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Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Describe the construction & working of a PMMC instrument. Derive the equation for deﬂection if the instrument is spring controlled. (b) A moving coil milli-voltmeter has a resistance of 200 Ω & the full scale deﬂection is reached when a potential diﬀerence of 100 mV is applied across the terminals. The moving coil has eﬀective dimensions of 30 mm x 25 mm and is wound with 100 turns. The ﬂux density in the air gap is 0.2 wb/m2 . Determine the control constant if the ﬁnal deﬂection is 100o & a suitable diameter of copper wire for the coil winding if 20% of the total instrument resistance is due to the coil winding. Resistivity of copper is 1.7 x 10−8 Ωm [8+8] 2. (a) Explain the constructional features used in potential transformers to reduce the ratio and phase angle errors. (b) Explain the characteristics of potential transformers in detail. [8+8]

3. (a) Describe the construction & working of electro dynamo meter wattmeter. Derive the expression for torque when the instrument is used on a.c. (b) The pressure coil of an electro dynamo meter wattmeter has a resistance of 6600Ω. When the voltage applied to the pressure coil is 120V and a current of 20A ﬂows in the series coil, the deﬂection is 1600 . What additional resistance must be connected in the pressure coil circuit to make the meter constant equal to 20W per degree. [10+6] 4. (a) Draw a neat sketch showing the construction of a single phase induction type energy meter. Give the theory & operation of the instrument (b) An energy meter is designed to make 100 revolutions of the disc for one unit of energy. Calculate the no. of revolutions made by it when connected to a load carrying 20A at 230volts at 0.8 pf for an hour. If it actually makes 360 revolutions, ﬁnd the percentage error. [8+8] 5. (a) Find the working current of the slide wire and the rheostat setting (b) If the slide wire has divisions marked in mm and each division can be interpolated to one ﬁfth, calculate the resolution of the instrument. (c) What is standardization and explain with an example, how it is obtained. [6 +4+6] 6. (a) Describe with a neat diagram the working of a Carey Foster Slide wire bridge method. 1 of 2

Code No: RR310202

Set No. 1

(b) In a Carey Fosters bridge a resistance of 1.0125 ohms is compared with a standard resistance of 1.0000Ω, the slide wire has a resistance of 0.250Ω in 100 divisions. The ratio arms nominally 10Ωeach are actually 10.05Ω and 9.95Ω respectively. How far (in scale divisions) are the balance positions from those which would obtain of arms ratio were true to their nominal value? The slide wire is 100cm long. [8+8] 7. (a) Derive the equations for balance in the case of Maxwell’s Inductance capacitance bridge. Give its advantages. Draw the phasor diagram for balanced conditions. (b) An a.c bridge circuit is working at 1000Hz. Arm ab is 0.2µF pure capacitance, arm bc is a 500Ω pure resistance, arm cd contains an unknown impedance and arm da has a 300Ω resistance in parallel with a 0.1µF capacitor. Find the R and C (or) L constants of arm cd considering it as a series circuit. [10+6] 8. (a) Give advantages of Burrow’s permeameter with respect to others. (b) A ring having a mean diameter of 0.3m and a cross-sectional area 400mm2 has a primary winding of 80 turns wound uniformly. The secondary winding of 30 turns is connected to a ﬂuxmeter having a constant of 0.12x10−3 weber turn per division. A deﬂection of 46 divisions is observed when a current of 2A is reversed in the primary winding. Calculate the relative permeability of iron. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310202

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What are the diﬀerent types of errors that occur in moving iron instruments? Explain each of them in detail. (b) Compare between Attraction and Repulsion type of instruments. (c) Give the advantages and disadvantages of moving iron instruments. [6+6+4] 2. (a) Explain the errors in potential transformers and means of reducing the same. (b) Describe the following methods for testing of a current transformer : i. Mutual inductance method ii. Silsbee‘s method 3. (a) Explain how the power in a 3 phase system is measured by the use of i. only one wattmeter ii. two wattmeters. Indicate how the power factor is determined. (b) A non inductive resistance is connected in series with a coil across a 230V, 50Hz supply. The current is 1.8A and the potential diﬀerence across the resistance and the coil is 80 & 171 volts respectively. Calculate i. resistance & inductive reactance of the coil ii. the supply power & pf [8+8] [6+10]

4. (a) Draw a neat sketch showing the construction of a single phase induction type energy meter. Give the theory & operation of the instrument (b) An energy meter is designed to make 100 revolutions of the disc for one unit of energy. Calculate the no. of revolutions made by it when connected to a load carrying 20A at 230volts at 0.8 pf for an hour. If it actually makes 360 revolutions, ﬁnd the percentage error. [8+8] 5. Write short notes on the following : (a) Weston type frequency meter (b) Ratiometer type frequency meter [8+8]

6. (a) What are the diﬀerent factors which aﬀect the precision measurement of medium resistances with wheat stone bridge? Explain how their eﬀects are minimized/eliminated

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Code No: RR310202

Set No. 2

(b) A wheat stone bridge is used for measuring the value of change of resistance of a strain gauge which forms one of the arms of the bridge. All the arms of the bridge including the strain guage have a resistance of 100Ω each. The maximum allowable power dissipation from the strain gauge is 250 MW. Determine the value of maximum permissible current through the strain gauge and maximum allowable value of bridge supply voltage. Suppose a source of 20V is available, ﬁnd the value of series resistance to be connected between the source and the bridge to limit the input voltage of the bridge to permissible level. [8+8] 7. Describe the working of Hay‘s bridge for measurement of inductance. Derive the equations for balance and draw the phasor diagram under conditions of balance. Why is this bridge suited for measurement of Inductance of high Q coils. [16] 8. Describe a method of experimental determination of ﬂux density in a specimen of magnetic material using a ballistic glavanometer [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310202

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Give the classiﬁcation of measuring instruments. Describe the working of deﬂection & null type of instrument. Give the diﬀerences between them by suitable examples. (b) A moving coil voltmeter with a resistance of 20 Ωgives a full scale deﬂection of 120o when a potential diﬀerence of 100mV is applied across it. The moving coil has dimensions of 30 mm x 25 mm & is wound with 100 turns. The control spring constant is 0.375 x 10−6 Nm/deg. Find the ﬂux density in the air gap. Find also the diameter of copper wire of coil winding if 30% of instrument resistance is due to coil winding. The speciﬁc resistance for copper is 1.7 x 108 Ωm. [8+8] 2. (a) Derive the force and Torque equations of Electrostatic instruments. (b) The capacity of an electrostatic voltmeter reading from 0 to 2000v increases from 80 to 90 PF as the pointer moves from zero to full scale deﬂection. Calculate the value of external capacitor used to increase its range to 20 kV. If the capacitor is adjusted to make the full scale reading correct, what will be the error at half scale reading? [8+8] 3. (a) Describe with a connection diagram, how would you standard ardize the wattmeter with the help of standard potentiometer. Mention all relevant precautions. (b) A voltage : 100 Sinωt + 40 cos (3ωt-300)+50SinVt+6cos(5ωt-1200)A. What will be the reading on the wattmeter? What percentage of this power is due to fundamental frequency? [8+8] 4. (a) Draw a neat sketch showing the construction of a single phase induction type energy meter. Give the theory & operation of the instrument (b) An energy meter is designed to make 100 revolutions of the disc for one unit of energy. Calculate the no. of revolutions made by it when connected to a load carrying 20A at 230volts at 0.8 pf for an hour. If it actually makes 360 revolutions, ﬁnd the percentage error. [8+8] 5. (a) Find the working current of the slide wire and the rheostat setting (b) If the slide wire has divisions marked in mm and each division can be interpolated to one ﬁfth, calculate the resolution of the instrument. (c) What is standardization and explain with an example, how it is obtained. [6+4+6] 1 of 2

Code No: RR310202

Set No. 3

6. (a) Describe a method by which the insulation resistance to earth of each of a pair of live mains can be measured by a voltmeter of known resistance. Discuss the limitations of the method (b) The following readings were taken with a 250V, 1000Ω per volt, voltmeter Between two mains ⇒ 218 volts Positive main to earth ⇒ 188 volts Negative main to earth ⇒ 10 volts Calculate the insulation resistance of each main. [8+8] 7. (a) Derive the equations for balance in the case of Maxwell’s Inductance capacitance bridge. Give its advantages. Draw the phasor diagram for balanced conditions. (b) An a.c bridge circuit is working at 1000Hz. Arm ab is 0.2µF pure capacitance, arm bc is a 500Ω pure resistance, arm cd contains an unknown impedance and arm da has a 300Ω resistance in parallel with a 0.1µF capacitor. Find the R and C (or) L constants of arm cd considering it as a series circuit. [10+6] 8. Explain the methods of seperation of iron losses into their two components: eddy current and hysteresis losses. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310202

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What are the diﬀerent types of errors that occur in moving iron instruments? Explain each of them in detail. (b) Compare between Attraction and Repulsion type of instruments. (c) Give the advantages and disadvantages of moving iron instruments. [6+6+4] 2. (a) .Explain the constructional features of current transformers with the help of neat sketches. (b) A 1000/5A, 50Hz current transformer has a secondary burden comprising a non inductive impedance of 1.6Ω. The primary winding has one turn. Calculate the ﬂux in the core and ratio error at full load. Neglect leakage reactance and assume the iron loss in the core to be 1.5W at full load. The magnetizing mmf is100AT . [8+8] 3. (a) Explain how power can be measured by using instrument transformers (b) The total resistance of the pressure coil circuit and the inductance of a wattmeter the 4000Ω and 6.5mH. respectively Given the shunted capacitor method of compensating the inductance error and also determine across what portion of the series resistane a 0.1µF capacitor should be shunted to eﬀect compensation. [8+8] 4. (a) Describe the construction & working of a Merz price maximum Demand indicator (b) A single phase induction type energy meter is adjusted to read correctly at unity pf. It is observed that 1/4 full load current at 0.5 lagging pf the eﬀective voltage magnet ﬂux lags behind the current magnet ﬂux by 270 , Will it introduce any error in the measurement? If so, calculate thepersentage error introduced. [10+6] 5. Describe the construction, principle of operation of a duo-range potentiometer by drawing its circuit diagram. Also explain its advantages [16] 6. Describe the construction and working of a polar type potentiometer. How is it standardized? What are the functions of the transfer instrument and the phase shifting transformer? [16] 7. (a) Discuss advantages and disadvantages of D‘Sauty Bridge

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Code No: RR310202

Set No. 4

(b) Describe the working of a low voltage schering bridge. Derive the equations for capacitance and dissipation Factor. Draw the phasor diagram of the bridge under balanced conditions. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain in detail about Ewing double bar permeameter. (b) Explain in detail about Fahy‘s simplex permeameter. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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