# Code No: RR211901

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SIGNALS & MODULATION THEORY (Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Show that for an even periodic function, the coeﬃcients of the exponential Fourier series are real and for an odd periodic function the coeﬃcients are imaginary. (b) Find the F-T of given triangular function and plot its spectra.(ﬁgure1)

Figure 1: [8+8] 2. Let φ12 (ι) represents cross-correlation of f1 (t) and f2 (t). If φn (τ ) represents the nth 12 derivative of φ12 (ι), then show that φ12
(j+k) ∞

(τ ) = (−1)k
−∞

j k f1 (t)f2 (t − τ ).dt

[16]

3. (a) Prove that a linear discrete time invariant system is stable if and only if the unit sample response of the system is ﬁnite. (b) Draw the ideal Band Pass Filter characteristics. [10+6]

4. (a) What eﬀect does modulation have on the amplitude of the carrier component of the modulated signal spectrum? (b) Describe AM VSB .Compare VSB to conventional AM. 5. The FM wave
t

[8+8]

S(t)=Ac Cos[Wc t+2πkf dt] is applied to the system is shown in the ﬁgure. Assume that the resistance R is small compared with the reactance of the capacitor ‘C’ for all signiﬁcant frequency components of s(t) and the envelope detector does not load the ﬁlter. Determine the resulting signal at the envelope detector output, assuming that kf |m(t)| <fc for all t.(ﬁgure2) [16] 1 of 2
o

Code No: RR211901

Set No. 1

Figure 2: 6. (a) State and prove sampling theorem in frequency domain. (b) Explain the eﬀect of aliasing on sinusoidal signal. 7. Write short notes on the following: (a) 8 QAM (b) MSK. 8. What are the diﬀerent waveform patterns of digital signals, explain them. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8] [16] [10+6]

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Code No: RR211901

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SIGNALS & MODULATION THEORY (Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Which of the following signals is Fourier transformable? Why? i. ii. iii. iv. x(t) = e−at .u(t), a > 0 x(t)=1 (t) = | n(t) x(t) = [cos(10t)] Sin (2t) [8+8]

(b) State and prove convolution and modulation properties of F.T. 2. (a) Determine and plot the auto-correlation function of A sin c (2ωt).

(b) Find the auto-correlation function of a gate function given below.(ﬁgure1)

Figure 1: [8+8] 3. (a) Determine the response of a Linear system driving with a impulse function? (b) A signal x(t) =1 for 0 ≤ t <1 and zero otherwise is passed through a system, which has impulse response h(t) = x(t). Compute the output y(t). [6+10] 4. (a) Show the variation of the sideband power and carrier power with depth of modulation in a single tone AM. (b) What is the relation ship between the modulating signal frequency and the bandwidth in a conventional AM system? [10+6] 5. (a) A carrier of frequency 106 Hz and amplitude 3V is frequency modulated by a sinusoidal modulating waveform of frequency 500Hz and peak amplitude IV. The frequency deviation is 1KHz. Write the expression for the level of FM wave modulating waveform is changed to 5 peak and the modulating frequency is changed to 2KHz. Write the expression for the new FM, wave. 1 of 2

Code No: RR211901

Set No. 2

(b) With neat circuit diagram explain the operation of Foster seeley discriminator. [8+8] 6. (a) Explain in detail the eﬀect of analog to digital conversion. Compare analog and digital systems. (b) A sinusoidal signal is to be transmitted using pan so that the output signal to quantizing noise ratio is 49.8 dB. Find the minimum number of representation levels L and binary code word n to achieve this performance. [8+8] 7. (a) A matched ﬁlter has the frequency response jwt H(f ) = 1−e jw i. Determine the impulse response of the ﬁlter for the signal response. ii. Determine the signal waveform of which the ﬁlter characteristics is matched. (b) Why PSK is considered as better system than FSK for binary signaling. Explain. [3+5+8] 8. (a) Brieﬂy explain return to zero and Non return to zero transmissions. (b) Contrast the bandwidth considerations of return to zero and Non-return to zero transmissions. (c) Contrast the error detection and decoding capabilities of RZ and NRZ transmissions. [4+6+6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR211901

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SIGNALS & MODULATION THEORY (Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Which of the following signals is Fourier transformable? Why? i. ii. iii. iv. x(t) = e−at .u(t), a > 0 x(t)=1 (t) = | n(t) x(t) = [cos(10t)] Sin (2t) [8+8]

(b) State and prove convolution and modulation properties of F.T.

2. (a) Deﬁne auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. Prove that φ12 (ι) = φ21 (ι), where φ12 (ι) is the correlation between f1 (t) and f2 (t) and φ21 (ι) is the correlation between f2 (t) and f1 (t). (b) Find the auto-correlation of f(t)=Sin wt. [8+8] 3. (a) What are the requirements of a system to allow the distortion less transmission of a signal? (b) Show the response of ideal low pass ﬁlter when unit step is applied. [8+8]

4. (a) Discuss the method of generating AM wave with square law modulator. (b) A DSB-SC signal (Cos ωm t + Cos 2 ωm t) Cos ωc t is applied to a receiver consisting of a BPF, a mixer and a LPF cascaded in that sequence . The other input to the mixer is 2 Cos ωi t & BPF is centered about ωi . Find the signals at the input and also at the output of the mixer & LPF if ωi = ωc – 3 ωm. [8+8] 5. (a) Derive the expression for NBFM. Compare the spectrum of this NBFM with an wave. (b) Give the power contents of the carrier and the sidebands in angle modulated carriers. [8+8] 6. (a) Explain in detail the eﬀect of analog to digital conversion. Compare analog and digital systems. (b) A sinusoidal signal is to be transmitted using pan so that the output signal to quantizing noise ratio is 49.8 dB. Find the minimum number of representation levels L and binary code word n to achieve this performance. [8+8] 7. (a) Determine the minimum bandwidth and baud for a BPSK modulator with a carrier frequency of 40 MHz and an input bit rate of 500 Kbps. Sketch the output waveforms. 1 of 2

Code No: RR211901 (b) Explain i. Quad bit ii. QAM 8. Write short notes on (a) Bipolar coding (b) Manchester coding ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

Set No. 3
[8+4+4]

[8+8]

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Code No: RR211901

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 SIGNALS & MODULATION THEORY (Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Which of the following signals is Fourier transformable? Why? i. ii. iii. iv. x(t) = e−at .u(t), a > 0 x(t)=1 (t) = | n(t) x(t) = [cos(10t)] Sin (2t) [8+8]

(b) State and prove convolution and modulation properties of F.T.

2. (a) Prove that the correlation and convolution functions are identical for even signals. (b) Show that the auto-correlation function at the origin is equal to the energy of the function. [8+8] 3. (a) Prove that a linear discrete time invariant system is stable if and only if the unit sample response of the system is ﬁnite. (b) Draw the ideal Band Pass Filter characteristics. [10+6]

4. (a) Deﬁne amplitude modulation and modulation index using a sketch of sinusoidal modulated AM wave to help explain the deﬁnition. (b) Show that the maximum power eﬃciency of an AM modulator is 50%. [8+8] 5. (a) Derive the expression for NBFM. Compare the spectrum of this NBFM with an wave. (b) Give the power contents of the carrier and the sidebands in angle modulated carriers. [8+8] 6. (a) State and prove sampling theorem in time domain. (b) Determine the minimum sampling rate and Nyquist interval for the following signals: i. ii. iii. iv. Sa (100t) Sa2 (100t) Sa (100t) +Sa (50t) Sa (100t) + sa2 (60t).

[8+8]

7. (a) With a neat block diagram explain the generation and receiption of DPSK signals. What merit does a DPSK signal have over FSK and PSK.

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Code No: RR211901

Set No. 4

(b) Show that a QPSK system achieves twice the bit rate per carrier bandwidth that a binary antipodal FSK system with the same bit error probability and power level does. [8+8] 8. (a) What are the diﬀerent coding techniques? (b) Explain the Manchester coding with a neat diagram. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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