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Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 POWER SYSTEMS-II (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Find the ABCD parameters of a 3-phase, 80Km, 50Hz transmission line with series impedance of (0.15 + j 0.28 ) ohms per Km and a shunt admittance of j 5x10−4 ohm per Km for the both Π and T networks. [16] 2. (a) Determine the critical disruptive voltage and corona loss for a 3-phase line space operating at 110kV which has conductors of 1.25cm diameter arranged in a 3.05m delta spacing. Assume air density factor of 1.07 and the dielectric strength of air to be 21kV/cm. [8+8] (b) Explain in brief the disadvantages of corona and diﬀerent methods of reducing corona loss. 3. (a) Derive expressions for sag and tension in a power conductor strung between two supports at equal heights taking into account the wind and ice loadings also. [8+8] (b) An overhead transmission line has a span of 220m between level supports. Calculate the maximum sag if the conductor weights 700kgf/km and has a breaking strength of 6880kgf. Allow a factor of safety of 3. Neglect wind and ice loading. 4. (a) Give thelise of various types of UG cables. [4]

(b) Determine the operating voltage of a single core cable of diameter 2 cm and having three insulating material of permittivites 5, 4, 3. The overall diameter of the cable is 5cm and the maximum working stress is 40kV/cm. Compare the operating voltage with the voltage if the cable were not graded and the material with same working stress was used. [12] 5. (a) Why is their a phase diﬀerence between voltage and current in an ac circuit? Explain the concept of power factor? [5] (b) Derive an expression for most economical power factor which may be attained by a consumer? [6] (c) Explain, why a consumer having low power factor is charged at higher rates? [5] 6. What are the various methods of voltage control in a power system, explain with neat sketches and vector diagrams. [16] 7. (a) What is the importance of base KVA in short circuit calculations? [6+10]

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Code No: RR310203

Set No. 1

(b) A generating station has four bus bar sections .Each section is connected to tie bar through 20% reactors rated at 200MVA.Generators of total capacity 100MVA and 20% reactance are connected to each bus bar section. Calculate the MVA fed to a fault under short circuit condition on two of the bus bars. 8. (a) A 3-φ alternator is supplying power to the star connected load through a feeder .The alternator per phase impedance is equal to ZS and the load impedances are ZR , ZY , and ZB in R,Y and B phases respectively . Neglect the feeder impedance . Derive the expressions for phase currents and phase voltages at the load end , when there is a line to ground fault on the R phase .Assume both neutrals are solidly grounded . [8+8] (b) A 3-φ , 400V , 1MVA alternator has per phase reactance of 3Ω and negligible resistance is supplying power to a star connected load having reactances 10Ω , 20Ω , and 15Ω in R , Y , and B phases respectively . Calculate the fault current and phase voltages at the load side , when there is a line to ground fault occurs at the middle of the feeder on the R phase .Assume both neutrals are solidly grounded . ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310203

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 POWER SYSTEMS-II (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Find the ABCD parameters of a 3-phase, 80Km, 50Hz transmission line with series impedance of (0.15 + j 0.28 ) ohms per Km and a shunt admittance of j 5x10−4 ohm per Km for the both Π and T networks. [16] 2. (a) List various methods of improving string eﬃciency. [4]

(b) In a string of three insulator units the capacitance of each unit is C, from each conductor to ground is C/3, and from each connector to the line conductor is C/5. Calculate the voltage across each unit as a percentage of the voltage. To what value the capacitance between the connector of the unit and the line has to be increased by a guard ring to make the voltage across it equal to that across the next higher unit? [12] 3. An overhead line has a conductor of cross section 2.5 cm2 hard drawn copper and a span length of 150 m. Determine the sag which must be allowed if the tension is not to exceed one ﬁfth of the ultimate strength of 4175 kg/cm2 [8+8] (a) in still air, and (b) with a wind pressure of 1.3kg/m and an ice coating of 1.25cm. Determine also the vertical sag in the latter case. 4. (a) A single core cable has an inner diameter of 5cms and a core diameter of 1.5cm. Its paper dielectric has a working maximum dielectric stress of 60 kV/cm. Calculate the maximum permissible line voltage when such cables are used on a 3-phase power system. [6] (b) A 66kV concentric cable with two inter sheaths has a core diameter 1.8 cm. Dielectric material 3.5 mm thick constitutes the three zones of insulation. Determine the maximum stress in each of the three layers if 20kV is maintained across each of the inner two layers. [10] 5. (a) What is the eﬀect of 3-φ induction motor operation on supply power factor?Discuss? [6] (b) The load on an installation is 800KW,0.8 lagging which works for 3000 hours per annum. The tariﬀ is Rs 100 per KVA plus 20 paise per KWh. If the power factor is improved to 0.9 lagging by means of loss-free capacitors costing Rs 60 per KVAR, calculate the annual saving eﬀected. Allow 10% per annum for interest and depreciation on capacitors. [10] 6. What are the various methods of voltage control in a power system, explain with neat sketches and vector diagrams. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR310203

Set No. 2

[6+10]

7. (a) What is the importance of base KVA in short circuit calculations?

(b) A generating station has four bus bar sections .Each section is connected to tie bar through 20% reactors rated at 200MVA.Generators of total capacity 100MVA and 20% reactance are connected to each bus bar section. Calculate the MVA fed to a fault under short circuit condition on two of the bus bars. 8. (a) Derive the expression for the fault current and the terminal voltages for a line to ground fault which occurs at the terminals of an unloaded 3-φ alternator. Assume that the alternator has an isolated neutral. [8+8] (b) A 20MVA, 11KV, 3-φ 50HZ generator has its neutral earthed through a 5% reactor .It is in parallel with another identical generator having neutral earthed through a 5% reactor. Each generator has a positive ,Negative, and Zero sequence reactances are 20%, 10%, and 15% respectively. If a line to ground short circuit occurs in the common bus bar , determine the fault current . ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310203

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 POWER SYSTEMS-II (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Find the ABCD parameters of a 3-phase, 80Km, 50Hz transmission line with series impedance of (0.15 + j 0.28 ) ohms per Km and a shunt admittance of j 5x10−4 ohm per Km for the both Π and T networks. [16] 2. A string of suspension insulator consists of four units. The capacitance between each pin and earth is one tenth of the self capacitance of the unit. The voltage between the line conductor and earth is 100kV. Find (a) The voltage distribution across the each unit (b) the string eﬃciency. [12] [4]

3. An overhead line has a conductor of cross section 2.5 cm2 hard drawn copper and a span length of 150 m. Determine the sag which must be allowed if the tension is not to exceed one ﬁfth of the ultimate strength of 4175 kg/cm2 [8+8] (a) in still air, and (b) with a wind pressure of 1.3kg/m and an ice coating of 1.25cm. Determine also the vertical sag in the latter case. 4. (a) A single core cable has an inner diameter of 5cms and a core diameter of 1.5cm. Its paper dielectric has a working maximum dielectric stress of 60 kV/cm. Calculate the maximum permissible line voltage when such cables are used on a 3-phase power system. [6] (b) A 66kV concentric cable with two inter sheaths has a core diameter 1.8 cm. Dielectric material 3.5 mm thick constitutes the three zones of insulation. Determine the maximum stress in each of the three layers if 20kV is maintained across each of the inner two layers. [10] 5. (a) Discuss the disadvantages of a low power factor? [6]

(b) A single phase motor connected to a 240V,50HZ supply takes 20A at a power factor of 0.75 lagging. A capacitor is shunted across the motor terminals to improve the power factor to 0.9. Determine the capacitance of the capacitor to be used. [6] (c) List few reasons for mainating low p.f. is the system [4]

6. What are the various methods of voltage control in a power system, explain with neat sketches and vector diagrams. [16]

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Code No: RR310203

Set No. 3

7. (a) What are symmetrical components. Why are they used in power system fault analysis, explain in detail. [8+8] (b) Obtain the symmetrical components of a set of unbalanced currents Ia=1.6 2500 , Ib=1.0 1800 , and Ic= 0.9 1320 , and also ﬁnd out the neutral current. 8. (a) Derive the expression for fault current and terminal voltages of three diﬀerent phases of an alternator, when a double line to ground fault occurs on the R phase. Assume that the alternator neutral is isolated. [8+8] (b) A 3-φ , 11KV , 25MVA generator with x0=0.05 p.u.,x1=0.2 p.u. is grounded through a reactance of 0.3Ω . Calculate the fault current for a double line to ground fault. Also calculate the terminal voltage of the faulted phase . ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310203

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 POWER SYSTEMS-II (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Find the ABCD parameters of a 3-phase, 80Km, 50Hz transmission line with series impedance of (0.15 + j 0.28 ) ohms per Km and a shunt admittance of j 5x10−4 ohm per Km for the both Π and T networks. [16] 2. (a) What are overhead line insulators? Explain brieﬂy diﬀerent types of insulators based on their applications and operating voltage levels with neat diagram. (b) Each conductor of a three phase overhead line is suspended from a cross arm of a steel tower by a string of 4 suspension insulators. The voltage across the second unit is 13.2kV and across the third 19.5kV. Find the voltage between the conductors and the string eﬃciency. [8+8] 3. (a) Derive expressions for sag and tension in a power conductor strung between two supports at equal heights taking into account the wind and ice loadings also. [8+8] (b) An overhead transmission line has a span of 220m between level supports. Calculate the maximum sag if the conductor weights 700kgf/km and has a breaking strength of 6880kgf. Allow a factor of safety of 3. Neglect wind and ice loading. 4. (a) A single core cable has an inner diameter of 5cms and a core diameter of 1.5cm. Its paper dielectric has a working maximum dielectric stress of 60 kV/cm. Calculate the maximum permissible line voltage when such cables are used on a 3-phase power system. [6] (b) A 66kV concentric cable with two inter sheaths has a core diameter 1.8 cm. Dielectric material 3.5 mm thick constitutes the three zones of insulation. Determine the maximum stress in each of the three layers if 20kV is maintained across each of the inner two layers. [10] 5. (a) Why is their a phase diﬀerence between voltage and current in an ac circuit? Explain the concept of power factor? [5] (b) Derive an expression for most economical power factor which may be attained by a consumer? [6] (c) Explain, why a consumer having low power factor is charged at higher rates? [5] 6. What is a synchronous phase shifter? How does a synchronous phase shifter helps a system to control the voltage? What are its limitations ? [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR310203

Set No. 4

[6+10]

7. (a) What is the importance of base KVA in short circuit calculations?

(b) A generating station has four bus bar sections .Each section is connected to tie bar through 20% reactors rated at 200MVA.Generators of total capacity 100MVA and 20% reactance are connected to each bus bar section. Calculate the MVA fed to a fault under short circuit condition on two of the bus bars. 8. (a) Derive the expression for fault current and the terminal voltages of a 3-φ alternator ,when there is a line to line fault occurs at the terminals of the alternator. Assume that the generator has an isolated neutral. [8+8] (b) A 3-φ , 11KV , 25MVA generator with x0=0.05 p.u.,x1=0.2 p.u. is grounded through a reactance of 0.3Ω . Calculate the fault current for a single line to ground fault through reactance 0.2Ω. Also calculate the terminal voltage of the faulted phase with respect to ground. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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