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s Yv Lv Nv U0 Lr s Nr g v 0 0 s 2 L p s r = L a L r a r N ps N N a r

Let w0 = 0 and X be principle axis; hence, I xz = 0

C.4.1.1 Characteristic polynomial of the lateral motion:

First of all,

s Yv # Q " s ! = Lv Nv U0 Lr s Nr g s L p s = s 4 + f s + f 2 s 2 + f1 s + f 0 N ps

2

f = L p N r Yv

f 2 = U 0 N v N p Lr + Yv L p + N r " L p + Yv !

0

$s%ally,

f , f2

and

f1

f0

r v v r

2 1

0

--- For ()*A+,, f = . -- , f = 0../0 , f =10.-2/ and f = 0.4.0 . C.4.1.2 Characteristic modes of the lateral motion:

# " s ! determine the characteristic modes of the lateral motions. 1he roots of Q # " s ! 2ill ha&e a pair of complex roots 2ith lo2 dampin' and 2 real )ften, Q roots, one lar'e ne'ati&e and one that is small and most often positi&e.

1he positi&e real root indicates a di&er'in' motion 2hich, if %nattended, may ca%se

34

the aircraft to di&er'e and spiral do2n to crash. 1his root is often named the Spiral mode of the lateral dynamics. 1he ne'ati&e real root reflects mostly the rollin' motion of the aircraft, and is often named the Roll mode of the lateral dynamics. 1he complex roots resemble the Dutch-Roll oscillation in act%al fli'ht.

4oll motion

5piral motion

30

R

# Q " s!

6 , is most easily estimated, as sho2n belo2. 1he lar'e real root, denoted as s

S

+e shall ha&e . # 6 =f f s 6 +fs 6 +f s 6 . 6 to 'et7 s 6 ! = 0 by s Di&ide Q " s 6 f =Y + N +L . 6 > >1, all terms in&ol&in' s 6 &anish; hence, s 5ince s 888 L p %s%ally dominants "For ()*A+,, Yv = 0.104 , N r = 0.0 1 and L p = 2..32 !; hence, this lar'e real root is approximated as 2..32 .

1 2

# 4 2 Q"s 6R ! = s 6R +f s 6R + f 2 s 6R + f1 s 6R + f 0 = 0

R

6 =f f s 6s f s 6s s 6s . First of all, implies that7 f s 6 < <1 , 2e 2ill ha&e f s 6 f ; hence, s 6 f 9 f1 . +ith s 888 For ()*A+,, this small real root is approximated as

2 4 1 S 0 2

S

# Q"s 6S ! = 0

0.04

# " s ! may be approximated thro%'h a 1he remainin' complex roots of Q simplified t2o de'ree8of8freedom motion, 'i&en as follo2s. 888 +hy 2e can do this 2ill be :%stified later.

Simplified 2-DOF Yaw Motion Ass%me a t2o de'ree of freedom ya2 and sideslip motion 2ith no rollin'. 1he in&ol&in' e;%ation set7

3.

=0 g + Yv v v U 0 r + w0 Lv v + Lr r + L p p p = L a a L r r Nvv + N r r + N p p r = N a a N r r

4emainin' e;%ation7

s Yv N v

a

N << 1

# and the roots of Q

DR

1 4

"s!

7

s 6DR = 1 " N r + Yv ! 2 " N r + Yv ! 2 " N r Yv + N vU 0 !

DR

6 = 0. Normall , !ompl"x roo#s r"s$l# "for (oha2=, s Indi!a#ing a dir"!#ional &Dutch roll) os!illa#ion.

420 %1./.

# Q " s!

3-

s R = 2.-01,

# " s ! can be compared 2ith their approximated &al%es 1hese exact roots of Q estimated in pre&io%s disc%ssions7 1he approximated &al%es of s , s , and s 7 s 6 = 2..32 , s 6 = 0. 420 %1./. . 6S = 0.04 and s

R S S

R

?n en'ineerin' sense, the approximated roots a'ree 2ell 2ith the exact roots.

3/

C.4.2.1 Input/Output transfer functions of lateral motion

s Yv v r = (1 ' a , ( = L v r p Nv U0 Lr s Nr 0 0 g 9 s s L p , ' = L a L r Np N a N r

Sv " s! )v " s ! S r " s! )r " s ! v" s ! = # a "s! + # r " s !, r "s! = # a " s! + # r " s !, Q" s! Q" s! Q " s! Q"s! S p "s! )p "s! p" s! = # a "s! + # r " s! Q " s! Q "s!

@y %sin' the Creamers r%le, 2e also ha&e7 S "s! = g b b , ) "s! = g b b , S "s! = b g b g , and ) " s ! = b ) "s! = b g b , S " s! = b

v 1 2 v 2 2 r 1 r 1 2

p 1 2 1 p

b

b2

,

g2

bi

gi

33

+e 2ill no2 explain 2hy the D%tch roll mode can be approximated %sin' the 28D)F ya2 and sideslip motion. 1his is beca%se both ya2 and sideslip motions exhibit stron' D%tch roll characteristics. +e can compare the r%dder8ind%ced responses of v , r and p ; namely, ) " s! ) " s! ) " s! v " s ! = # " s !, r " s ! = # " s !, and p " s ! = # " s! , Q "s! Q " s! Q"s! %sin' the lateral directional deri&ati&es of (oha2= as an example

v r r

p

v "#!

r "#!

p "#!

#, s"!

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8

#, s"!

10 0 2 4 6 8

#, s"!

10

Little D%tch roll acti&ities in the roll responses. 1hatAs 2hy 2e can omit roll motion in the estimation of D%tch roll mode.

100

p7

" s ! = s C s 2 "Yv + N r ! s + N vU 0 + Yv N r B

# + Q " s ! = " s s S !" s s R !" s s D !" s s D !

2

" s ! = s C s Yv L 9 Lr B

# " s! = s " N + Y ! s + N Y + U N . "s sD !"s sD+ ! Q For most A9C, 2e 2ill ha&e Y << N , Y N << N , and N

DR r v r v

?t is =no2n that . 1hro%'h the simplified 28D)F motion, 2e ha&e sho2n that

0

v r

v r

< <1

As a res%lt,

+

N r = 012 . , N = .00-

and

N a = 0.0.

+ L a s" s s D !" s s D ! s L a p" s! = . + a " s ! " s s S !" s s R !" s s D !" s s D ! " s sS !" s s R !

therefore,

1he aileron ind%ced roll motion is almost 2itho%t D%tch roll mode. ?nstead, the motion is dominated by the roll mode, and so it is named. As a res%lt, the roll to aileron motion becomes essentially a lo2 order dynamics. +e 2ill elaborate this fact in the follo2in' red%ced order analysis on roll motion.

101

Ass%me a roll motion 2ith no sideslip and no ya2, i.e. )nly the roll e;%ation is considered7

" s 2 L p s! = " s L p ! p = L a a

p= s Lp L a

v = r = 0.

A 1st order roll response res%lts. . C.4.2.4 Comparisons "et#een reduced order and full order roll response $sin' data of ()*A+, and ass%me that a "# ! 1 , or a " s! = 1 9 s . A. F%ll order sol%tion7 + 2.4/2" 0 .2 " cos"1.3-# +1! p"# ! = 2. 03"

0.0424 # 2.-0# 0. 4#

-0.5

-1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 -3

Complete sol%tion

p&#*

0 0.5 1

1.5

102

)bser&ations7

For short time interval, say 0 < # < 0.0 , the first order approximation wor s fairly well! "ormally, roll auto-pilot desi#n uses first order approximation for roll motion .

10

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