# Code No: RR211401

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMODYNAMICS & FLUID MECHANICS ( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Discuss the concept of continuum in thermodynamics. [6]

(b) What do you mean by property? Distinguish between intensive and extensive Properties. [4+6] 2. (a) Prove that for a constant pressure non ﬂow process the change in enthalpy equal to heat transfer. [8] (b) Derive the steady state ﬂow energy equation and explain the perpetual motion machine of ﬁrst kind. [8] 3. (a) State the corollaries of II law of thermodynamics. [8]

(b) A perfect gas(air) is cooled in a cylinder-piston arrangement reversibly at constant pressure from a temperature of 2000 C to 300 C . Calculate the change of entropy per kg of air. [8] 4. (a) Explain third law of Thermodynamics. [6]

(b) A tank holds 1 kg of air at 100 kPa, 400 C, and another tank holds 1 kg of air at 200 kPa, 400 C. The atmosphere is at 100 kPa, 200 C. In which tank is the stored energy is greater? Determine the availability of the air in each tank. [10] 5. (a) Which is the most eﬃcient cycle (i.e. Otto cycle, Diesel cycle and Dual cycle) for the same compression ratio and heat rejection ? Explain with the help of p-v and T-s diagrams? [8] (b) Calculate the diﬀerence in thermal eﬃciency of Diesel cycle with compression ratio of 14 and the cut oﬀ increases from 4% to 7% of the stroke? [8] 6. (a) Derive the equation for capillarity rise or depression in a small tube depressed in a ﬂuid . [8] (b) Carbon tetrachloride has a dynamic viscosity of 9.67 × 10−4 Pa- sec and a kinematic viscosity of 6 × 10 −7 m2 / sec. Determine its relative density and speciﬁc weight. [8] 7. (a) What do you understand by stream tube ? Explain in detail. [8]

(b) The stream function and velocity potential for a ﬂow are given by ψ= 2xy and φ= x2 -y2 . Show that the conditions of continuity and irrotational ﬂow are satisﬁed. [8]

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Code No: RR211401

Set No. 1

8. (a) Explain momentum thickness, energy thickness and displacement thickness. [8] (b) Find the frictional drag on one side of the plate 20cm wide and 50cm long placed longitudinally in a steam of crude oil (speciﬁc gravity 0.925, kinematic viscosity 0.9 stoke) ﬂowing with undisturbed velocity of 5 m/sec. Also ﬁnd the thickness of boundary layer and the shear stress of the trailing edge of the plate. [8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR211401

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMODYNAMICS & FLUID MECHANICS ( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What do you mean by the system? Discuss types of systems with one example each. [2+4] (b) What is the diﬀerence between heat and energy. (c) Explain what do you mean by thermodynamic equilibrium. [6] [4]

2. A steam turbine operates under steady ﬂow conditions. It receives 7200 kg/h of steam from the boiler. The steam enters the turbine at an enthalpy of 2800 kj / kg, a velocity of 4000 m/min. and at an elevation of 4m. The steam leaves the turbine at an enthalpy of 2000 kj / kg, a velocity of 8000 m/min and at an elevation of 1m. Due to radiation, heat losses from the turbine to the surroundings amounts to 1580 kj / h. Calculate the output of the turbine. [16] 3. (a) Prove the Clausius inequality and hence prove that property entropy exist. [8] (b) The volume of one kg air increases from 0.5 m3 to 1.3 m3 while its pressure decreases from 1MPa to 0.25 MPa during a process. Then 100 kJ of heat is added to it in a constant pressure process. Calculate the entropy change for the whole events. Assume for air Cp= 1.005 kJ/kg.K and R = 0.287 kJ/kg.K [8] 4. (a) Deduce an expression for the non-ﬂow availability for a system. [8]

(b) A 2-kg piece of iron is heated from room temperature of 250 C to 4000 C by a heat source at 6000 C. What is the irreversibility in the process? Assume for iron Cp =0.450kJ/kgK. [8] 5. (a) Derive an expression for the mean eﬀective pressure for an engine working on an ideal Diesel cycle in terms of pressure at the beginning of compression, compression ratio, cut-oﬀ ratio and the adiabatic index. [8] (b) A four cylinder 4.5L engine which operates on an ideal Diesel cycle has a compression ratio of 17 and cut-oﬀ ratio of 2.2. Air is at 270 C and 97kPa at the beginning of the compression process. Using the cold air-standard assumptions, determine how much power the engine will deliver at 1500rpm. [8] 6. (a) Deﬁne bulk modulus of ﬂuids. What is its signiﬁcance? [8]

(b) A cylindrical shaft of 90 mm diameter rotates about a vertical axis inside a ﬁxed cylindrical tube of length 50 cm and 95 mm internal diameter. If the space between the tube and the shaft is ﬁlled by a lubricant of dynamic 1 of 2

Code No: RR211401

Set No. 2
[8]

viscosity 2 poise, determine the power required to overcome viscous resistance when the shaft is rotated at a speed of 240 rpm. [8] 7. (a) Deﬁne path line ? How do compare the same with stream line?

(b) If φ = 3xy, ﬁnd the velocity components at (1,3) and (3,3). Determine the discharge between stream lines passing through these points. [8] 8. (a) Name the diﬀerent forces present in a ﬂuid ﬂow. What is Euler’s equation of motion for this equation which forces are taken into consideration? [8] (b) Water is ﬂowing through a pipe having diameters 30cm and 15 cm at the bottom and upper end respectively. The intensity if pressure at the bottom end is 29.43 N/cm2 and the pressure at the upper end is 14.715 N/cm2 . Determine the diﬀerence in datum head if the rate of ﬂow through pipe is 50 lit/sec. [8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR211401

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMODYNAMICS & FLUID MECHANICS ( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Deﬁne a new temperature scale, say 0 M. At ice and steam point the temperatures are 800 M and 3000 M respectively. Correlate this with centigrade scale. The 0 N reading on this scale is a certain number of degrees on a corresponding absolute temperature scale. Find this absolute temperature at 0 N. [16] 2. In a vessel 10 kg of oxygen is heated in a reversible, non ﬂow, constant volume process so that the pressure of oxygen is increased two times that of the initial value. The initial temperature is 200 C. Calculate [16] (a) the ﬁnal temperature, (b) the change in internal energy, (c) the change in enthalpy and (d) the heat transfer. Take R = 0.259 kj / kg K and Cv = 0.652 kj / kg K for oxygen. 3. A heat pump is used to heat a house in winter and then reversed to cool the house in summer. The interior temperature is to be maintained at 200 C. heat transfer through the walls and roof are estimated to be 0.525 kJ/s per 0 C temperature diﬀerence between the inside and outside. [16] (a) If the outside temperature is 50 C in winter, what is the minimum power required to drive the heat pump. (b) If the power output is same as in part i. what is the maximum temperature for which the inside temperature can be maintained at 200 C? 4. Starting from ﬁrst law and using second law derive the Gibb’s equations and hence deduce the Maxwell’s relations [16] 5. The compression ratio of a Diesel cycle 17 and the conditions at the beginning of the compression are 1 bar, 0.12 m3 and 300 K. The maximum temperature of the cycle is 1750 K, Calculate [16] (a) the net work output, (b) cycle eﬃciency and (c) mean eﬀective pressure. 6. (a) What is diﬀerential manometer ? Explain how it works? 1 of 2 [8]

Code No: RR211401

Set No. 3

(b) Find the pressure in N /m2 represented by a column of 10 cm of water, 4 cm of oil of relative density 0.89 and 2 cm of mercury of speciﬁc gravity 13.6. Speciﬁc weight of water is 9810 N / m3 . [8] 7. (a) When do you say the ﬂow is rotational or irrotational ? Give suitable examples? [8] (b) A stream function is given by ψ= x3 - y3 . Show that the ﬂow can not be a potential ﬂow. [8] 8. (a) State and prove Bernoulli’s theorem. Mention its limitations. [8]

(b) An oil of speciﬁc gravity 0.84 ﬂows through a uniform diameter pipe at the rate of 375 lit/sec. The energy head losses are 25 N-m/N per km length of the pipe. Find the slope of the hydraulic grade and total energy lines and the power lost per km of pipe. [8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR211401

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMODYNAMICS & FLUID MECHANICS ( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the terms state, path, process and cyclic process. [4x2=8]

(b) Discuss the macroscopic and microscopic point of view of thermodynamics. [8] 2. A cylinder ﬁtted with a piston has an initial volume of 0.1m3 and contains nitrogen at 150kpa, 250 C. The piston is moved to compress the nitrogen until the pressure is 1 Mpa and the temperature is 1500 C. The work done on the nitrogen is 20kJ. Determine the amount of heat transfer from the nitrogen. [16] 3. (a) State and explain any four factors which render processes irreversible. [8]

(b) A reversible heat engine receives heat from a reservoir at 700 0 C and rejects heat to another reservoir at temperature T2 . A second heat engine receives the heat rejected by the ﬁrst engine and rejects heat to a sink at 37 0 C. Calculate temperature T2 for [8] i. equal eﬃciency for both engines ii. equal work for both engines 4. (a) Show that available energy decreases during heat transfer through ﬁnite temperature diﬀerence. [8] (b) A mass of 6.98 kg of air is in a vessel at 200 kPa and 270 C . Heat is transferred to the air from a reservoir at 7270 C until the temperature of the air rises to 3270 C. The environment is at 100kPa, 170 C . Determine [8] i. The initial and ﬁnal availability of air and ii. the maximum useful work associated with the process. Assume for air Cp= 1.005 kJ/kg.K and R = 0.287kJ/kg.K. 5. The compression ratio of Diesel cycle is 16, the temperature and pressure at the beginning of the compression are 150 C and 0.1 Mpa respectively. Heat is added until the temperature at the end of the constant pressure process is 14800C. Calculate [16] (a) the cut oﬀ ratio, (b) heat supplied per kg of air, (c) the cycle eﬃciency and (d) mean eﬀective pressure. 6. (a) Deﬁne ﬂuid surface tension property . What are its examples? 1 of 2 [6]

Code No: RR211401

Set No. 4

(b) The velocity distribution in a viscous ﬂow over a plate is given by u = 4y - y2 where u is velocity at distance y from the plate. If the coeﬃcient of dynamic viscosity is 1.5 Pa.sec, determine the shear stress at y=0 and at y=2. [10] 7. (a) When do you say the ﬂow is rotational or irrotational ? Give suitable examples? [8] (b) A stream function is given by ψ= x3 - y3 . Show that the ﬂow can not be a potential ﬂow. [8] 8. (a) Write Bernoulli’s equation in the from of energy per unit mass, energy per unit weight and energy per unit volume. Indicate the meaning of each term of the equation and discuss its limitations. Mention some applications of Bernoulli’s theorem. [8] (b) A pipe through which water is ﬂowing is having diameters 40cm and 20cm at the cross sections 1 and 2 respectively. The velocity of water at section 1 is given 5.0m/sec. Find the velocity head at the sections 1 and 2 and also the discharge. [8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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