# Code No: RR310303

Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMAL ENGINEERING-II (Mechanical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Give the detailed classiﬁcation of boilers? (b) Write short notes on any one Boiler accessory with the schematic sketch. [6+10] 2. The throat diameter of a nozzle is 5 mm. If dry and saturated steam at 10 bar is supplied to the nozzle, calculated the mass ﬂow rate. The exhaust pressure is 1.5 bar. (a) Assume friction less adiabatic ﬂow. (b) If 10 % of the isentropic heat drop lost in friction, what should be the correct diameter at outlet for steam to issue at the same exhaust pressure? [16] 3. The air leakage into a surface condenser operating with a steam turbine is estimated as 84 Kg/hr. The vacuum near the inlet of air pump is 700 mm of Hg. When Barometer reads 760 mm of Hg. The temp. at the inlet of vacuum pump is 200 C.Calculate (a) Min. capacity of air pump in m3 /hr. (b) The dimensions of the reciprocating air pump to remove the air if it run at 200 RPM and L/D ratio=1.5 and volumetric eﬃciency =100%. (c) The mass of vapour extracted per minute. 4. (a) Brieﬂy explain the classiﬁcation of steam turbines. (b) Explain brieﬂy why in multistage impulse turbines the ﬁrst stage is often Compounded for velocity and remaining stages have single row wheels? [6+10] 5. In a stage of impulse reaction turbine provided with single row wheel, the mean diameter of the blades is 1metre.it turns at 3000r.p.m.the steam issues from the nozzle at a velocity of 350m/sec and the nozzle angle is 200 . The rotor blades are equiangular. The blade friction factor is 0.86.determine the power developed if the axial thrust on the end bearing of a rotor is 118N. [16] 6. A closed cycle gas turbine using Argon as the working ﬂuid has a two compression with perfect inter cooling. The overall pressure ratio is 9 and pressure ratio in each stage is equal. Each stage has an isentropic eﬃciency of 85%. The turbine is also two stage with equal pressure ratio with inter change reheat to original temperature. Each turbine stage has an isentropic eﬃciency of 90%. The turbine inlet temperature is 1100K and the compressor inlet is 303K. Find 1 of 2 [16]

Code No: RR310303 (a) work done per kg of ﬂuid ﬂow (b) work ratio

Set No. 1

(c) The overall cycle eﬃciency. The properties of argon are Cp= 0.5207kJ/kg 0 K,γ =1.667 and R=0.20813kJ/kg0 K [16] 7. (a) Explain the signiﬁcance of eﬀective speed ratio on Speciﬁc thrust and overall thermal eﬃciency in a turbojet engine. (b) Brieﬂy explain the needs and demands to be met by a modern turbo-jet engine. [8+8] 8. (a) Why liquid propellants are preferred in rocket propulsion? (b) A simple turbojet unit operates with a turbine inlet temperature of 11000 K, a pressure ratio is 4:1 and a mass ﬂow of 22.7 Kg/Sec. under design conditions. The following component eﬃciencies may be assumed: Isentropic Compressor eﬃciency - 0.85 Isentropic Turbine eﬃciency - 0.90 Propelling nozzle eﬃciency - 0.95 Transmission eﬃciency - 0.99 Combustion chamber loss - 0.21 bar Calculate the design thrust and speciﬁc fuel consumption when the unit is stationary at sea level where the ambient conditions may be taken as 1.013 bar and 288K. [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310303

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMAL ENGINEERING-II (Mechanical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Steam is supplied to a two-stage turbine at 40 bar and 3500 C. It expands in the ﬁrst turbine until it is just dry saturated, then it is re-heated to 3500 C and expanded through second stage turbine. The condenser pressure is 0.035 bar. Calculate the work output and the heat supplied per kg of steam for the plant, assuming ideal processes and neglecting the feed pump work. Calculate also the speciﬁc stream consumption and cycle eﬃciency. [16] 2. (a) Discuss the eﬀect of friction on ﬂow through steam nozzles. Explain with the help of H-S Diagram (b) Dry saturated steam at a pressure of 10 bar with negligible velocity expands in Convergent Divergent nozzle to 1 Bar and Dryness fraction 0.94.Determine the velocity of steam leaving the nozzle. [6+10] 3. (a) What are the objectives of a steam condenser in a steam power plant? (b) Explain the working of high level jet condenser, with the help of a neat sketch. [6+10] 4. In an impulse turbine (with a single row wheel) the mean diameter of the blades is 1.05m and speed is 3000r.p.m.The nozzle angle is 180 , the ratio of the blade speed to steam speed is 0.42 and the ratio of the relative velocity at outlet from the blades to that at inlet is 0.84.The outlet angle of the blade is to be made 30 less than the inlet angle. The steam ﬂow is 10kg(S)s. Draw The velocity diagram for the blades and derive the following: (a) Tangential thrust on the blades (b) Axial thrust on the blades (c) Resultant thrust on the blades (d) Power developed in the blades (e) Blading eﬃciency. [16]

5. (a) What do you mean by compounding of steam turbines? Discuss various methods of compounding steam turbines? (b) Explain the diﬀerence between an impulse turbine and a reaction turbine? [10+6] 6. (a) Explain with neat sketch open cycle gas turbine plant.

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Code No: RR310303

Set No. 2

(b) Enumerate the diﬀerences between open cycle gas turbine plant and closed Cycle turbine plant. [8+8] 7. (a) What are the important properties of a good propellant? (b) In a jet propulsion cycle air enters the compressor at 1 bar, 150 C. The pressure leaving the compressor is 5 bar and the maximum temperature is 9000 C. The air expands in the turbine to such a pressure that the turbine work is just equal to the compressor work. On leaving the turbine, the air expands in a reversible adiabatic process in a nozzle to 1 bar. Calculate the velocity leaving the nozzle. Take Cp =1.0035 andγ = 1.4 for compressor and expansion processes. [4+12] 8. (a) Explain with a neat sketch a Screw Propeller Unit. (b) What are the fundamental diﬀerences between jet propulsion and rocket propulsion? [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310303

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMAL ENGINEERING-II (Mechanical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the working principle of any one of horizontal ﬁre tube boiler. (b) A chimney is 60 m high and the temperature of atmospheric air is 270 C. If 15 kg of air per kg of fuel is used ﬁnd the temperature of hot gases for maximum discharge. [10+6] 2. A convergent divergent nozzle is required to pass 1.8 kg of steam per second. At inlet the steam pressure and actual temperature are 7 bar and 2000 C respectively and the speed is 75 m/s. Expansion is stable throughout to the exit pressure of 1.1bar. There is no loss by friction in the converging section of the section, but loss by friction between throat and outlet is equivalent to 71 kJ/kg of steam. Calculate (a) the required area of throat in mm2 , (b) the required area of outlet in mm2 and (c) the overall eﬃciency of the nozzle, based on the heat drop between the actual inlet pressure and temperature and the outlet pressure. [16] 3. (a) With the help of a neat sketch. Explain the working of counter ﬂow jet condenser. (b) The following data were obtained from the test of a surface condenser : Condenser vacuum =711 mm of Hg; Hot water Temp=320 C; Inlet temp of circulating water = 140 C Outlet temp of circulating water is 280 C, Barometer reading is 760 mm of Hg. Calculate the vacuum eﬃciency and eﬃciency of condenser. [8+8] 4. In a single stage impulse turbine the nozzle angle is 250 . The absolute velocity of steam at exit is 300 m/sec in a direction 1200 to the direction of motion of the blades. Assuming equiangular blades and no axial thrust, determine (a) the blade angles, (b) the power developed per kg and (c) the diagram eﬃciency. [16] 5. (a) The following data refers to a particular stage of a Parsons Reaction turbine: Speed of the turbine = 1500r.p.m Mean diameter of the rotor = 1metre Stage eﬃciency=80 percent Blade outlet angle=200 Speed ratio= 0.7 Determine the available isentropic enthalpy drop in the stage. 1 of 2

Code No: RR310303

Set No. 3

(b) What do you mean by combined velocity diagram with reference to steam turbines? [10+6] 6. In gas turbine plant, operating on joules cycle, maximum and minimum temperatures of 8250C and 27 0 C . The pressure ratio is 4.5. Calculate the speciﬁc work output , cycle eﬃciency and work ratio. Assume isentropic eﬃciency of compressor and turbine 85%and 90% respectively. What is the heat rate in kJ / kW-hr. If the rating of the turbine is 1300kW, what is the mass ﬂow in kg/s. Neglect the mass of fuel. Cp=1.005 kJ/kg 0 K. [16] 7. (a) Describe the eﬀect of altitude on turbo jet unit. (b) How do the thrust and thrust power of a turbojet engine vary with ﬂight speed? Compare these with a reciprocating engine. How thrust is augmented for the oﬀ and climb? [6+10] 8. (a) What is ramjet? Explain the working of a ramjet with a neat sketch. (b) Explain the following terms i. ii. iii. iv. Isentropic Compressor eﬃciency Isentropic Turbine eﬃciency Propelling nozzle eﬃciency Transmission eﬃciency. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

[8+8]

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Code No: RR310303

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 THERMAL ENGINEERING-II (Mechanical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the operation of any one type of modern high pressure boiler with a neat sketch. (b) Deﬁne equivalent evaporation of a boiler. [12+4]

2. A convergent divergent nozzle is required to discharge 2 kg of steam per second. The nozzle is supplied with a steam at 7 bar and 1800C and discharge takes place against a backpressure of 1 bar. The expansion upto throat is isentropic and the frictional resistance between the throat and exit is equivalent to 63 kJ/kg of steam. Taking approach velocity of 75 m/s and throat pressure of 4 bar. Estimate : (a) Suitable areas for the throat and exit. (b) Overall eﬃciency of the nozzle based on the enthalpy drop between the actual inlet pressure and temperature and the exit pressure. [16] 3. (a) With help of neat sketch explain the working principle of Barometric jet condenser. (b) With a line diagram explain the working of natural draught cooling tower. [8+8] 4. (a) Deﬁne and derive an expression for diagram eﬃciency incase of a steam turbine. (b) In a simple impulse turbine, the nozzles are inclined at 200 to the direction of motion of moving blades. The steam leaves the nozzles at 375 m/sec. The blade speed is 165 m/sec.Find suitable inlet and outlet angles for the blades in order that the axial thrust is zero. The relative velocity of steam as it ﬂows over the blades is reduced by 15% by friction. Determine the power developed if the ﬂow rate is 10 kg/sec. [8+8] 5. (a) What do you mean by compounding of steam turbines? Discuss various methods of compounding steam turbines? (b) Explain the diﬀerence between an impulse turbine and a reaction turbine? [10+6] 6. (a) What are the Principal components in closed cycle gas turbine and Explain them brieﬂy, show the cycle on T-S diagram (b) Derive the expression for thermal eﬃciency of a simple gas turbine plant. [8+8]

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Code No: RR310303

Set No. 4

7. A turbo-jet engine ﬂying at a speed of 960 km/hr consumes air at the rate of 54.5 kg/s. Calculate (a) Exit velocity of jet when the enthalpy change for the nozzle is 200 KJ/kg and velocity coeﬃcient is 0.97. (b) Fuel ﬂow rate in kg/s when air-fuel ratio is 75:1. (c) Trust speciﬁc fuel consumption. (d) Thermal eﬃciency of the plant when the combustion eﬃciency is 93% and caloriﬁc value of the fuel is 45000 KJ/kg. (e) Propulsive power. (f) Propulsive eﬃciency. Overall eﬃciency. 8. Discuss the theory of the rocket engine. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16] [16]

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