Code No: RR310402

Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) As related to antennas, define and explain the following terms: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Gain directivity radiation resistance effective area effective length efficiency beam width bandwidth.

(b) Evaluate the directivity of i. an isotropic source, and ii. source with bi-directional cos θ power pattern. 2. (a) Define and account for the presence of i. Radial power flow ii. Radiation resistance for a short dipole, iii. Uniform current distribution (b) Obtain the relative amplitudes of radiation, induction and electro-static fields at a distance of 2λ from a short current element having an uniform current of 1 mA along its length. [8+8] 3. (a) Obtain an expression for the field strength and sketch the pattern of a 2 element array with halt-wave spacing and phase difference of π/2 . Assume equal amplitudes. (b) List out all the effects of change of phases on the radiation characteristics of a Uniform Linear Array? [8+8] 4. (a) With neat schematics, describe the principle of working of a 3 element yagi antenna, listing out its length and spacing requirements. (b) Sketch the current distributions on a folded dipole, and account for its input impedance when the two legs have unequal diameters. [8+8] 5. (a) With neat schematics, derive the expression for pitch angle to get circularly polarized radiation pattern for a helical antenna, operating in broadside mode, and sketch its pattern. 1 of 2 [8+8]

Code No: RR310402

Set No. 1
[10+6]

(b) What are the different advantages and disadvantages of loop antennas?

6. (a) Distinguish between sectoral, Pyramidal and Conical Horns, with neat sketches. List out their utility and applications. (b) With neat set up, explain the absolute method of measuring the gain of an antenna. [8+8] 7. Write explanatory notes on: (a) Selective fading and interference fading (b) Optimum working frequency and LUHF. (c) Field strength calculation for radio AM broadcast waves. (d) Ionosheric abnormalities. [4+4+4+4]

8. (a) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of communication at ultra high frequencies. (b) How does the field strength of UHF signals depend on the heights of the transmitting and receiving antennas? Derive the relation and explain its variation with distance. [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310402

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Define and explain the significance of the terms: Radiation intensity, Beam area, Beam efficiency, effective height, and resolution. (b) A source has a constant power pattern limited to top half of the hemisphere only. Find its directivity and effective area. [10+6] 2. (a) Define the terms electrostatic field, induction field and radiation field of an antenna and bring out their significance. (b) A transmitting antenna has an effective height of 61.4 mts and takes a rms current of 50 Amps at a wavelength of 625 mts. Find radiation resistance, radiated power and Antenna efficiency if the antenna loss resistance is 5 Ω. [8+8] 3. For a 10 elements Uniform Linear Array with λ spacing, fed with equal amplitude 4 most spacing, determine all the radiation characteristics-BWFN, HPBW, Null, side lobe positions and actual side lobe levels and directivity. Sketch the radiation pattern. If this array is not to have any side lobe, what should be the excitation amplitudes? [12+4] 4. (a) Using the principle of pattern multiplication, obtain the resultant pattern of a long wire antenna and sketch the same. (b) Explain all the structural requirements of a 5-element Yagi antenna at 475 mHz, accounting for typical spacing, length to diameter ratios and Zin . [8+8] 5. (a) Sketch the typical geometry of a helical antenna radiating in axial mode, and list out all its parameters and basic characteristics. List out the expressions for HPBW, BWFN, directivity and axial ratio. (b) With a neat sketch, explain the image formation and field calculation for the case of a 600 corner reflector. [10+6] 6. (a) Distinguish between sectoral, Pyramidal and Conical Horns, with neat sketches. List out their utility and applications. (b) With neat set up, explain the absolute method of measuring the gain of an antenna. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR310402

Set No. 2

7. (a) What are the factors that lead to fading and attenuation in ionospheric propagation. (b) What is the wave tilt and how does it effect the field strength received at a distance from the transmitter? [6+10] 8. Write notes on (a) M curves and their characteristics. (b) Troposcatter Propagation of electromagnetic waves. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [6+10]

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Code No: RR310402

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Define and explain: Directivity and power gain for an antenna. What is the relation between the two? Prove that the directivity of a λ/2 aerial is 0.39 db more than that of a short dipole. (b) What are principal planes? How the antenna beam width are defined in such planes? [10+6] 2. (a) Explain the terms Poynting vector, Impedance of free space and bring out their relation with radiation fields of an antenna. (b) Show that the rms field strength from an antenna with gain G, radiating P 1/2 watts of power is given by, E = (30PG) Volts / mts. in free space. Find E at r a distance of 1km., if the radiated power is 1kW for i. an isotropic case, ii. a half wave dipole. 3. (a) What is array factor? Find the array factor of two element array? (b) For an array of two identical infinitesimal dipoles oriented with a separation of D and phase excitation difference B between the elements, find the angles of observation where the nulls of the array occur. The magnitude of excitation of the elements is same. [8+8] 4. (a) Explain the constructional features and radiation characteristics of a Rhombic Antenna. (b) Explain how parasitic elements are used as directors and reflectors. What is the need for such elements? [8+8] 5. (a) Sketch and explain the constructional features of a helical antenna. Distinguish between axial and normal modes of helix radiations and list out their requirements. (b) Explain the characteristics of an active square corner reflector with the help of image principle. [10+6] 6. (a) Distinguish between sectoral, Pyramidal and Conical Horns, with neat sketches. List out their utility and applications. (b) With neat set up, explain the absolute method of measuring the gain of an antenna. [8+8] 1 of 2 [8+8]

Code No: RR310402

Set No. 3

7. (a) Discuss the importance of ground wave propagation for communication purposes. Why ground waves are not received beyond certain range. Explain the phenomenon. (b) Establish the effects of D-layer in sky wave propagation. [10+6]

8. With neat diagrams, explain the important features of different types of space wave propagation of electromagnetic waves over long distance even beyond the horizon. For what frequency range this is applicable and why? [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310402

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain what is meant by reciprocity theorem as applied to antennas. A voltage of 100 V applied at the terminals of a transmitting dipole antenna results in an induced current of 3 × 10−3 A in a receiving dipole antenna. Calculate the current induced in the first antenna when a voltage of 350V is applied to the terminals of the second antenna. (b) Find the effective length of a λ/2 dipole and a λ/4 monopole. Hence calculate their directivities, using appropriate radiation resistances. [8+8] 2. (a) Define and account for the presence of i. Radial power flow ii. Radiation resistance for a short dipole, iii. Uniform current distribution (b) Obtain the relative amplitudes of radiation, induction and electro-static fields at a distance of 2λ from a short current element having an uniform current of 1 mA along its length. [8+8] 3. (a) A linear broad side array consists of four equal in phase point sources with λ/3 spacing. Calculate and plot the field pattern. Also find directivity and beam width. (b) Distinguish between ordinary EFA and an EFA with increased directivity and compare them. [10+6] 4. Write notes on: (a) Parasitic elements and their reference (b) Terminated antennas (c) Applications of Rhombic Antenna. (d) Multi director Yagi Antenna. [4+4+4+4]

5. (a) List out the differences between the active and passive corner reflectors. What are retro reflectors? (b) Sketch the far field patterns of loops of 0.1λ, λ and 3λ/2 diameter. What is the effect of the shape of the small loop on its far field pattern. [8+8] 6. (a) Distinguish between sectoral, Pyramidal and Conical Horns, with neat sketches. List out their utility and applications. 1 of 2

Code No: RR310402

Set No. 4

(b) With neat set up, explain the absolute method of measuring the gain of an antenna. [8+8] 7. (a) What is signal fading? List the various types of fading and explain. (b) Determine the change in the electron density of E - layer when the critical frequency changes from 4 MHz to 1 MHz between mid - day and sun-set. [8+8] 8. (a) What is LOS propagation? Under what conditions it can exist? (b) Establish the relations for not received fiend strength of in LOS propagated wane at i. small distances, and ii. large distance and sketch their variations with distance. Compare base variations with corresponding free space value. [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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