Code No: RR212302

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MICROBIOLOGY (Bio-Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Describe the early discoveries that led to the development of Immunology. [16]

2. What are “Signature sequences” and Polymerase chain reaction? How are they useful in classification of bacteria? [16] 3. Give an account of Gram positive filamentous bacteria with reference to Streptomyces and related genera. [16] 4. How is energy supplied to drive a conc. gradient across the membrane of the cell? [16] 5. Explain why the generation time of a bacterium in nature is usually much longer than that in a culture. [16] 6. Write on any two common staining methods used in microbial culture identification. [16] 7. (a) How are disinfectants evaluated? (b) Explain the mechanism of action of anti-microbial agents with suitable examples? [8+8] 8. What are the indicators used for establishing the sterilization of materials by autoclaving or by dry heating in a Hot air oven? [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: RR212302

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MICROBIOLOGY (Bio-Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain the contributions of Joseph Lister, Ferdinand Cohn, Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis to Microbiology. [16] 2. Why are Nucleic acids or proteins considered better phylogenetic markers than other molecules like Polysaccharides and lipids? [16] 3. Discuss the economic importance of Fungi. 4. (a) Explain the transport of Nutrients by bacteria. (b) Describe the mechanism of nutrient transport into cells by passive diffusion along with a neat sketch. [8+8] 5. Describe the methodology for the enrichment of the following bacteria: (a) Thiobacillus thiooxidans (b) Rhizobium (c) Halobacterium (d) Clostridium [4×4] [16]

6. Define water activity. Explain how water activity influences the growth of different microorganisms? [16] 7. Distinguish among germicides, antiseptics and antibiotics with suitable examples. [16] 8. (a) Mention standard quality control parameters for pharmaceuticals products? (b) How are they evaluated? ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

1 of 1

Code No: RR212302

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MICROBIOLOGY (Bio-Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Describe in detail about the contributions of Louis Pasteur. 2. Describe different methods of classification of bacteria. [16] [16]

3. Describe the general characters of Protozoa with special reference to pathogenic forms. [16] 4. (a) What are chelating agents? (b) Explain their functions with suitable examples. [8+8]

5. What is generation time of a given microbial culture ? Derive an equation for calculating the generation time when a bacterial organism divides by binary fission in exponential growth. [16] 6. Define water activity. Explain how water activity influences the growth of different microorganisms? [16] 7. Comment on the following antimicrobial agents (a) Phenolics (b) Halogens (c) Soap (d) Copper. [4×4]

8. What is a Standard operating procedure? Develop an SOP for autoclaving. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: RR212302

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MICROBIOLOGY (Bio-Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Justify the statement. “Microorganisms are more than just agents of disease”. [16] 2. Describe different characteristics used for the classification of bacteria. 3. Describe the general characteristics of Fungi with suitable examples. 4. Describe in detail the process of passive diffusion. 5. Describe the methodology for the enrichment of the following bacteria: (a) Thiobacillus thiooxidans (b) Rhizobium (c) Halobacterium (d) Clostridium [4×4] [16] [16] [16]

6. Define water activity. Explain how water activity influences the growth of different microorganisms? [16] 7. (a) Name the commonly used metal ions for controlling growth of microorganisms. (b) Write suitable examples of the use of heavy metals. (c) What is the mode action? [6+4+6]

8. How do you monitor the microbial population in Clean rooms, Laminar air flow systems and Production areas. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1