# Code No: RR310405

Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the diﬀerent types of Sampling. [10]

(b) Obtain the Nyquist rate and Nyquist interval for the signal 10 Cos (2000πt) Cos ( 4000πt) based on i. low pass sampling theory, and ii. band pass sampling theory. [6]

2. Four signals Cos ω0 t, 0.2 Cos ω0 t, 2 Cos 2 ω0 t and Cos 4 ω0 t are to be multiplexed in a TDM system. Find the minimum sampling rate fs , minimum interval and the associated commutator speed. If the commutator rotates at fs /4, and fs /8 revolutions per sec., determine the number of o/p samples of each signal per rotation. Illustrate and explain this process with neat schematics for a commutator switch rotating at a speed of fs /4 revolutions per sec., showing the transmitting and receiving sides. Discuss the necessity of synchronization for this case. [16] 3. (a) Why the overall transfer function of the duo-binary ﬁlter is called as Half-cycle cosine function. [8] (b) Give the Impulse response of the duo-binary ﬁlter and sketch the amplitude and phase response. [8] 4. (a) Explain how eye patterns are used for monitoring the performance of base band PAM system. [8] (b) What is the necessity of shaping transmitted signal spectrum. [8]

5. (a) Prove that the mean value of the quantization error is inversely proportional to the square of the number of quantization levels. (b) What is the function of a predictor in a DPCM system. [10+6]

6. (a) Explain the working of delta modulation system with neat block diagram. (b) Clearly bring out the diﬀerence between granular noise and slope over load error. [8+8] 7. (a) Derive an expression for probability of bit-error for a binary non-coherent FSK demodulator. (b) Binary data is transmitted over a telephone line with usable bandwidth of 2400 Hz using the FSK signaling scheme. The transmit frequencies are 2025 & 2225 Hz, and the data rate is 300 bits/Sec. The average signal to noise 1 of 2

Code No: RR310405

Set No. 1
[8]

power ratio at the output of the channel is 6dB. Calculate Pe for the coherent and non coherent demodulation schemes. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain encoding operation in linear block codes.

(b) Find the output code word for the following convolutional encoder for a message sequence 10011. {As shown in the Figure1} [8]

Figure 1:

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Code No: RR310405

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Distinguish between natural sampling and ﬂat top sampling with neat schematics, listing out their merits and demerits. [8] (b) A signal m(t) = 4 Cos (60 πt) + 2 Cos (160 πt) + Cos (280 πt) is sampled at i. 150 Hz, ii. 75 Hz, iii. 300 Hz. Find the frequency components of the signal that appear at the output of an ideal LPF with cut oﬀ at 290 Hz., in each case. What is the Nyquist rate of sampling and Nyquist interval for m(t)? [8] 2. (a) Explain the principles of TDM. List out their merits, demerits and applications. [8] (b) Explain the method of generation and detection of PAM signals with neat schematics. [8] 3. (a) What are the two key functional operations involved in correlative coding? [8] (b) i. For the data stream 0010110, ﬁnd the duo-binary decoded wave form and give the electrical representation of the data obtained at stages of decoding. [4] ii. Verify that Duo-binary decoding results in bandwidth reduction during transmission by assuming the message sequence to be transmitted is an alternative 1/0 sequence. [4]

4. (a) What is meant by Synchronization in the base band PAM. What are the diﬀerent methods to obtain Synchronization? [8] (b) The T1 carrier system used in digital telephony multiplexes 24 voice channels based on 8-bit PCM. Each voice signal is usually put through a lowpass ﬁlter with cutoﬀ frequency of about 3.4 KHz. The ﬁltered voice signal is sampled at 8KHz. In addition, a single bit is added at the end of the frame for the purpose of synchronization. Calculate i. the duration of each bit ii. the resultant transmission rate and iii. the minimum required transmission bandwidth. 5. (a) Draw the block diagram of PCM Generator and explain each block. 1 of 2

[8]

Code No: RR310405 (b) Determine the Transmission Bandwidth in PCM.

Set No. 2
[8+8]

6. In a single-integration DM system, the voice signal is sampled at a rate of 64kHz.The maximum signal amplitude is Amax=1. (a) Determine the minimum value of the step size σ to avoid slope over load error. (b) Determine the granular noise power if the voice signals bandwidth is 3.5 kHz. (c) Assuming that the voice signal is sinusoidal, determine output signal power and SNR (d) Determine the minimum transmission bandwidth. [4+4+4+4]

7. A statistically independent sequence of equiprobable binary digits is transmitted over a channel having ﬁnite band width using the rectangular signaling wave form is taken. The bit rate is rb and the channel noise has a psd Gn (f) given by Gn (f)=G0 [1+(f/f1)2)]−1 (a) ﬁnd the transfer function of the optimum receiver and calculate the probability of error. [8] (b) If an integrate and dump receiver is used instead of the optimum receiver, ﬁnd the probability of error for the optimum receiver. [8] 8. (a) Explain the table lookup decoding in linear block codes using standard array. [8] (b) The generator polynomial of a (7,4) cyclic code is g (x)= 1+x+x3 . Find the code vector for the message vector D= (1111) using systematic and nonsystematic form. [8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310405

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) With neat diagrams, explain the principle of working a sample and hold circuit. List out its applications. [8]
∞ ∞

(b) Show that
R=−∞

x(RTs )

= fs
n=−∞

X(nfs ) , where x(t) is a signal band
1 Ts

limited to f1 , X(f) is the spectrum of x(t), and fs = sampling rate.

= 2f1 is the Nyquist [8]

2. (a) Sketch and explain the typical waveforms of PWM signals, for leading edge, trailing edge and symmetrical cases. (b) Compare the analog pulse modulation schemes with CW modulation systems. (c) Show that a PAM signal can be expressed as the convolution of an instantaneously sampled signal, and a rectangular pulse p(t) of the form 1, |t| ≤ τ /2 [5+5+6] p (t) = 0 elsewhere 3. (a) Explain how the residual eﬀect of the channel is responsible for Inter Symbol Interference (ISI). [8] (b) Explain about three tap preset equalizer. [8]

4. (a) What is meant by Synchronization in the base band PAM. What are the diﬀerent methods to obtain Synchronization? [8] (b) The T1 carrier system used in digital telephony multiplexes 24 voice channels based on 8-bit PCM. Each voice signal is usually put through a lowpass ﬁlter with cutoﬀ frequency of about 3.4 KHz. The ﬁltered voice signal is sampled at 8KHz. In addition, a single bit is added at the end of the frame for the purpose of synchronization. Calculate i. the duration of each bit ii. the resultant transmission rate and iii. the minimum required transmission bandwidth.

[8]

5. (a) Prove that the mean value of the quantization error is inversely proportional to the square of the number of quantization levels. (b) What is the function of a predictor in a DPCM system. [10+6]

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Code No: RR310405

Set No. 3

6. A Delta modulator system is designed to operate at ﬁve times the Nyquist rate for a signal with 3 kHz bandwidth. Determine the maximum amplitude of a 2 kHz input sinusoid for which the delta Modulator does not have slope overload. Quantization step size is 250mv .Derive the formula used. [16] 7. (a) With a neat block diagram explain noncoherent detection of ASK receiver, and hence derive the expression for probability of error Pe ≈ 1/2 exp (-A2 /8N0 ) if A2 >>N0 [8]

(b) Binary data has to be transmitted over a telephone link that has a usable bandwidth at 3000Hz, and a maximum achievable signal-to-noise power ratio of 6 dB at its output. i. Determine the maximum signaling rate and Pe if a coherent ASK scheme is used for transmitting binary data through this channel. ii. If the data rate is maintained at 300 bits/Sec, calculate the error probability. [8] 8. (a) Design an encoder for the (7,4) binary cyclic code generated by g(x) = 1+x+x3 and verify its operation using the message vector (0101). (b) What are the diﬀerences between block codes and the convolutional codes? [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310405

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) For the signal x(t) = Sa
t 2 2

, estimate –

i. The Nyquist sampling interval and frequency, ii. Bandwidth. Describe the eﬀects of sampling at 10 rad./sec., explaining the requirements of ideal LPF and the resulting signal reconstruction. Take Sa(t) = Sin t . t (b) Deﬁne the sampling theorem as applicable to voice signals on telephone lines. [16] 2. (a) Sketch and explain the typical waveforms of PWM signals, for leading edge, trailing edge and symmetrical cases. (b) Compare the analog pulse modulation schemes with CW modulation systems. (c) Show that a PAM signal can be expressed as the convolution of an instantaneously sampled signal, and a rectangular pulse p(t) of the form 1, |t| ≤ τ /2 [5+5+6] p (t) = 0 elsewhere 3. (a) What is meant by Duo-binary signaling? Give the scheme of Duo-binary signaling and explain. [8] (b) A telephone signal with a cutoﬀ frequency of 4 KHz is digitized in to 8 bit samples at the Nyquist sampling rate fs = 2w. Assuming raised cosine ﬁltering with a roll-oﬀ factor unity. Calculate i. The transmission bandwidth and ii. The quantization signal to noise ratio. 4. (a) Explain the necessity of Equalization in base band PAM systems. [8] [8]

(b) Find the duo-binary encoded sequence for the data sequence 011010. How it is detected? [8] 5. A message signal m(t) is transmitted by binary PCM without compression .If the SNR is required to be at least 47dB, determine the minimum value of L required, assuming that m(t) is sinusoidal. Determine the SNR obtained with this minimum L. Derive the formulae used. [16]

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Code No: RR310405

Set No. 4

6. A Delta modulator system is designed to operate at ﬁve times the Nyquist rate for a signal with 3 kHz bandwidth. Determine the maximum amplitude of a 2 kHz input sinusoid for which the delta Modulator does not have slope overload. Quantization step size is 250mv .Derive the formula used. [16] 7. (a) Write down the modulation waveforms for transmitting binary information over baseband channels, for the following modulation schemes. i. ii. iii. iv. ASK FSK PSK and Baseband pulse shaping followed by DSB modulation. [6+10]

what are the advantages and disadvantages of digital modulation schemes? (b) Discuss base band transmission of M-ary data. 8. The parity check bits of a (8,4) block code are generated by c5 = d1 + d2 + d4 c6 = d1 + d2 + d3 c7 = d1 + d3 + d4 c8 = d2 + d3 + d4 , where d1 , d2, d3 , and d4 are the message bits. (a) Find the generator matrix and the parity check matrix for this code. (b) Find the minimum weight of this code (c) Find the error detecting capabilities of this code (d) Show through an example that this code can detect three errors per code word. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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