# Code No: RR310102

Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-I (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the diﬀerent functions of irrigation water. (b) List out diﬀerent Indian soils and their suitability for irrigation. 2. (a) Deﬁne base period, crop period, Intensity of irrigation and cash crops. (b) Water is released at the rate of 5 cumecs at the head sluice. If the duty at the ﬁeld is 100 hectares/cumec and the loss of water in transit is 30%, ﬁnd the area of the land that can be irrigated. [8+8] 3. (a) Deﬁne raingange density. Discuss the ISI norms for the raingange density. (b) The average annual rainfall in Cm at 4 existing raingauge stations in a basin are 105, 79, 70 and 66. If the average depth of rainfall over the basin is to be estimated within 10 % error, determine the additional number of gauges needed. [8+8] 4. (a) Why is base ﬂow separated from total runoﬀ. Describe any two methods of separating the base ﬂow from the total runoﬀ. (b) The peak ordinate of a ﬂood hydrograph produced by a 4 hr storm yielding 6.7 cm of rainfall is observed to be 832 m3 /sec. If the base ﬂow and φ index are 15 m3 /sec and 0.5 m/hr. what is the peak ordinate of the 4 hr unit hydrograph. [8+8] 5. (a) Explain the Ground water movement. What are the assumptions made in the theory of groundwater movement. (b) A 30 cm well completely penetrates an unconﬁned aquifer of depth 40 m. After a long period of pumping at a steady rate of 1500 lpm, the drawdown in two observation wells 25 m and 75 m from the pumping well are found to be 3.5 m and 2.0 m respectively. Determine the transmissivity of the aquifer. What is the drawdown at the pumping well. [8+8] 6. (a) Explain what is meant by unlimited incoherent alluvium in the context of Lacey’s theory. Discuss the limitations of Kennedy’s and Lacey’s theory in their applicability. (b) Design an irrigation channel section for discharge of 40 cumecs, silt factor 1.0 and side slope of 1:1. Determine the longitudinal slope also. [8+8] 7. (a) What is the diﬀerence between a diversion head works and storage head works. What considerations will you have while selecting site for a diversion head works. 1 of 2 [8+8]

Code No: RR310102

Set No. 1

(b) What are the functions of a silt excluder. Discuss the various design considerations. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain Khosla’s theory and concept of ﬂow nets with the help of neat sketches. (b) Explain the surface ﬂow considerations involved in the design of thickness of sloping glacis and the down stream ﬂoor of a weir for diﬀerent ﬂow considerations. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310102

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-I (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Give a bird’s eye view of irrigation engineering, tracing the history of a drop of water from the cloud to ﬁeld. (b) List out the ill eﬀects of irrigation. How would you reduce the ill eﬀects.[8+8] 2. (a) Distinguish between: i. Crop rotation and Mixed cropping ii. Base period and kor period iii. Field capacity and available moisture. (b) After how many days the farmer should apply water to his ﬁeld to ensure eﬃcient use of irrigation water, if the ﬁeld capacity is 27%, permanent wilting point is 14%, density of soil is 1500 kg/m3 , eﬀective root zone depth 0.75 m and daily consumptive use of water is 11 mm. [9+7] 3. (a) Describe diﬀerent methods of determining the average depth of rainfall over an area. Bring out merits and demerits of each method. (b) A 3 hour storm occurred at a place and the precipitations in the neighboring raingauge stations P, Q and R were measured as 3.8, 4.1 and 4.5 cm respectively. The precipitation in the neighboring station S could not be measured since the raingauge is inoperative. The normal precipitations in the four stations P, Q, R and S as per IMD were 45, 48, 53 and 50 cm respectively. Estimate the storm precipitation at station S. [8+8] 4. (a) Explain how runoﬀ is estimated using Khosla’s method. (b) Explain with a neat sketch how the storage requirement to meet a uniform demand rate can be determined using a mass curve. [8+8] 5. (a) Distinguish between i. Conﬁned aquifer and unconﬁned aquifer ii. Artesian well and ﬂowing well iii. Aquifer and Aquifuge. (b) The elevation of water table in an unconﬁned aquifer at two locations separated by a distance of 100 m is 1026.2 m and 1025.0 m respectively. If the permeability of the aquifer is 12 m/ day and porosity is 15%, what is the actual velocity of ﬂow in the aquifer. [9+7] 6. (a) Explain the diﬀerent steps and equations involved in the design of an alluvial channel by Kennedy’s theory. 1 of 2

Code No: RR310102

Set No. 2

(b) The bed slope of a regime channel is 1 in 5800. Determine the channel section and discharge. The average particle size is 0.323 mm. [8+8] 7. (a) What are the requirements for an ideal site for a diversion head works. What are the functions of diversion head works. (b) What is the purpose of providing a ﬁsh ladder. Discuss the general considerations for its design. [8+8] 8. Design a vertical drop weir using Bligh’s theory for the following data. (a) Maximum ﬂood discharge = 1200 cumecs. (b) HFL before construction of weir = 172.5 m (c) River Bed Level = 168.0 m (d) FSL of canal = 171.5 m (e) Allowable Aﬄux = 1 m (f) Coeﬃcient of creep = 11 The weir wall need not be designed and its dimensions may be taken as top width = 3 m; Bottom width = 6 m. Assume any other data not given. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310102

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-I (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Write a note on sub-surface irrigation, stating clearly the conditions under which this method is suitable. (b) Describe Border strip method of irrigation with the help of a neat sketch.[8+8] 2. (a) Describe with the help of a diagram various forms of soil moisture. What do you understand by the available moisture. (b) A ﬁeld channel has culturable command area of 2000 hectares. The intensity of irrigation for gram is 30% and for wheat is 50%. Gram has a kor period o 18 days and kor depth of 12 cm, while the wheat has a kor period of 15 days and a kor depth of 15 cm. Calculate the discharge of the channel. [8+8] 3. (a) List out various practical applications of Hydrology. (b) What are the basic data required for Hydrological studies. Name the agencies from which the data can be obtained. [8+8] 4. (a) Sketch and explain a typical hydrograph resulting from an isolated storm. (b) The observed hydrograph produced by a storm lasting for 3 hrs. with a uniform intensity on a drainage basin of 835 km2 area has the following ordinates. Time (hrs) Flow (m3 /sec) Time (hrs) Flow (m3 /sec) Time (hrs) Flow (m3 /sec) 0 12.7 24 99.0 48 30.3 3 156.0 27 85.0 51 26.9 6 255.0 30 73.6 54 23.8 9 212.4 33 62.6 57 21.2 12 184.0 36 53.5 60 18.7 15 158.6 39 46.0 63 18.7 18 134.0 42 39.6 66 16.0 21 116.0 45 34.5 Separate the baseﬂow and compute the volume of direct runoﬀ assuming the base ﬂow varies linearly from 12.7 m3 /sec. at the beginning to 16.0 m3 /sec at the end. Compute ordinates of 3 hr unit hydrograph. [8+8] 5. (a) Deﬁne speciﬁc yield, speciﬁc Retention and storage coeﬃcient. (b) Calculate the discharge in m3 /day from a tube well under the following conditions. Diameter of the well = 45 cm Drawdown at the well = 12 m Thickness of Aquifer = 30 m 1 of 2

Code No: RR310102 Radius of Inﬂuence Coeﬃcient of permeability Aquifer type = = =

Set No. 3
200 m 0.01 cm/sec Unconﬁned. [8+8]

6. (a) What are diﬀerent types of buried membrane lining. Describe. (b) Design a channel using Lacey’s theory to carry a discharge of 100 cumecs. Assume silt factor of 1.0. [8+8] 7. (a) Draw a neat layout of Diversion head works and indicate the various components of the system. What are the functions of diversion head works. (b) What are the functions of silt ejectors. Discuss the various design considerations. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain the design procedure of a vertical drop wier. (b) Explain Bligh’s creep theory. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: RR310102

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-I (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Write a note on scope of irrigation. What is meant by a multipurpose river valley project. (b) Explain the beneﬁts of irrigation. 2. (a) Explain as how the following factors aﬀect the duty of a crop. i. ii. iii. iv. Soil and sub-soil condition Stage of growth Temperature Rainfall. [8+8]

(b) Compute the depth and frequency of irrigation required for a certain crop if root zone depth is 100 cm, ﬁeld capacity is 22%, wilting point is 12%, density o soil is 1.5 gm/c.c, consumptive use is 25 mm/day and eﬃciency of irrigation is 50%. Assume 50% depletion of available moisture before application of irrigation water at ﬁeld capacity. [8+8] 3. (a) Describe the ISI standard evaporation pan with a neat sketch. In what way it is diﬀerent from USWB class A land pan. (b) The ordinates of rainfall mass curve of a storm over a basin of area 850 Km2 measured in mm at one hour interval are 0, 10, 22, 30, 39, 45.5, 50, 55.5, 60,64 and 68 If the inﬁltration during this storm can be represented by Horton’s equation with f0 =6.5 mm/hr fc= 1.5 mm/hr and k=0.15/hr, estimate the resulting runoﬀ volume. [8+8] 4. (a) Explain how runoﬀ is computed from inﬁltration indices. (b) What do you mean by basin yield and dependable yield. How basin yield is estimated from water balance equation. [8+8] 5. (a) Explain the occurance of Ground water in conﬁned and unconﬁned aquifers with the help of a neat sketch. (b) The discharge from a fully penetrating well operating under steady state in a conﬁned aquifer of 35 m thickness is 3000 lpm. Values of drawdown at two observation wells 12 m and 120 m away from the well are 3.0m and 0.3 m respectively. Determine the permeability of the aquifer. [8+8] 6. (a) What are the various investigations required for a canal project (Distribution system).Explain in brief. 1 of 2

Code No: RR310102 (b) Explain the limitations of Kennedies theory.

Set No. 4
[8+8]

7. (a) Explain Masonry weir with vertical drop with the help of a neat sketch. (b) Deﬁne Aﬄux, maximum ﬂood level, full supply level and escape channel.[9+7] 8. (a) What do you understand by critical gradient. What will happen if the critical gradient is exceeded. What is Khoslas safe exit gradient. (b) Explain how Khoslas theory is modiﬁcation over Bligh’s theory. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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