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Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS-I (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Estimate the diﬀusivity of ethanol vapor, C2 H5 OH (A), through air (B) at 1 std pressure and 00 C. for air rB = 0.3711 nm, for C2 H5 OH rA = 0.46 nm and collision function f(KT/ǫAB ) is 0.595 (b) With a suitable example explain “Diﬀusion of A through stagnant B”. [10+6] 2. Explain the various four theories of mass transfer for turbulent ﬂow. [16]

3. With the help of ﬁgure explain what do you mean gas phase controlled mass transfer coeﬃcient and liquid phase controlled mass transfer coeﬃcient. What is their relation to local overall mass transfer coeﬀect. Further, what is the signiﬁcance overall mass transfer coeﬃcient. [16] 4. Brieﬂy explain the design and importance of tray spacing, tower diameter, down spot, weirs in tray tower. [16] 5. A solvent is to be recovered from a gas stream by absorption with clean water in a plate column. The solvent enters at a concentration of 2% by volume and the maximum allowable loss is 0.1%. A liquid rate of 1.3 times the minimum rate is employed. Estimate the number of stages required. Equilibrium diagram Pe = 0.02 x; where Pe equilibrium pressure of the solvent kN/m2 and x the mole fraction of the solvent in water. [16] 6. Wet air with a dew point of 35o C is compressed from 1 atm pressure to 10 atm pressure in a compressor. After compression, only 25% of original water remains in the air. Compute: (a) The ﬁnal temperature of wet air after compression, (b) How much original air (in volume) is required to make 10 m3 of the compressed air, (c) The relative humidity of compressed air. The Antoine’s equation for water is: log psat = 8.07 − and T is in K

1730.63 , T −39.58

where p is in mmHg [6+5+5]

7. (a) A drying test conducted at constant drying conditions (air velocity 6.096 m/s; air dry bulb temperature 71.1o C; air wet bulb temperature 32.2oC) gave a drying rate for the constant rate period of 3.0759 kg/m2 hr. Determine the corresponding rate at the same air velocity and wet bulb temperature if the air dry bulb temperature is 51.67oC. Radiation and conduction to the wetted surface may be considered negligible. 1 of 2

Code No: RR310804

Set No. 1

(b) Write minimum two ways for the movement of moisture within the solid. [8+8] 8. (a) Describe double drum driver with neat sketch. (b) Describe permeability and explain its role in gas separation. (c) Write short notes on methods of conducling mass transfer operations. [6+5+5] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310804

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS-I (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain a method to predict the diﬀusivity of liquids. (b) The diﬀusivity of chloroform in air was measured at 25o C and 1.01325 × 105 N/m2 . The liquid density of chloroform at 25oC is 1485 kg/m3 and its vapor pressure at 25o C is 0.26648 × 105 N/m2 . At time t = 0 the liquid chloroform surface was 0.074 m from the top of the tube, and after 10 hours the liquid surface had dropped 0.0044 m. If the concentration of chloroform is zero at the top of the tube, what would be the gas diﬀusion coeﬃcient of chloroform in air? [6+10] 2. Discuss the following Mass Transfer Theories: (a) Film Theory (b) Boundary Layer Theory (c) Penetration Theory (d) Film-surface renewal theory 3. (a) Write short note on “Two-resistance theory”. (b) Write the basic concept of equilibrium between two phases. 4. (a) Write short note on ‘Bubble-Cap trays’ for Mass Transfer. (b) Write about operating characteristics of sieve trays for gas-liquid operation [8+8] 5. (a) Deﬁne absorption factor and discuss its importance for the design of tray absorber. (b) It is desired to eliminate traces of H2 S from eﬄuent gases of a toppling still, so that they can be conveniently used as a fuel. The original concentration of 2.5% by volume of H2 S is to be reduced to 0.2% by volume, by scrubbing the gas mixture with hot nonvolatile hydrocarbon oil in multistage continuous counter current equipment. Determine the number of ideal stages required if the plant is operated using 1.5 times the minimum liquid rate. Henry’s law is applicable for this system and the constant is 0.25 atmospheres per mole fraction can be taken. [6+10] 6. (a) Determine the wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperature for a tolueneair mixture at 620 C dry bulb temperature and absolute humidity=0.050 kg toluene vapor per kg of air. The following data are available 1 of 2 [8+8] [4x4]

Code No: RR310804

Set No. 2

hg /ky =1223(µ/ρDAB )0.567 where , µ =1.95x10−5 kg/m.s ρ = 1.06 kg/m3 DAB = 0.92x10−5 m2/s Latent heat of vaporization for toluene=404.4 kJ/kg Vapor pressure of toluene =46.2 mm Hg Speciﬁc heat of air =1.005 kJ/kg Speciﬁc heat of toluene=1.265 kJ/kg. (b) What is Lewis relation? Can it be applied for organic liquid vapor-gas system? Explain your answer. [10+6] 7. (a) Explain brieﬂy, what is meant by equilibrium and critical moisture content and free moisture. (b) A porous solid is dried in a batch dryer under constant drying conditions. Six hours are required to reduce the moisture content from 3% to 10%. The critical moisture content was found to be 16% and equilibrium moisture 2%. All moisture contents are on the dry basis. Assuming that the rate of drying during the falling rate period is proportional to the free moisture content, how long should it take to dry a sample of the same solid from 35% to 6% under the same drying conditions? [6+10] 8. Write short note on dehumidiﬁcation and prove that Murphere stage eﬃciency for dehumidiﬁer as EM G = 1 − e−N tG , where NtG in the number of gas phase transfer units. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310804

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS-I (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) State the Fick’s ﬁrst law of diﬀusion. (b) Oxygen (A) is diﬀusing through carbon monoxide (B) under steady-state conditions, with the carbon monoxide non-diﬀusing. Total pressure is 1 × 105 N/m2 , and the temperature 00 C. the partial pressure of oxygen at two planes 2.0 mm apart is respectively, 13000 and 6500 N/m2 . The diﬀusivity for the mixture is 1.87 × 10−5 m2 /s. Calculate the rate of diﬀusion of oxygen in k mol/sec through each square meter of the two planes. [4+12] 2. (a) Write a short note on Convective Mass Transfer Coeﬃcients. (b) A large volume of pure gas B at 1 atm. Pressure is ﬂowing over a surface from which pure A is vaporizing. The liquid A completely wets the surface which is like a blotting papers. Hence the partial pressure of A at the surface is the vapor pressure of A at 298K which is 0.2 atm. The ky has been estimated to be 6.78×10−15 kgmol/s.m2 .mol fraction. Calculate NA , the aporization rate and also the value of ky and kG. [8+8] 3. (a) Explain the counter current ﬂow cascades with neat diagram. (b) Equilibrium relation is y = mx. What is the relation between Kx , ky and kx ? What will happen if the gas phase controlled? Explain. [8+8] 4. Write short note on the following: (a) Bubble cap plate (b) Design features of a tray tower (c) Down spouts [4+8+4] 5. A air NH3 mixture containing 8 mol % NH3 is being scrubbed with water in a counter current packed tower to remove 90% NH3 . The tower is packed with 25 mm Raschig rings and its temperature and pressure are 250 c and 1 atm. The tower operates at 1.5 times the minimum liquid rate. Estimate the number of transfer units required and hence the packed height of the tower. Ye =0.987X (Ye and X are expressed in mole ratios) KG a=65 kg-mole/hr m3 atm. [16] 6. (a) Derive an expression for the calculation of adiabatic saturation temperature. (b) An air-water vapor mixture has a dry bulb temperature of 550 C and an absolute humidity of 0.03kg-water/kg-dry air. Determine the wet bulb temperature of this mixture. The total pressure is 1 atmosphere. Data: Latent heat of vaporization = 2419.3kJ/kg; Vapor pressure of water = 15730 N/m2 ; Humid heat =1061J/kg k. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR310804

Set No. 3

7. (a) A commercial drier needed 7 hours to dry a moist material from a moisture content of 33% to 9% on bone dry basis. The critical and equilibrium moisture content were 16% and 5% respectively. Determine the time needed to dry the material from a moisture content of 33% to 7% if the drying conditions remain unchanged. (b) Discuss the eﬀects of gas velocity, temp, humidity and thickness of solid on rate of drying for a cross circulation batch drying. [8+8] 8. (a) Write about mechanisms of heat and mass transfer in coling towers. (b) Suggest the type of drier you would recommend for drying of ceramic materials on a large scale. Indicate the reasons for your choice. Further, give a brief description of the driver and draw the sketch of the same. [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR310804

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS-I (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Write the expression for ﬂux in steady-state equimolar counter-current diﬀusion of molecular diﬀusion in liquids. (b) Estimate the diﬀusivity of mannitol, CH2 OH(CHOH)4CH2 OH, (A) in dilute solution in water at 200 C. Compare with the observed value, 0.56×10−9m2 /s. Mannitol molal volume at normal boiling point is 0.185 , association factor for water is 2.26 and solution viscosity is 1.005 × 10−3 kg/m − s. Viscosity of water is 1.005 × 10−3 kg/m sec. [8+8] 2. (a) Write short note on ‘Penetration Theory’. (b) Write short notes on mass transfer coeﬃcients. 3. (a) Explain the cross ﬂow cascades with neat diagram. (b) At certain level in the wetted wall column the ammonia concentration in gas and liquid phases 0.6 and 0.35 by mole fractions. Equilibrium relation is y=0.58x, ky =2 and 65 % controlled by gas phase resistance. Find the interfacial concentrations? [8+8] 4. (a) Write short note on ‘Bubble-Cap trays’ for Mass Transfer. (b) Write about operating characteristics of sieve trays for gas-liquid operation [8+8] 5. Ammonia is to be removed from air-NH3 mixture containing 20% of volume ammonia in counter current absorber using water at 1 atm and 200 C. The absorber is to be designed to remove 99 % by volume of ammonia in the entering gas. Calculate the minimum water rate and NtoG necessary for absorption, if 1.2 times the minimum water rate is used for a gas rate of 1kg/s. Equilibrium data: Partial pressure of Ammonia, mm hg gm. NH3/100 gm water 12 18 32 50 2 3 5 7.5 70 166 10 20 [16] 6. (a) Air at a temperature of 60o C, a pressure of 745 mmHg and a percentage humidity of 10 is supplied to a drier at a rate of 1500 m3 . Water is evaporated in the drier at a rate of 25 kg/hr. The air leaves at a temperature of 35o C and a pressure of 742 mmHg. Calculate: 1 of 2 [8+8]

Code No: RR310804

Set No. 4

1730.63 , T −39.58

i. Percentage humidity of air leaving the drier, ii. Volume of the wet air leaving the drier per hour. The Antoine’s equation for water is: log psat = 8.07 − mmHg and T is in K where p is in [10+6]

(b) Write short note on classiﬁcation of humidiﬁcation operations.

7. A granular solid with dry bulk density of 100 kg/m3 is being dried in a batch dryer at 65o C with a humidity of 0.005 kg water per kg of dry air. The solids containing 0.5 kg water per kg of dry solids are in 2.54 cm pans insulated so that heat and mass transfer occur from the top surfaces only. The solids are to be dried to ﬁnal moisture content of 0.02 kg water per kg dry solids and have critical moisture content of 0.01. Air passes over the pans at a mass velocity of 1.7 kg/s m2 . Heat transfer by conduction and radiation are neglected. For this granular material equilibrium content is zero. Calculate the drying time required. What would be the drying time if the ﬂow rate is increased to 25 kg/s m2 . [16] 8. (a) Enumerate diﬀerent driers used for drying rigid or granular solids. (b) Describe the working of a forced draft cooling towers. (c) Give threes examples for mass transfer using energy as the separating agent and explain. [5+5+6] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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