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Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 HEAT TRANSFER (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A 15mm dia steel sphere ,k = 42W/m0 C, is exposed to cooling airﬂow at 200 C resulting in the convective coeﬃcient h = 120 W/m2.C. Determine (a) Time required to cool the sphere from 550 to 900 C (b) Instantaneous H T rate 2 min. after the start of the cooling (c) Total energy transferred from the sphere during the ﬁrst 2 min. Data: Density = 7850 kg/m3 , Cp = 475 J/kg0 C and α=0.045 m2 /h [8+4+4] 2. (a) Explain the critical radius concept in case of curved insulation. [8]

(b) Derive an expression for critical radius for a tube lagged with an insulation material. [8] 3. (a) How is the coeﬃcient of cubical expansion for liquids evaluated? Derive the expression for the same. [8] (b) Air at 250 C ﬂows normally to 0.03m outer diameter water pipe with a velocity of 1m/s. If the surface temperature of the pipe is 750 C, estimate the heat transfer per unit length. Use the correlation Nu = 0.683 (P r)0.333 (Re)0.466 . The relevant properties of air are: Thermal conductivity is 0.0282 W/(m.K). Kinematic viscosity is 1.795 × 10− 5 m2 /s. Pr is 0.698. [8] 4. Benzene is cooled from 610 C to 210 C in the inner pipe of a double pipe heat exchanger. Cooling water ﬂows countercurrently to the benzene, entering the jacket at 160 C and leaving at 270 C. The linear velocity of benzene is 1.52 m/s and that of the water is 1.25 m/s. Neglecting the wall and scale resistances, compute the ﬁlm coeﬃcients of the benzene and water and the overall coeﬃcient based on the outside area of the inner pipe. The inner diameter and outer diameter of the inner tube are 0.0189 m and 0.0222 m respectively. The inside diameter of the jacket is 0.0409 m. The physical properties of benzene and water at the average temperatures are given in the table below: [16] Property Benzene Water Density kg/m3 851 998 −4 Viscosity kg/m-s 4.795 × 10 9.67× 10−4 Thermal conductivity W/ (m.K) 0.1549 0.598 Speciﬁc heat kJ/(kg.K) 1.8212 4.187 Viscosity correction factor 0.969 1.018 5. (a) Explain about ﬁlm boiling. [6]

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Code No: RR310803

Set No. 1

(b) Discuss the merits and demerits of ﬁlm wise and drop wise condensation. [10] 6. A black body of total area 0.045 m2 is completely enclosed in a sphere bounded by 5 cm thick walls. The walls have a surface area 0.5 m2 and the thermal conductivity is 1.1 W/m.C. If the inner surface of the enveloping wall is to be maintained at 2150 C and the outer wall surface is at 300 C calculate the temperature of the black body. Black body radiation constant, = σ = 5.67 × 10−8 W/m2 K 4 . [16] 7. (a) A heat exchanger of total outside surface area of 17.5 m2 is to be used for cooling oil at 200oC with a mass ﬂow rate of 2.77 kg/s having a speciﬁc heat of 1.9 kJ/kgK. Water at a ﬂow rate of 0.83 kg/s is available at 20o C as a cooling agent. Calculate the exit temperature of the oil if the heat exchanger is operated in a parallel ﬂow mode by NTU method. [8] (b) Explain the constructional features and working of plate type heat exchanger. [8] 8. (a) Discuss the salient features of multiple eﬀect evaporators. (b) Explain the various feeding methods employed in evaporators. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8] [8]

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Code No: RR310803

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 HEAT TRANSFER (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A 15mm dia steel sphere ,k = 42W/m0 C, is exposed to cooling airﬂow at 200 C resulting in the convective coeﬃcient h = 120 W/m2.C. Determine (a) Time required to cool the sphere from 550 to 900 C (b) Instantaneous H T rate 2 min. after the start of the cooling (c) Total energy transferred from the sphere during the ﬁrst 2 min. Data: Density = 7850 kg/m3 , Cp = 475 J/kg0 C and α=0.045 m2 /h [8+4+4] 2. A hot chamber has an 8 cm thick inner layer of ﬁre brick (k = 1.04W/m0 C) and a 13 cm outer layer of ordinary brick ( k = 0.69 W/m0 C). The inside and out side temperatures. are 400 and 750 C, respectively. Considering that the outer surface temperature. is too high, it is decided to apply a 5 cm thick layer of plaster on the outer surface. On doing so , the outer skin surface temperature. reduced to 600 C and the rate of heat loss decreases by 250 W/m2 of the wall area. Calculate the k of the layer of plaster. [16] 3. (a) Show by dimensional analysis that data for natural convection may be correlated by an equation of the form: Nu= φ (Gr, Pr) where Nusselt number Nu = (hl/k); Grashof number Gr = (ρ2 gβ∆tl3 /µ2 ) and Prandtl number Pr = (µcp /k). [8] (b) A horizontal plate at 2000 C and facing upwards has been placed in still air at 200 C. If the plate measures 1.25 m × 1.0 m, make calculations for heat loss by natural convection. The convective ﬁlm coeﬃcient for free convection is given by the following empirical equation h = 0.32 (θ )0.25 W/m20 K where θ is mean ﬁlm temperature in K . [8] 4. (a) Determine the hydraulic radius for the following cross sections: i. Circular tube of diameter D ii. Square tube of dimensions s × s. [4+4]

(b) Estimate the heat transfer from a 40 W incandescent bulb at 1250 C to 250 C in quiescent air. Approximate the bulb as a 0.05 m diameter sphere. What percentage of the power is lost by free convection? The appropriate correlation for the free convection coeﬃcient is Nu=0.60(GrP r)0.25 where the diﬀerent parameters are evaluated at the mean ﬁlm temperature and the characteristic length is diameter of the sphere. The properties at mean temperature are Thermal conductivity is 0.03 W/(m.K) 1 of 2

Code No: RR310803 Kinematic viscosity is 20.55 × 10−6 m2 /s Pr = 0.693.

Set No. 2

[8]

5. (a) Calculate the heat-transfer coeﬃcient for ﬁlm boiling of water at 1 atm on submerged horizontal tubes 1\2 , 1 and 2 in. in diameter, with a surface temperature of 180o C. [5] (b) How does the eﬀect of the tube diameter compare with the eﬀect of tube diameter for condensing steam? [5] (c) Compare the equations for ﬁlm boiling and for ﬁlm condensation on horizontal tubes, pointing out the similarities and the diﬀerences. Properties of water ρ = 968 kg/m3 k = 0.58 w/mo C Cp = 4180 j/kg oC µ = 1.14 x 10−6 N.sec/m2

[6]

6. State and explain the following laws relating to thermal radiation and temperature of a radiating body: (a) Plank’s law (b) Stefan Boltzman law (c) Wien’s displacement law [5] [5] [6]

7. (a) Hot oil (Cp =5.2 kJ/kg.k) with a capacity rate of 2800 Kg/min ﬂows through a double pipe heat exchanger. It enters at 380oC and leaves at 300o C. Cold oil (Cp = 4.8 kJ/kgk) enters at 30o C and leaves at 200o C. If the overall heat transfer coeﬃcient is 1000 W/m2 K, determine the heat transfer area required for i. Parallel ﬂow and ii. Counter ﬂow [4+4]

(b) Deﬁne overall heat transfer coeﬃcient and write an expression for it by accounting fouling resistances at the inner and outer tube surfaces in shell and tube heat exchanger. [8] 8. (a) With a neat diagram explain a long vertical tube evaporator. (b) Discuss the accessories used in evaporators. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8] [8]

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Code No: RR310803

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 HEAT TRANSFER (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A 15mm dia steel sphere ,k = 42W/m0 C, is exposed to cooling airﬂow at 200 C resulting in the convective coeﬃcient h = 120 W/m2.C. Determine (a) Time required to cool the sphere from 550 to 900 C (b) Instantaneous H T rate 2 min. after the start of the cooling (c) Total energy transferred from the sphere during the ﬁrst 2 min. Data: Density = 7850 kg/m3 , Cp = 475 J/kg0 C and α=0.045 m2 /h [8+4+4] 2. (a) Develop an expression for temperature distribution in a slab made of single material. [8] (b) Calculate the rate of heat loss through a plane of homogeneous wall whose thickness is considerably smaller than its width and length. Assuming the wall to be made from steel (k = 40 w/m K), concrete (k =1.2), Diatomite brick (k= 0.12). Wall thickness for all the materials is equal to 5cm. The inner and outer surfaces are at 1000oC and 1000 C respectively. [8] 3. Oil at 250 C is heated in a horizontal tube 15m long having a surface temperature of 500 C. The pipe has an inner diameter of 0.05 m. The oil ﬂow rate is 1 kg/s at inlet temperature. What will be the oil temperature as it leaves the tubes? What is the average heat transfer coeﬃcient? The ﬂow rate is in the laminar region. The properties of the oil are: Speciﬁc gravity 0.8 Thermal conductivity 0.125 W/M 0 K Speciﬁc heat 3.14 KJ/kg 0K Viscosity at 500 C is 0.025 kg/m-s. Viscosity at 250 C is 0.015 kg/m-s. [16] 4. (a) Determine the hydraulic radius for the following cross sections: i. Circular tube of diameter D ii. Square tube of dimensions s × s. [4+4]

(b) Estimate the heat transfer from a 40 W incandescent bulb at 1250 C to 250 C in quiescent air. Approximate the bulb as a 0.05 m diameter sphere. What percentage of the power is lost by free convection? The appropriate correlation for the free convection coeﬃcient is Nu=0.60(GrP r)0.25 where the diﬀerent parameters are evaluated at the mean ﬁlm temperature and the characteristic length is diameter of the sphere. The properties at mean temperature are Thermal conductivity is 0.03 W/(m.K) 1 of 2

Code No: RR310803 Kinematic viscosity is 20.55 × 10−6 m2 /s Pr = 0.693.

Set No. 3

[8]

5. Water at 0.5 M Pa ﬂows through a Ni-tube (D=25 mm) under local boiling conditions where the tubewall temperature is 10o K above the saturation temperature. Determine the heat transfer rate per meter length of the tube. Thermal properties of water ρ = 968 kg/m3 k = 0.58 w/mo C Cp = 4180 j/kg oC µ = 1.14 x 10−6 N.sec/m2 [16] 6. (a) Explain in detail how the combined heat losses by conduction, convection and radiation can be estimated. [6] (b) Give three practical examples for the above situation. (c) Write a note on radiation in ﬁlm boiling. 7. (a) Write brieﬂy about condensers used in evaporation [5] [5] [8]

(b) Derive an expression for LMTD in case of a counter - current ﬂow double pipe heat exchanger [8] 8. (a) Discuss the diﬀerent methods of feeding in evaporator with neat diagrams. [8] (b) State and explain the Duhrings rule. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8]

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Code No: RR310803

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 HEAT TRANSFER (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A 15mm dia steel sphere ,k = 42W/m0 C, is exposed to cooling airﬂow at 200 C resulting in the convective coeﬃcient h = 120 W/m2.C. Determine (a) Time required to cool the sphere from 550 to 900 C (b) Instantaneous H T rate 2 min. after the start of the cooling (c) Total energy transferred from the sphere during the ﬁrst 2 min. Data: Density = 7850 kg/m3 , Cp = 475 J/kg0 C and α=0.045 m2 /h [8+4+4] 2. The outside and inside surface temperatures of a 20cm outer diameter and 18cm inner diameter pipe (k=40W/mK) are 400o C and 460o C respectively. Calculate the reduction in heat loss if a 5cm layer of insulation (k=0.06 W/mK) is put on the pipe. Assume that the inner and outer surface temperature of insulation is 390o C and 140o C . What is the inside surface temperature of this pipe in this case? [16] 3. (a) How the local and average convection coeﬃcients for ﬂow past a ﬂat plate are related? Derive the relationship. [8] (b) Water at 750 C ﬂows through a 0.005 m diameter tube with a velocity of 1m/s. If the tube wall temperature is 250 C, make calculations for the heat transfer coeﬃcient. Use the correlation, St = 0.023 Re0.2 P r −0.667 . The thermo-physical properties of water are: Thermal conductivity is 0.647 W/(m.K) Viscosity is 1.977 kg/h.m 3 Density is 1000 kg/m Speciﬁc heat 4.187 kJ/(kg.K) [8] 4. (a) Explain in detail the jH vs. NRe chart used for computing ﬁlm coeﬃcient.[8] (b) A liquid is cooled from 610 C to 210 C in a pipe of 0.0222 m inner diameter at a linear velocity of 1.5 m/s at constant surface temperature. Estimate heat transfer coeﬃcient neglecting viscosity correction. Given data are: Prandtl number is 5.7 Thermal conductivity is 0.15 W/(m.K) Viscosity is 0.005 kg/m.s Density is 850 kg/m3 . [8] 5. (a) Write a short notes on pool boiling of saturated liquid. [8]

(b) Explain the eﬀect of pressure on maximum boiling heat ﬂux and critical temperature drop. [8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR310803 6. (a) State and prove Kirchoﬀ’s law of radiation.

Set No. 4

[5]

(b) What restrictive conditions are inherent in the derivation of Kirchoﬀ’s law? [5] (c) Explain the utility of this law. [6]

7. (a) Derive an expression for LMTD for a parallel ﬂow double pipe heat exchanger [6] (b) Explain the method of correcting LMTD for a multipass shell and tube heat exchanger. [5] (c) Why is a counter current ﬂow heat exchanger more suitable than a parallel ﬂow heat exchanger. [5] 8. A solution is to be concentrated from 10 % to 50% solids in a single eﬀect evaporator. Steam is available at 2 bar absolute. The vapour space inside the evaporator is at 100 mm Hg vacuum. The feed rate to the evaporator is 25,000 kg/hr. Overall heat transfer coeﬃcient is 2840 W/m2 oC . Speciﬁc heat of solution is 3700 J/Kg o C. Calculate the area of heating surface required if the feed is at 50o C. Latent heat of vaporization at steam temperature = 2197 kJ/kg, at temperature in vapour space = 2375 kJ/kg. Speciﬁc whose feed solution in 3.77 kJ/kg k. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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