# Code No: RR212201

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PRIME MOVERS AND MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the following associated with velocity triangles of turbines: i. ii. iii. iv. Velocity of ﬂow Velocity of whirl Blade angle Peripheral velocity of blade.

(b) The diameter of the runner of a Francis turbine at inlet is 3m and the breadth of openings at inlet is 0.9m. The ﬂow leaves the runner radially and the blade angle is obtuse. At what angle the wicket gates of a Francis turbine be set to extract 8000 Kw of power from a ﬂow of 30 cum /sec when running at a speed of 200 rpm. [8+8] 2. (a) Why will the centrifugal pump function only when started at or above minimum speed? (b) The centrifugal pump discharges 0.2 m3 /sec against a head of 25m running at 1400 rpm. The outer diameter of impeller is 25 cm and outer width is 4 cm. Determine the vane angle at outlet if manometric eﬃciency is 80%. The blade is backward facing. [6+10] 3. (a) What are the essential features of a good boiler? (b) Compare the water tube and ﬁre tube boilers on diﬀerent aspects. [8+8]

4. (a) Show that the thermal eﬃciency of a regenerative cycle is always higher than that of a simple Rankine cycle. (b) A Carnot engine works between the pressures of 28 bar and 0.15 bar using steam as working ﬂuid. Dry-saturated steam is supplied to the engine. Find the work done and thermal eﬃciency of the engine. Also ﬁnd the dryness fraction of steam at the end of isentropic expansion and at the beginning of isentropic compression. [8+8] 5. (a) Explain the working principle of reheating gas turbine power cycle? (b) What are the required conditions for the gas turbine power plant? Explain? [8+8] 6. Derive an expression for the ﬂow rate of an incompressible ﬂuid through a variable head ﬂow meter. Deﬁne the nomenclature used and state clearly the assumptions made. What modiﬁcations are required to be made in the above result to make it equally applicable for the measurements of compressible ﬂows? [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR212201

Set No. 1

7. (a) Diﬀerentiate between LVDT and piezo-electric accelerometers. (b) Explain the principle and working of multi-lever system for weighing. [6+10] 8. (a) Sketch the schematic arrangement of an oscilloscope for frequency and phase measurements and explain its working principle. (b) An oscilloscope displays a sine wave and the distance between the ﬁrst and fourth peaks is found to be 5.4cm. If the time base setting is 20 x 10 −03 make calculations for the periodic time and frequency of the sine wave. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR212201

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PRIME MOVERS AND MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Derive the momentum equation as applied in Fluid Mechanics from fundamentals. (b) A 7.5 cm diameter water jet having a velocity of 12 m / sec impinges on a plane plate at an angle of 60 degrees to the normal to the plate. What will be the impact when the plate is stationary? [8+8] 2. (a) What is a reciprocating pump? Elaborate. (b) A single acting reciprocating pump has a plunger diameter of 250mm and stroke of 350 mm. If the speed of the pump is 60 rpm and it delivers 0.2m3 / sec of water, ﬁnd the theoretical discharge, coeﬃcient of discharge and the slip. [8+8] 3. Draw the block diagram of steam power plant showing all the components with a brief mention of their functions. [16] 4. (a) What is the fundamental diﬀerence between the operation of impulse and reaction turbines? Explain with the help of neat sketches. (b) Steam with a velocity of 100 m/sec enters a single stage impulse turbine. The mean diameter of turbine rotor is 25 cm and it rotates with speed of 1500 rpm. The steam ﬂow through the turbine is 12 kg/min. Taking the Co-eﬃcient of velocity as 0.85,ﬁnd: i. the tangential forces on the blades ii. Power developed by the turbine and iii. The blade eﬃciency.

[6+10]

5. (a) What are the advantages and disadvantages of reheating gas turbine power cycle? (b) Show that the thermal eﬃciency of a gas turbine power cycle depends only on pressure ratio. [6+10] 6. A group of students was asked to use a stroboscope to measure the speed of a shaft turning at 2880 rev/min. For the given stroboscope the available ﬂashing rates lie within the range of 24 to 96 per second. At what frequency settings the students expect to get a single double and triple steady image of a distinguishing mark made on the rotating shaft. What would be the slip when the ﬂashing rate is 50 per second? [16]

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Code No: RR212201

Set No. 2

7. (a) What are the advantages and disadvantages of multi-lever system as compared to single beam balancing? (b) Explain how a piezo-electric pickup works in the measurement of vibration. List various applications of it. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain with a neat sketch a band brake type dynamometer. (b) Derive the relationship between the torque on the shaft and the force applied for braking. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR212201

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PRIME MOVERS AND MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) How do you employ momentum equation to ﬁnd the force exerted by a jet of ﬂuid on an inclined plate which is moving in the direction of ﬂuid jet. (b) A 15 cm diameter jet of water with a velocity of 15m/sec strikes a plane normally. If the plate is moving with a velocity of 6m/sec in the direction of the jet calculate the work done per second and the eﬃciency of energy transfer. [8+8] 2. (a) What do you understand by air vessels? (b) A single acting reciprocating pump has a stroke length of 30 cm and a piston of 125 mm diameter. A 75mm diameter suction pipe of length 5 m is used against a suction head of 3m. What is maximum speed at which it can be run without causing separation during suction stroke? Take safe minimum pressure head of 2m of water absolute and the atmosphere pressure head of 10.23 m of water. [6+10] 3. Draw a neat sketch of a nuclear reactor and explain the functions of diﬀerent components. [16] 4. (a) Distinguish between the operational features of an impulse and reaction turbine. (b) A single stage impulse turbine 1 m in diameter rotates at 3000 rpm. Steam is supplied from the nozzles with a velocity of 300 m/sec and nozzle angle is 200 . The blades are equiangular. Assuming the friction loss in the blade passage is 33% of the kinetic energy corresponding to the relative velocity at inlet to the blade, ﬁnd the power developed by the turbine. Axial thrust on the bearing of the turbine is 150 N. [6+10] 5. (a) Explain the reheating gas turbine power cycle? (b) The minimum and maximum temperature limits in a gas turbine plant are 288 K and 1100 K. The pressure limits are 1 bar and 8 bar. Determine i. optimum pressure ratio for maximum work ii. optimum pressure ratio for maximum thermal eﬃciency? [8+8]

6. Suppose that a rotameter uses a cylindrical ﬂoat 25mm high and 25mm in diameter and of proper density to give density compensation. If the coeﬃcient Cc =0.5 and the maximum inside diameter of the metering tube is 50mm, what ﬂow rate in kg/m can the rotameter accommodate. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR212201 7. (a) Explain in detail about gyroscopes.

Set No. 3

(b) Diﬀerentiate between bonded and un-bonded strain gauge transducers used in load measurement. [8+8] 8. (a) Deﬁne frequency and time period. How these terms are related to each other. (b) A machine member is vibrating freely at 3000 times per minute. How will you determine its exact frequency? [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR212201

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PRIME MOVERS AND MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS (Instrumentation & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) How are the turbines classiﬁed ? (b) A 5 cm dia horizontal jet operating under a head of 33 m strikes a curved blade moving at a velocity of 5m /sec in the direction of the jet. If the deﬂection angle of the blade is 145 degrees, ﬁnd the force exerted on the blade by the water. [8+8] 2. (a) What is the hydraulic function of a air vessel? (b) A single acting reciprocating pump without air vessel has a plunger of 8cm diameter and a stroke of 12cm.It draws water from a sump 3m below the pump through a suction pipe 3 cm diameter and 5m long. It delivers water to a tank 12m above the pump through a delivery pipe 2cm diameter and 15m long. If separation occurs at a pressure of 67 KN /m2 below atmospheric pressure, ﬁnd the maximum speed at which the pump may be operated without separation. [6+10] 3. Explain the principle of operation of high steam -low water safety valve and water level indicator with the help of neat sketches. [16] 4. (a) What are the diﬃculties experienced in carrying out Carnot cycle for a steam engine. (b) Determine the eﬃciency of a Carnot Vapour cycle in which steam at 40bar is supplied to the prime mover and the condenser pressure is 0.08bar. Also ﬁnd the quality of steam at the exit to the condenser if the ﬂuid is to enter the boiler as saturated liquid. [6+10] 5. (a) Derive the thermal eﬃciency of gas turbine power cycle? (b) In a gas turbine cycle, the pressure ratio is 6 and max. cycle temperature is 6500 C. Air enters the compressor at 150 C and ﬂow rate of air is 12 kg/s. Take for compression process, cp = 1.005 kJ/kg K andγ = 1.4 and for expansion process, cp = 1.12 kJ/kg K and γ = 1.32. Determine the power developed and thermal eﬃciency. [8+8] 6. Explain why the position of the metering element should be above the pipe in one case and below it in another case when measuring liquids and gases. What are the governing factors? [16] 7. (a) Explain the method of measuring force using a strain gauge.

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Code No: RR212201

Set No. 4
[8+8]

(b) Explain the principle and working of a strain gauge accelerometer.

8. Describe the underlying principle for the measurement of torque with a strain gauge torsion meter. Explain the pressure adopted to account for temperature compensation in such gauges. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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