t is remar!able that.
%t is e en possible to apply this obser ation ery widely and posit in principle that physiognomy is a !ind of record usable in many cases for disputing or elucidating the e idence of history on the origins of the peoples . . What a subject for meditation is the presentEday barbarity and ignorance of the Copts who were considered. . that this race of blac!s who nowadays are sla es and the objects of our scorn is the ery one to which we owe our arts. Rolney adds$ but re erting to Egypt. after some centuries of mi5ing with the blood of 1omans and /ree!s. our sciences. must ha e lost the full blac!ness of its original colour but retained the impress of its original mould.D? . born of the alliance of the deep genius of the Egyptians and the brilliance of the /ree!s.. brother of Champollion the (ounger.s conclusion as to the negro origin of the ancient population of Egypt is glaringly forced and inadmissible. its contributions to history afford many subjects for philosophic reflection. After illustrating this proposition citing the case of the Normans. and e en the use of spo!en wordF and finally recollect that it is in the midst of the peoples claiming to be the greatest friends of liberty and humanity that the most barbarous of ensla ements has been sanctioned and the &uestion raised whether blac! men ha e brains of the same &uality as those of white men0D7 To this testimony of Rolney. who *88 years after the con&uest of Normandy still loo! li!e #anes. was to reply in the following terms$ .stoc! as all the autochthonous peoples of Africa and from that datum one sees how their race.The two physical traits of blac! s!in and !in!y hair are not enough to stamp a race as negro and Rolney. ChampollionE4igeac.
The Egyptians as They .interpreting.D: This word is the etymological origin of the wellE!nown root >amit which has proliferated in modern anthropological literature. ..!mt. it meant .literally<. "ut we ha e only to reEread Rolney$ he is simply drawing the inferences from crude material facts forcing themsel es on his eyes and his conscience as proofs. in the 'haraonic mother tongue which ga e it birth. from the adjecti e HhieroglyphicsI N!mNblac!F it therefore means strictly negroes or at the ery least blac! men. twisting or . 2ow did the ancient Egyptians see themsel esA %nto which ethnic category did they put themsel esA What did they call themsel esA The language and literature left to us by the Egyptians of the 'haraonic epoch supply e5plicit answers to these &uestions which the scholars cannot refrain from minimi@ing. The Egyptians had only one term to designate themsel es$ HhieroglyphicsIN!mtNthe negroes .aw The$selves %t is no waste of time to get the iews of those principally concerned."eing blac! from head to foot and ha ing !in!y hair is not enough to ma!e a man a negro0 This shows us the !ind of specious argumentation to which Egyptology has had to resort since its birth as a science. 3ome scholars maintain that Rolney was see!ing to shift the discussion to a philisophic plane.. The biblical root ka$ is probably deri ed from it and it has therefore been necessary to distort the facts to enable this root today to mean 0white0 in Egyptological terms whereas. a word of assembly is formed from an adjecti e or a noun by putting it in the feminine singular. %n the Egyptian language. The term is a collecti e noun which thus described the whole people of 'haraonic Egypt as a blac! people.coal blac!. .DD This is the strongest term e5isting in the 'haraonic tongue to indicate blac!nessF it is accordingly written with a hieroglyph representing a length of wood charred at the end and not crocodile scales.
concede that here the adjecti e .the blac! earth. and for this particuar e5pression Egyptologists suggest that HheiroglyphicsI !mNblac! and that the colour &ualifies the determinati e which follows it and which signifies . or the . if it is possible to oice a doubt as regards the e5pression HhieroglyphicsI N>me.s arguments completely at random. or .blac!. they claim.country.man.. in the 'haronic language. which comes from the same root k$ and which the Egyptians also used to describe themsel es as a people as distinguished from all foreign peoples.DK They prefer the e5pression HhieroglyphicsI 1mt !mtNthe men of the country of the blac! men or the men of the blac! country. %t is a remar!able circumstance that the ancient Egyptians should ne er ha e had the idea of applying .literally<Nthe Egyptians. if one wishes to indicate negroes in the 'haraonic tongue.the country of the blac! men.. HhieroglyphicsI !mtjwNthe negroes. it is not possible to do so in the case of the two adjecti es of nationality HhieroglyphicsI !mt and !mtjw unless one is pic!ing one. one cannot use any other word than the ery one which the Egyptians used of themsel es. and not . 'erhaps so. 4urthermore. Accordingly. from the colour of the loam. while remaining completely silent about their etymological sense. and the three stro!es below them which indicate the plural. Thus. but if we apply this rule rigorously to HhieroglyphicsI N!mit. words are normally followed by a determinati e which indicates their e5act sense. the translation should be .blac!.Egyptians. &ualifies the determinati e which signifies the whole people of Egypt shown by the two symbols for . on the purely grammatical plane. as opposed to . and .negro.woman. %n Egyptian.D+ These are the only adjecti es of nationality used by the Egyptians to designate themsel es and both mean .foreigners. we are forced to .%n other words. as we should be inclined to render it today with blac! Africa and white Africa in mind.. the language offers us another term. 3cholars hardly e er mention them or when they do it is to translate them by euphemisms such as the . the blac! men .blac! country.
it is a deliberate mistranslation to render it as negro as is done in almost all presentEday publications. for 6sirisD* HhieroglyphicsI N!mNthe blac! P the name of the god:8 HhieroglyphicsI N!mtNthe blac! P the name of the goddess:) The !m . and accordingly the distinguishing terms used related to le el of ci ili@ation or moral sense./reat Negro.these &ualificati es to the Nubians and other populations of Africa to distinguish them from themsel esF any more than a 1oman at the apogee of the empire could use a . Apis.blac!< HhieroglyphicsI &ualificati e is applied to 2athor. whereas all the male olent spirits are &ualified as desretNredF we also !now that to Africans this form applies to the white nationsF it is practically certain that this held good for Egypt too but % want in this chapter to !eep to the least debatable facts. is &ualified by the term desretNred. The surnames of the gods are these$ HhieroglyphicsI N!mwrNthe . with no colour connotation in Egyptian. Thoth.colour. of the same stoc!. the /ermans. especially the .. etc:7 HhieroglyphicsI set !mtNthe blac! womanN%sis:? 6n the other hand . The Divine Epithets 4inally. the sterile desert.seth. adjecti e to distinguish himself from the /ermani on the other ban! of the #anube. :D The wild animals which 2orus fought to create ci ili@ation are &ualified as desretNred. were barbarians. The Egyptians used the e5pression HhieroglyphicsI NnaEhas to designate the NubiansF and nahasD9 is the name of a people. of the same stoc! but still in the prehistoric age of de elopment. blac! or negro is the di ine epithet in ariably used for the chief beneficent gods of Egypt. Min. 4or the ci ili@ed 1omans. %n either case both sides were of the same world in terms of physical anthropology.
The researches of Amelineau+. and 3abtechah. and 2a ilah.e. and 1aamah.e.:9 i. and Mi@raim Hi.nisbes. And the sons of CushF 3eba. for these are peoples . earlier than ED888. circumcision is of African origin. and 'hut.+8 =oret. Archaeology has confirmed the judgment of the 4ather of 2istory for ElliottE3mith was able to determine from the e5amination of wellEpreser ed mummies that circumcision was the rule among the Egyptians as long ago as the protohistoric era. .Gewish and Arab< classes ancient Egypt with the countries of the blac!s. Egyptian totemism retained its itality down to the 1oman period:* and 'lutarch also mentions it. . Nor is the notion of an erroneous interpretation of the facts any more tenable.:: 3imilarly the maleficent beings wiped out by Thoth are #esN HhieroglyphicsI NdesrtjwNthr red onesF this term is the grammatical con erse of >mtjw and its construction follows the same rule for the formation of . EgyptI.the sons of 2am HwereI Cush. and Canaan. The importance of these depositions cannot be ignored. it is proposed to refer only to circumcision and totemism.the Gews< which li ed side by side with the ancient Egyptians and sometimes in symbiosis with them and ha e nothing to gain by presenting a false ethnic picture of them.. and 3abtah. . "itness of the &i1le The "ible tells us.:K C lt ral Data Among the innumerable identical cultural traits recorded in Egypt and in presentEday blac! Africa. Moret and Adolphe 1einach ha e clearly demonstrated the e5istence of an Egyptian totemic .hippopotamus. . According to the e5tract from 2erodotus &uoted earlier.:+ /enerally spea!ing all 3emitic tradition .
+7 a 3enegalese language spo!en in the e5treme west of Africa on the Atlantic 6cean.system. and which is carried into battle li!e a standardF if we accept this minimal but ade&uate definition of a totem. in refutation of the champions of the @oolatric thesis. As we shall see.+? %n this chapter enough is presented to show that the !inship between ancient Egyptian and the languages of Africa is not hypothetical but a demonstrable fact which it is impossible for modern scholarship to thrust aside. !efNsei@e a prey to ta!e a strip .ENT P)E. Egyptian "alaf HhieroglyphicsI N!efNto grasp. %f we reduce the notion of the totem to that of a fetish. the !inship is genealogical in nature. it can be said that there was no country where totemism had a more brilliant reign than in Egypt and certainly nowhere where it could be better studied.3aidi&ue dialect< !ehNto tame P)E.+) /ing istic Affinity Walaf. An e5hausti e study of this &uestion has recently been carried out. usually representing an animal of a species with which the tribe belie es it has special ties formally renewed at fi5ed inter als. is perhaps as close to ancient Egyptian as Coptic.of something<+D P)E.ENT !eh +: .ENT !ef i !ef na Coptic .
o< nef .on< ngen .o< nen .on< na .o< n ten .T PA.o< n sen+K .on< ef na .T !eh nei !eh ne! !eh nere !eh nef !eh nes !eh nen !eh netsten !eh ney+9 E/('T%AN WA=A4 .on< nanu n nanu ton ngen sen nanu !eh !eh !ef e! ere ef !eh es !eh en !eh etetu !eh ey PA.!ef e! !ef nga !ef et !ef na !ef ef !ef es !ef ef na !ef es !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef PA.o< nes .on< na .on< nga .on< es .o< ne! .on< nanu .T !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef !ef ni .o< net .
are also recorded in Walaf.. EG2PT#AN fehEef fehEes fehEnEef fehEnEes fehEw fehEwef fehEwEes fehEwEaEef fehEwEnEes es fehEinEef fehEinEes fehEtEef fehEtEes fehEtyfy fy fehEtysy fehEtwEef fehEtwEes fehE!w. e5cept for two.symbol< NfehNgo away fehNrush off We ha e the following correspondences between the erb forms.i< fehEnEtwEef twEef fehEatEef marEtwEef marEtwEes fahiE!w fehEanE fehEilEef fenEilEes fehEtEef fehEes fehEatiE "A/A% fehEef fehEes fehEonEef fehEones fehEw fehEwEef fehEwEes fehEilEef fehEwEonE . with identity of similarity of meaning$ all the Egyptian erb forms.
symbol< NmerNlo e merEef merEes merEnEel merEnEes merEw merEwEef merEwEnEf ef merEwEnEes es merEinEef merEinEes merEtEef merEtEes merEtwEef merEtwEes merEtyfy merEtEtysy es fehEanE fehEyEef feyEyEes "A/A% marNlic! marEef marEes marEonEef marEonEes marEw marEwEef marEwEonE marEwEonE marEilEef marEilEes marEtEef marEtEes marEtwEef marEtwEes marEatEef marEatyE marEatyEs marEatyE sy marE!wi mariE!w .fehEaEtwEes twEes fehEyEef fehEyEes EG2PT#AN HsymbolI .
The comparison could be carried to show that the majority of the phonemes remain unchanged between the two languages. The few changes which are of great interest are the following$ [This section was omitted because of the difficulty of reproducing the symbols on the Internet] . that of the demonstrati es in the two languages and that of the erbal languages.merEyEef merEyEes merEnEtwEef twEef merEnEtwEes es onEef marEyEef marEyEes marEanE marEantwE marEtwE marEtwE onEes Egyptian an( "alaf De$onstratives There are the following phonetic correspondents between Egyptian and Walaf demonstrati esF [This section was omitted because of the difficulty of reproducing the symbols on the Internet] These phonetic correspondences are not ascriable either to elementary affinity or to the general laws of the human mind for they are regular correspondences on outstanding points e5tending through an entire system. %t is through the application of such laws that it was possible to demonstrate the e5istence of the %ndoEEuropean linguistic family.
%n an attempt to a oid sacrificing scientific truth. either really or symbolically. K? %n this connection % should li!e to refer to certain passages in the report of that symposium. where euphemism and compromise are the rule. all of which were agreed to at the plenary session held in )*K). K7 The first two led to the holding of the Cairo 3ymposium from 79 Ganuary to ? 4ebruary )*KD. %t will be understood how difficult it is to write such a chapter in a wor! of this !ind. therefore.'rofessor Rercoutter agreed that no attempt should be made to estimate percentages. 6n the subject of Egyptian culture$ . in its cullture and in its way of thin!ing. which meant nothing.. Concl sion The structure of African royalty.. cosmogonies. architecture. . "ut the way is open for the redisco ery of the ocalics of ancient Egyptian from comparati e studies with the languages of Africa. of Africa.%t is still early to tal! with precision of the ocalic accompaniment of the Egyptian phonemes. with the !ing put to death. 'rofessor Rercoutter. The building up of a corpus of African humanities should be based on this fact.. we made a point of suggesting three preliminaries to the preparation of this olume. recalls the ceremony of the 'haraoh. Egypt was African in its way of writing. etc. whites and halfEcastes could not be upheld. in his iew. as it was impossible to establish them without reliable statistical data.s regeneration through the 3ed feast.. after a reign which aried in length but was in the region of eight years. Also reminiscent of Egypt are the circumcision rites mentioned earlier and the totemism. . ac!nowledged after a thorough discussion that the con entional idea that the Egyptian population was e&ually di ided between blac!s. musical instruments.K) Egyptian anti&uity is to African culture what /raceoE1oman anti&uity is to Western culture.'rofessor Rercoutter remar!ed that. who had been commissioned by Bnesco to write the introductory report.
Egyptian remained a stable language for a period of at least D:88 years.. using presentEday languages as a starting point. . it was thus &uite normal to e5pect to find related languages in Africa.. . it is stated in the report that . for his part. The outline by 'rofessor #iop and the report by 'rofessor 6benga were regarded as being ery constructi e. %n regard to linguistics.Although the preparatory wor!ing paper sent out by Bnesco ga e particulars of what was desired. nonEaccidental relationship between Egyptian and the African languages was recogni@ed$ . the symposium rejected the idea that 'haraonic Egyptian was a 3emitic language. in contrast to those pre iously discussed. 3imilarly. 'rofessor 3auneron drew attention to the interest of the method suggested by 'rofessor 6benga following 'rofessor #iop.this item. that is.Turning to wider issues.recogni@ed the same African character in the Egyptian temperament and way of thin!ing.'rofessor =ecant. Egypt was situated at the point of con ergence of outside influences and it was to be e5pected that borrowing had been made from foreign languages.'rofessor 3auneron noted that the method which had been used was of considerable interest. %n the general conclusion to the report it was stated that$ . re ealed a large measure of agreement among the participants. but the 3emitic roots numbered only a few hundred as compared with a total of se eral thousand words.. The genetic. The Egyptian language could not be isolated from its African conte5t and its origin could not be fully e5plained in terms of 3emitic. he hoped that an attempt would be made to reconstitute a palaeoEAfrican language. since it could not be purely fortuitous that there was a similarity between the third person singular suffi5ed pronouns in Ancient Egyptian and in Wolof. not all participants had prepared communications comparable with the painsta!ingly researched contributions of 'rofessors ..
for genetics tells us that . that is.anthropologists. There was conse&uently a real lac! of balance in the discussions. This study ma!es it necessary to rewrite world history from a more scientific standpoint. the concept of race being no longer meaningful. for if man!ind originated in Africa.Chei!h Anta #iop and 6benga. (et whene er there is any &uestion of the transmission of a hereditary taint. the two indi iduals. on the same footing in all their national and social acti itiesA Certainly not EE the opposition will remain not social but ethnic.888<. the concept of race in the most classic sense of the term comes into its own again. genotype as Rorster is not impossible. ha e already in their own minds drawn the conclusions deri ing from the triumph of the monogenetic theory of man!ind without enturing to put them into e5plicit terms. A new page of African historiography was accordingly written in Cairo. 3uch studies ha e since been carried out..around E7. that is. but they ha e not contributed anything new to the historical discussion. They tell us that molecular biology and genetics recogni@e the e5istence of populations alone. The symposium recommended that further studies be made on the concept of race. %t means that it is now possible to build . the indi idual or the people as that indi idual or people is percei ed. 4or presentE day genetics. #oes this mean that the history we are witnessing will put the two phenotypes. which is the dominant factor.888 years before CroEMagnon ManEthe prototype of the white raceEappeared . %n history and in social relations. ta!ing into account the NegroEAfrican component which was for a long time preponderant. The idealogical standpoint is also e ident in apparently objecti e studies. as opposed to the genotype. it was necessarily negroid becoming white through mutation and adaptation at the end of the last glaciation in Europe in the Bpper 'alaeolithicF and is not more understandable why the /rimaldian negroids first occupied Europe for )8. a Oulu with the .. The truth is that all these .same.sic!leEcell anaemia occurs only in negroes. it is the phenotype.
) D.=utte des races. p. it may be added that only rapprochement brought about on a basis of truth can endure. M. The cause of human progress is not well ser ed by casting a eil o er the fact. #ecember )*K) 7. Montagu. /. classe de :. +. posits that. p. The study of this race. de=apounge in an article published in )9*K postulated no less than a do@en . ). .up a corpus of NegroEAfrican humanities resting on a sound historical basis instead of being suspended in midE air. 4inally. The redisco ery of the true past of the African peoples should not be a di isi e factor but should contribute to uniting them. in countries of mi5ed EuropeanE .s pigmentation can be carried farther by the method describedF actually ElliottE3mith often found patches of s!in on the bodies and the mummification methods which cause s!in deterioration were not yet in use.'. :. ?*8. if it is true that only truth is re olutionary.+.law of distribution of wealth. /eographie.A. de 'edrals. /umplo ic@ asserts that the di erse classes ma!ing up a people always represent different races. each and all.4. binding them together from the north to the south of the continent so as to enable them to carry out together a new historical mission for the greater good of man!indF and that is in !eeping with the ideal of Bnesco. of which one has established its domination o er the others by con&uest. 'roceedings of the 3e enth 'anEAfrican Congress of 'reE2istory and -uaternary 3tudies. of which the following are typicalF his . )*:8.)99?< =. NOTE. #. )*+8. ?.fundamental laws of anthropoEsociology. %n his .
4. wealth is greater in in erse proportions to the cephalic inde5F the . 'l. ). ).Alpine populations.law of stratification. We thus see that /erman racism was in enting nothing new. 9. )*89..)). W. *.9. )). )7.A. when Alfred 1osenberg asserted that the 4rench 1e olution must be deemed a re olt of the brachycephalics of the Alpine stoc! against the dolichocephalics of the Nordic race.the cephalic inde5 decreases and the proportion of dolichocephalics rises the higher the social class. 'l. ). )KD. p.2omo Europaeus. p.M.law of urban indices.4. 4ig. Cu illier. )+..M.:. %n his 3elections sociales. )8. W. was formulated in the following terms$ .. ). so that it is not pure chance which has !ept the poor at the foot of the social ladder but their congenital inferiority. ):. the same writer had no hesitation in asserting that .?. gi en prominence by Ammon in conne5ion with his research on "adener conscripts asserted that town dwellers e5hibit greater dolichocephaly than the people in the adjacent countrysideF the . +*.+K. )?. ..the dominant class in the feudal epoch belongs almost e5clusi ely to the ariety . 'l. 'etrie. )D. pl. +9. p. )*?*. ). p. Amelineau. ibid. ibid.7. )*?*. 'etrie. 'l.. p. in each locality. E. . )::< K. ).
the second boo! of his history on Egypt.A.)?. )*KK. )8D. 7?. 'ettigrew.%ndoEEuropean. M.s origins and 2erodotus in . :K. 2erodotus. #iop. 7K."oo! %%. %n the fifth century before our era. 7). K8EK). . ). p.)K. %. surrounded by whiteEs!inned nations. at the time when 2erodotus isited Egypt. 'l. not a race. T. 77. )). -uestions of Nature. "oo! LR%%. where stelae would seem to ha e been still standing in his day . 77. )9?D.4. 2erodotus. asserts that this monarch had got as far as Thrace and 3eythia. 7D. 1. As with many peoples in blac! Africa. 79. pp.A.7. The scholars of anti&uity wondered about this people. Egyptian women underwent e5cision of the clitoris$ ef. /eography. a blac!Es!inned people. 2erodotus. but % prefer this term to . Ch. "oo! %%. 3eneca. )9. 'l. )8?<. 3trabo. 7+. pp. 2erodotus. 7*.Aryan.see reproduction$ T<.K % !now that . DDE: . ). )K. 78. erected by 3esostris in con&uered countries. where er its use causes no confusion. ). 7:. p. tries to pro e that the Colchians were Egyptians. )*. Nicolaus. "oo! %%. whence the arguments we &uote. were still li ing in Colchis on the Armenian shore of the "lac! 3ea. East of the ancient port of Trebi@ond. ??K. "oo! %R.G. "oo! %%. 4ontant. the Colchians.. on the strength of commemorati e stelae.E. M.A. Montagu.Euterpe. C. 'l. is usually said to be a language.
who was to compile this part of the present chapter. #iogenes =aertius. Na igations. %. ?9. 3trabo.C. Bni ersal 2istory. D?.The 4amily of %nachus. "oo! LL%%. 'irate gangs who wor!ed from small ships called Camare. 2omer. G. )K9K. KDEK. ?D. Rolney. D77<. ??. #iodorus. Royages en 3yrie et en Egypte. KD:. para. "oo! LL%%..?8. . . "oo! %%%. in both the =liad and the 6dessey$ . My italics. ?). M.lliad. The 3uppliants. ChampollionE4igeac. ?K.(esterday to isit holy Ethiopia Gupiter betoo! himself to the ocean shore. paras ? and D. paras 7E?. Ammianus Marcellinus. "oo! %.%liad.7D<. K)*E78. pp. 4or the sense of the word see . pp. This important disco ery was made. on the African side. D8. ch. 9 . . "oo! R%%. ?7. Apollodoros. 3ee also .7?<.i. ?:. . 'aris. ?. D7?<. Aristotle. D7. DD. =ucian. )8. D). /eography. ?+. %. 7+EK. "oo! %%. Ammianus Marcellinus. %. The Egyptian notables li!ed to ha e a 3yrian or Cretan female sla e in their harems. 'hysiognomy. para.G. Aeschylus. by 3ossou Nsougan. +. . para )+ .4. ?*. )9?*. The anti&uity of the Ethiopian ci ili@ation is attested by the most ancient and most enerable /ree! writer.Gupiter followed today by all the gods recei es the sacrifices of the Ethiopians. Rol.
. Rol :. )77. )*KK. 4aul!ner. +D. p. +). )*K). diop. +8. :7... ?9+. p. )77 and )7K. E. D9. p. 79+. 1ecnach. +?. D*7. ibid. :?. A. cit. :*. %t should be noted that setE!emNblac! wife in Walaf. )7*. p. E. )79. pp. )7D. :). D:. )7?. DK. Gu enal. D*. #iop. Massoulard. p. )*::. +7 6ften spelt Wolof. p.. )*)?. C..A. ibid. :9. )E)D. C. )7:. 1.A. D+. D*D. )8$+EK. )79. p. 3atire LR.. ibid.. 1. :D. p. Worterbuch der agyptischen 3prache. #esretN blood in EgyptianF deretNblood in WalafF ibid. pp. ibid. p. ??ff. Worterbuch der agyptischen 3prache. )*7:.6. p. :8. op. ibid. :K. p. /enesis. p.Worterbuch der Aegyptischen 3prache. D*?. . Amelineau. )*D*. ::. )K. =ambert. )*+7. ibid. :+. p.
*he Clegg /eries. .a# is 3rohibited .ithout 3er!ission. de "uc!. 3ee C. pp. sour&e &ode. 3tudies and #ocuments No. +9. pp. 78KE?D.The peopling of ancient Egypt and the deciphering of the Meriotic script. or an# other in6or!ation 6ro! this site in an# . K7. BNE3C6. A.hence the erb marE maral< after the fashion of a female animal lic!ing the cub which she has just borne. #iop. A. *he use o6 gra3hi&s. "y e5tensionNlo e intensely . ?8 MarchE9 April )*KD. 4 1$$5. Mallon. )*K9. +K.A. 3ee final 1eport of the 4irst 'lenary 3ession of the %nternational 3cientific Committee for the #rafting of a general 2istory of Africa.+:. A. % BNE3C6. 3ee below for the e5planation of this important law. Mallon. ibid. ++. +*. )*:7. )*+K. K8.. K). 3ymposium of . K?. 78KE?D. Cf. This sense does not conflict with the other notion which the determinati e may con ey of a man raising hand to mouth. te7t.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.