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Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 CHEMICAL AND BIO-THERMODYNAMICS (Bio-Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the PVT relationships with a neat diagrams. Indicate the triple point. (b) Write the Virial equation of state, and deﬁne the compressibility factor.[8+8] 2. Write short notes: (a) Explain the Carnot refrigeration cycle. (b) Write about the air refrigeration cycle. (c) Compare the refrigeration cycles. (d) Write about the choice of refrigerant. 3. (a) Write Maxwell’s equations. (b) Starting with the equation dH = Tds + Vdp show that the isobars in the vapor region of Mollier(Enthalpy-Entropy) diagram must have positive slope and positive curvature. [8+8] 4. (a) Develop a general equation for calculation of InφI , values from compressibilityfactor data. (b) Estimate from φ = (φ0 )(φ1 )ω a value for the fugacity of 1-butene vapor at 2000 C and 70 bar. [8+8] 5. (a) Describe the criteria for phase equilibrium. (b) What is an azeotrope? How azeotropes can be separated. [8+8] 6. (a) Describe the thermodynamic criteria for a reaction top proceed in a homogenous system. (b) Derive the relation ship between the equilibrium constant and the standard Gibb’s free energy change. [8+8] 7. (a) Explain the Gaden classiﬁcation from stoichiometric point of view the product formation in fermentation processes. (b) The following stoichiometric equation describes penicillin systhesis 1.5Glucose+H2SO4 +2NH3 + phenyl acetate → Pencillium G + CO2 +8H2 O the theoretical yield of pencillium is 1.2g/(gram of glucose). Find out the molecular weight of pencillium G. [8+8] 8. Describe variations in cellular composition with diﬀerent types of organisms.[6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1 [4x4=16]

Code No: RR212305

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 CHEMICAL AND BIO-THERMODYNAMICS (Bio-Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What do you mean by chemical equilibrium process? [8+8]

(b) Write the “Phase Rule” and its signiﬁcance in ﬁnding the degrees of freedom. 2. Write short notes: (a) Explain the Carnot refrigeration cycle. (b) Write about the air refrigeration cycle. (c) Compare the refrigeration cycles. (d) Write about the choice of refrigerant. 3. Derive expressions for the residual Gibbs energy and residual enthalpy of a ﬂuid described by: (a) two-term virial equation of state (b) cubic equation of state [8+8] [4x4=16]

4. (a) Write the combining rules proposed by Prausnitz for the calculation of : ωij , Tcij , Pcij , Zcij and Vcij . (b) Write some characteristics of ideal solution. 5. (a) Describe the criteria for phase equilibrium. (b) What is an azeotrope? How azeotropes can be separated. 6. Write Short Notes (a) Multireaction Equilibrium (b) Phase rule 7. Discuss in detail about the Thermodynamic principles. [8+8] [4+12] [8+8] [8+8]

8. How Degree of reduction of substrate,biomass and product can be calculated. [5+5+6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: RR212305

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 CHEMICAL AND BIO-THERMODYNAMICS (Bio-Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain the formulation of the ﬁrst law of Thermodynamics and illustrate any two examples. [8+8] 2. Write short notes: (a) Explain the Carnot refrigeration cycle. (b) Write about the air refrigeration cycle. (c) Compare the refrigeration cycles. (d) Write about the choice of refrigerant. 3. (a) Write Clapeyron equation. (b) Assume that the vapor phase is an ideal gas and that the molar volume of liquid is negligible in comparison with that of the vapor and simplify the Clapeyron equation. Mention the limitations of the resulting Clausius/ Clapeyron equation. [8+8] 4. (a) Write the deﬁning equations for the property changes of mixing. (b) The excess enthalpy for a liquid mixture of species 1 and 2 at ﬁxed T and P is represented by : H E = x1 x2 (40x1 + 20x2 ) Where H E is in J mol−1 . Determine the expressions for the partial enthalpies E E H1 and H2 as a function of x1 . [8+8] 5. Derive the Equation for bubble point. 6. Explain relation of Equilibrium constants to Composition. [4+12] [4+12] [4x4=16]

7. (a) Explain the Gaden classiﬁcation from stoichiometric point of view the product formation in fermentation processes. (b) The following stoichiometric equation describes penicillin systhesis 1.5Glucose+H2SO4 +2NH3 + phenyl acetate → Pencillium G + CO2 +8H2 O the theoretical yield of pencillium is 1.2g/(gram of glucose). Find out the molecular weight of pencillium G. [8+8] 8. Discuss in detail about Elemental balance. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [6+10]

1 of 1

Code No: RR212305

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 CHEMICAL AND BIO-THERMODYNAMICS (Bio-Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. An insulated and non-conducting container ﬁlled with 20 lbM of water at 680 F is ﬁtted with a stirrer. The stirrer is made to turn by lowering a “weight” having a mass of 50 lbM. The local acceleration of gravity is 32.00 ft/sec2 . The weight slowly falls a distance of 30 ft while turning the stirrer. Assuming that all the work done by gravity on the weight is transferred to the water, determine: (a) The amount of work done on the water in foot - pounds force. (b) The internal - energy change of the water in foot pounds force and in Btu (c) Final temperature of the water in 0 F (d) The amount of heat which must be removed from the water to return it to its initial temperature [3+3+3+3] (e) The total energy change of the universe because of i. the process of lowering the weight, ii. the process of cooling the water back to its initial temperature, and iii. both of these processes taken together. 2. Write short notes: (a) Explain the Carnot refrigeration cycle. (b) Write about the air refrigeration cycle. (c) Compare the refrigeration cycles. (d) Write about the choice of refrigerant. 3. (a) Explain what is residual property and reason for the use of such properties. (b) Making use of the fact that the equation dH = CP dt + [V − T (∂V /∂T )P ] dP is an exact diﬀerential expression, show that : (∂CP /∂P )T = −T (∂ 2 V /∂T 2 )P [8+8] 4. (a) Deﬁne chemical potential and write the general equation for Gibbs energy in terms of temperature pressure and chemical potential. (b) By deﬁnition, the partial molar volume is: Vi = [∂(nV)/∂ni ]P, T, nj . What physical interpretation can be given to this equation? [8+8] 5. Discuss in detail about VLE from cubic Equations of state. 6. Write Short Notes 1 of 2 [4+12]

[4]

[4x4=16]

Code No: RR212305 (a) Eﬀect of temperature on the Equilibrium constant (b) Equilibrium criteria 7. Explain about yield factors.

Set No. 4

[8+8] [16]

8. Estimate the heat of combustion of Pseudomonas ﬂuorescens growing in glucose medium. [4+12] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

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