Code No: RR211801

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PHYSICAL METALLURGY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What are the fundamental assumptions and laws on which light optical theory depends? Briefly explain each one of them. (b) Differentiate between upright and inverted microscopes. [10+6]

2. (a) Define space lattice and unit cell. Name three important types of space lattices and briefly explain each one of them with neat sketches. (b) Prove that the packing factor for FCC metals is 0.74. 3. (a) Discuss slip systems associated with BCC, FCC and HCP structures. (b) What is the procedure to be followed to determine the Miller Indices of a plane? Schematically represent the Miller Indices of (111), (010) and (110) planes. [8+8] 4. (a) What are the different types of solid solutions. Explain interstitial solid solution with suitable examples. (b) Discuss in detail the necessity of alloying and explain the same with four specific examples. [8+8] 5. (a) Compare and contrast homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. (b) Derive an expression for the rate of homogeneous nucleation. 6. (a) Explain Eutectoid and peritectoid reactions with suitable examples. (b) Explain in detail the construction of a phase diagram for an EUTECTIC system by thermal analysis method and lable the phases in it. [8+8] 7. (a) Classify copper alloys. Discuss the mechanism of increasing strength of copper alloys. (b) Calculate the relative amounts of various phases that are present in 0.5% C steel, just above & just below the peritectic temperature. [8+8] 8. (a) Draw the T-T-T diagram for a eutectoid steel label the various regions & lines. Explain the effect of various elements on the position and shape of T-T-T diagram.. (b) Explain the Pearlitic & Martensitic transformation. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8] [8+8] [9+7]

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Code No: RR211801

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PHYSICAL METALLURGY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is aperture diaphragm? Indicate its main purpose. (b) What are the properties of objectives? (c) Name two different types of diaphragms used in metallurgical microscopes and briefly explain each one of them. [6+4+6] 2. (a) With the help of unit cell of BCC, FCC and HCP structures calculate the effective number? (b) What is packing factor? Calculate the packing factor for BCC crystals and compare with that of FCC crystals. (c) The atomic radius of FCC metal is 1.26 A0 . Calculate its lattice parameter. [6+6+4] 3. (a) Discuss polymorphism and allotropy with suitable examples. (b) Explain stepwise determination of Miller indices of a plane with an example. (c) Explain why gold, copper and aluminium exhibit good ductility. [4+6+6]

4. (a) What is a solid solution? Give the classification and explain the rules for the formation of solid solutions. (b) Explain why atomic size difference is only 4.2% still Zn can dissolve up to 38.4% in Cu? [8+8] 5. What is a cored structure? Explain the mechanism of its formation with an example. What are its disadvantages? How does the problem of coring be solved? [16] 6. (a) Draw a typical equilibrium diagram of a binary system in which each metal lowers the melting point of the other and both are mutually soluble to a limited extent in the solid state. Label the phases. (b) What factors favour a binary system to follow isomorphous alloy? Explain. [8+8] 7. Explain & Why ? (a) Delta - Fe dissolves more carbon than Alpha-Fe when both have same crystal structure. 1 of 2

Code No: RR211801

Set No. 2

(b) Ac3 temperature decreases with the increase of carbon content. (c) Ar3 decreases with the increase of pressure in Iron. (d) Is Fe - Fe3 C diagram an Equilibrium or a non Equilibrium diagram. [4x4=16] 8. (a) Draw the T-T-T diagram for a eutectoid steel label the various regions & lines. Explain the effect of various elements on the position and shape of T-T-T diagram.. (b) Explain the Pearlitic & Martensitic transformation. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: RR211801

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PHYSICAL METALLURGY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is a microscope? Name various types of microscopes and briefly discuss advantages and disadvantages associated with them. (b) What are the limitations associated with an optical microscope? [10+6]

2. With a neat sketch of HCP structure, discuss effective number of atoms packing factor and coordination number. [16] 3. (a) Give an account on Miller indices of planes with examples. (b) Explain Miller indices of direction with examples. [8+8]

4. (a) What is a solid solution? Give the classification and explain the rules for the formation of solid solutions. (b) Explain why atomic size difference is only 4.2% still Zn can dissolve up to 38.4% in Cu? [8+8] 5. (a) Assuming a spherical nucleus and negligible strain effects, calculate the critical radius of nuclei for homogeneous nucleation. (b) Determine the effect of temperature and time on nucleation rate. [9+7]

6. (a) Draw a typical equilibrium diagram of a binary system in which each metal lowers the melting point of the other and both are mutually soluble to a limited extent in the solid state. Label the phases. (b) What factors favour a binary system to follow isomorphous alloy? Explain. [8+8] 7. Draw the copper rich portion of the Cu-Zn phase diagram and label the various points,phases and explain the slow cooling of 70-30 Cu-Zn Alloy [16] 8. (a) Draw the T-T-T diagram for a eutectoid steel label the various regions & lines. Explain the effect of various elements on the position and shape of T-T-T diagram.. (b) Explain the Pearlitic & Martensitic transformation. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: RR211801

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PHYSICAL METALLURGY (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Name various microscopy methods for enhancing contrast and briefly explain any three of them. [16] 2. (a) With a neat sketch, show the octahedral positions in FCC structure. Also calculate the radius of the octahedral void in the FCC structure relative to the radius of the atom. (b) What is stacking sequence? Write the stacking sequence for FCC and HCP metals. [10+6] 3. (a) Discuss slip systems associated with BCC, FCC and HCP structures. (b) What is the procedure to be followed to determine the Miller Indices of a plane? Schematically represent the Miller Indices of (111), (010) and (110) planes. [8+8] 4. (a) Describe Vegards Law with examples. (b) Explain why alloy find more applications than pure metals? (c) Explain why if one element is highly electronegative and other highly electro positive the intimate mixture of them is not an alloy? [5+5+6] 5. (a) Explain why is the grain boundary irregular. (b) Distinguish clearly between low angle, grain boundary and high angle grain boundary. [6+10] 6. (a) Draw a typical equilibrium diagram of a binary system in which each metal lowers the melting point of the other and both are mutually soluble to a limited extent in the solid state. Label the phases. (b) What factors favour a binary system to follow isomorphous alloy? Explain. [8+8] 7. (a) Explain with neat diagrams how the micro-structure of a pure metal may change with additions of alloying elements. (b) What is allotropy & Discuss various allotropic forms of Iron & their properties. [8+8] 8. (a) Draw the T-T-T diagram for a eutectoid steel label the various regions & lines. Explain the effect of various elements on the position and shape of T-T-T diagram.. 1 of 2

Code No: RR211801

Set No. 4
[8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) Explain the Pearlitic & Martensitic transformation.

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