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Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MECHANICS OF FLUID (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Derive an expression for the torque and power required to overcome the viscous drag for a shaft running at a particular r.p.m. (b) A hydraulic lift shaft of 500 mm diameter moves in a cylindrical sleeve the length of engagement being 2m. The interface is ﬁlled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2.4 X 10−4 m2 /sec and density of 888 kg/m3 . The drag resistance when the shaft moves at 0.2 m/sec is 267.81 N. Determine the internal diameter of the cylinder. [8+8] 2. (a) Derive three dimensional continuity equation. (b) The x and y components in a three dimensional ﬂow are given by U = x2 + z 2 ϑ = y2 + z2 Find the simplest z − component of velocity that satisﬁes the continuity equation. [8+8] 3. (a) What is momentum equation? Give applications of the equation. (b) Water under a pressure of 345 kN /m2 is ﬂowing through a 30 cm diameter pipe at the rate of 0.25 m3 / s. If the pipe is bent by 1350 to the horizontal, ﬁnd the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the bend. Neglect losses. [8+8] 4. (a) What is the physical signiﬁcance of displacement thickness of boundary layer theory? (b) What boundary conditions must be satisﬁed by the velocity distribution in laminar boundary layer over a ﬂat plate. (c) The velocity distribution in the boundary layer was found to ﬁt the equation (u/U) = (y/d)1/7. Find the displacement thickness. [4+4+8] 5. (a) What is the diﬀerence between isotropic and adiabatic ﬂow. (b) A gas velocity of 300 m/s is ﬂowing through a horizontal pipe at a Section where the pressure is 60 KN/m2 and temperature 400 C. The pipe changes in diameter and at this section pressure is 90 KN/m2 if the ﬂow of gas is adiabatic ﬁnd the velocity of gas at this section. [8+8] 6. (a) Enumerate the characteristics of laminar ﬂow? Give examples where such a ﬂow is encountered. (b) Oil of absolute viscosity 1.5 poise and relative density 0.85 ﬂows through a 30 cm diameter pipe. If the headloss in 3000m length of pipe is 20m, estimate the friction factor by assuming the ﬂow to be laminar. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR212101 7. (a) Explain diﬀerent laws of ﬂuid friction in detail?

Set No. 1

(b) A siphon of diameter 20cm connects two reservoirs having a diﬀerence in elevation of 20m. The length of the siphon is 500m and the summit is 3m above the water level in the upper reservoir. The length of the pipe from upper reservoir to the summit is 100m. Determine the discharge through the siphon and also pressure at the summit by neglecting minor losses and taking coeﬃcient of friction as 0.005. [8+8] 8. (a) A venturimeter has its axis vertical, the inlet and throat diameters being 150 mm and 75 mm respectively. The throat is 225 mm above inlet and k = 0.96, petrol of speciﬁc gravity 0.78 ﬂows up through the meter at a rate of 0.029 m3 /s. Find the pressure diﬀerence between the inlet and the throat. (b) Explain the working procedure of Bourdon pressure gauge. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: RR212101

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MECHANICS OF FLUID (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Write a note on viscosity and compressibility. (b) Calculate the velocity gradient at distances of 0,10,15 cm from the boundary if the velocity proﬁle is a parabola given by u =Ay 2 + By + C and with the vertex 15cm from the boundary, where the velocity is 100 cm/sec. Also calculate the shear stress at these points if the ﬂuid has a viscosity of 8.2 poise. [8+8] 2. (a) What are the methods available for describing the ﬂuid ﬂow? and explain each method. (b) A circular pipe 10 cm in diameter has 2 m length which is porous, In this porous section the velocity of exit is known to be constant. If the velocities at the inlet and outlet of the porous section are 2.0 m/sec and 1.2 m/sec respectively, estimate (i) the discharge emitted out through the walls of the porous pipe and (ii) the average velocity of this emitted discharge. [8+8] 3. (a) What are the body forces considered in ﬂuid ﬂow problems? (b) A 15-cm diameter pipe is reduced to 7.5 cm diameter through a gradual contraction. The diﬀerence between the piezometric heads at the main and contracted section is 4 cm of mercury. By neglecting losses calculate the discharge of water. [8+8] 4. (a) What is meant by smooth boundary and a rough boundary? (b) Describe brieﬂy the phenomenon of boundary layer separation. (c) At what wind speed must a 127 mm diameter sphere travel through water to have a drag of 5 N. [4+6+6] 5. (a) Discribe area velocity relationship for compressible ﬂuid i)Subsonic (ii) Supersonic (iii) Sonic ﬂow. (b) A jet propelled air craft at 1500 Km/hr at sea level. Calculate Mach number where the air temperature is 150 . [8+8] 6. (a) Sketch the Reynolds apparatus and explain how the laminar ﬂow can be demonstrated with the help of this apparatus. (b) A viscous liquid was ﬂowing in laminar regime in a 6 cm diameter circular pipe. A pitot tube at a radial distance of 2 cm from the axis indicated a velocity of 0.6 m/sec. Calculate the maximum velocity, the mean velocity and the discharge in the pipe. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR212101 7. (a) Explain diﬀerent laws of ﬂuid friction in detail?

Set No. 2

(b) A siphon of diameter 20cm connects two reservoirs having a diﬀerence in elevation of 20m. The length of the siphon is 500m and the summit is 3m above the water level in the upper reservoir. The length of the pipe from upper reservoir to the summit is 100m. Determine the discharge through the siphon and also pressure at the summit by neglecting minor losses and taking coeﬃcient of friction as 0.005. [8+8] 8. (a) A venturimeter is used for measuring the ﬂow of petrol (G = 0.81) in a pipeline inclined at 350 to the horizontal. The throat area ratio is 4. If the diﬀerence in mercury levels in the gage is 50 mm, calculate the ﬂow if the pipe dia is 30 m. Take Cd = 0.975. Take speciﬁc gravity of mercury as 13.6. (b) Explain the working of Bourdon pressure gage with a sketch. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

2 of 2

Code No: RR212101

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MECHANICS OF FLUID (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Give an example each where air can be treated as an incompressible ﬂuid and water has to be treated as compressible ﬂuid. Explain. (b) The bulk modulus of water is 210 KN/cm2 . What pressure is required to reduce its volume by 2%? Also prove that the increase in the mass density will be 2% only. [8+8] 2. (a) Derive the continuity equation for 3-D ﬂuid ﬂow. (b) A ﬂuid ﬂow ﬁeld is given by V = xyi + 2yzj − (yz + z2 )k Determine whether this is a possible steady incompressible ﬂuid ﬂow. If so, determine the valu of rotation at the point P (1,2,3). [8+8] 3. (a) Deﬁne the terms (i) Forced vertex ﬂow (ii) Free vortex ﬂow. Give suitable examples. (b) A rectangular duct of width 25 cm has a two dimensional irrotational ﬂow. It has an elbow made up of circular arcs of radius 40 cm and 65 cm for the inner and outer walls respectively. Calculate the discharge per unit width of the duct when the diﬀerence in pressure between outer and inner walls in the elbow is 30 kPa. [8+8] 4. (a) What is meant by smooth boundary and a rough boundary? (b) Describe brieﬂy the phenomenon of boundary layer separation. (c) At what wind speed must a 127 mm diameter sphere travel through water to have a drag of 5 N. [4+6+6] 5. (a) What is the function of wind tunnel? (b) What is meant by stagnation point. Explain [8+8]

6. (a) Prove that the boundary shear stress is directly proportional to the pressure gradient and the boundary spacing for the case of laminar ﬂow between parallel ﬂat plates when both the plates are at rest. (b) What do you know about Couette ﬂow? Explain. [8+8]

7. (a) ) What is siphon? On what principle it works? Under what conditions would it stop functioning?

1 of 2

Code No: RR212101

Set No. 3

(b) A horizontal pipe of diameter 50cm is suddenly contracted to a diameter of 25cm. The pressure intensities in the large and smaller pipe are given as 13.734N/cm2 and 11.772N/cm2 respectively. If the rate of ﬂow of water is 300lit/sec, ﬁnd the value of coeﬃcient of contraction [8+8] 8. (a) Explain venturimeter in detail with diagram. Also derive an expression for ﬁnding out the actual discharge from a given venturimeter. (b) What is the purpose of Hot wire Anemometers. Explain the working procedure.. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR212101

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MECHANICS OF FLUID (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Write a note on viscosity and compressibility. (b) Calculate the velocity gradient at distances of 0,10,15 cm from the boundary if the velocity proﬁle is a parabola given by u =Ay 2 + By + C and with the vertex 15cm from the boundary, where the velocity is 100 cm/sec. Also calculate the shear stress at these points if the ﬂuid has a viscosity of 8.2 poise. [8+8] 2. (a) Deﬁne and distinguish laminar and turbulent ﬂows. Give two real ﬂuid ﬂow examples of each. How are they distinguished in real ﬂuid ﬂow? (b) For steady, incompressible ﬂow, verify whether the following values of u and v are possible: i. u = 4 x y +y 2 , v = 6xy + 3x ii. u = 2 x2 +y 2 , v =- 4xy and iii. (x2−x 2 ) , ν = (x2−y 2 ) +y +y 3. (a) What is momentum equation? Give applications of the equation. (b) Water under a pressure of 345 kN /m2 is ﬂowing through a 30 cm diameter pipe at the rate of 0.25 m3 / s. If the pipe is bent by 1350 to the horizontal, ﬁnd the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the bend. Neglect losses. [8+8] 4. (a) What is meant by smooth boundary and a rough boundary? (b) Describe brieﬂy the phenomenon of boundary layer separation. (c) At what wind speed must a 127 mm diameter sphere travel through water to have a drag of 5 N. [4+6+6] 5. (a) What is the diﬀerence between isotropic and adiabatic ﬂow. (b) A gas velocity of 300 m/s is ﬂowing through a horizontal pipe at a Section where the pressure is 60 KN/m2 and temperature 400 C. The pipe changes in diameter and at this section pressure is 90 KN/m2 if the ﬂow of gas is adiabatic ﬁnd the velocity of gas at this section. [8+8] 6. (a) Prove that the boundary shear stress is directly proportional to the pressure gradient and the boundary spacing for the case of laminar ﬂow between parallel ﬂat plates when both the plates are at rest. (b) What do you know about Couette ﬂow? Explain. 1 of 2 [8+8]

[8+8]

Code No: RR212101

Set No. 4

7. (a) Explain the concept of ﬂow through a long pipe along with a neat sketch. (b) A main pipe divides into two parallel pipes which again forms one pipe. The length and diameter for the ﬁrst parallel pipe are 2000 m and 1.0 m respectively, while the length and diameter of second parallel pipe are 2000 m and 0.8 m. Find the rate of ﬂow in each parallel pipe if total ﬂow in the main is 3.0cumecs. the coeﬃcient of friction for each parallel pipe is same and equal to 0.006. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain venturimeter in detail with diagram. Also derive an expression for ﬁnding out the actual discharge from a given venturimeter. (b) What is the purpose of Hot wire Anemometers. Explain the working procedure.. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

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