# Code No: RR311004

Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PROCESS CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION ( Common to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering and Instrumentation & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Show that the mercury thermometer which is suddenly immersed in hot water with some temperature will follow ﬁrst order dynamics. (b) A thermometer having time constant of 1 min is initially at 50C. It is immersed in a bath maintained at 1000 C at t =0; i. Determine the temperature reading at t = 1.2 min. ii. If at t = 1.5 min, the thermometer is removed from the bath and put in a bath at 750 C, determine the maximum temperature indicated by the thermometer. iii. What will be the indicated temperature at t = 20 min? [6+10] 2. (a) Say whether heated tank and an immersed thermometer with negligible interaction is interacting or non-interacting. Justify your answer. (b) Write the diﬀerential equations and determine the transfer functions individually for heated tank and thermometer. (c) Determine the overall transfer function of this combination. How is this transfer function related with the individual transfer function? [3+9+4] 3. (a) Discuss the eﬀects of an integral controller on the closed loop response of ﬁrst order process. (b) With neat sketches, explain the principle of derivative control action. Summarize its characteristics. [8+8] 4. (a) Explain the method of realizing an electronic PD controller employing delayed negative feedback. Derive the expression for proportional gain and derivative time. (b) With a neat sketch, explain the working principle of a thermostat type two position controller. How diﬀerential gaps are produced in such type of controllers. [8+8] 5. (a) What is meant by process tuning and list the various methods of tuning of PID parameters. (b) Discuss process reaction method for control loop tuning. 6. Explain the principle of a direct and reverse pneumatic actuator. 7. (a) Give the schematic of single seated and double seated valves. 1 of 2 [8+8] [16]

Code No: RR311004

Set No. 1

(b) What are the advantages and disadvantages of single seated and double seated valves. [8+8] 8. (a) What is split range control? Explain the split range control of a chemical reactor? (b) Discuss the response of cascade system to load changes using the general diagram of cascade control? [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR311004

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PROCESS CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION ( Common to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering and Instrumentation & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What are the diﬀerent types of process variables? (b) Name all the variables of a liquid heating tank heated by electric current in an electric heater. (c) Deﬁne “Degrees of freedom” and bring out its importance in process control. [6+4+6] 2. (a) Deﬁne self regulation ? (b) Explain how self and non self regulated systems operate for step input with examples. [5+11] 3. (a) Determine the controller actions present in the controllers given below ﬁgure1. Also ﬁnd the proportional gain, derivative and integral time if they exist.

Figure 1: (b) A PI controller has Kp =5 and KI =6 sec. Find the controller output for an error given by ep =4 sin(πt). Also ﬁnd the phase shift between error and controller output. [8+8] 4. (a) Explain in detail, the realization of proportional-integral action with the aid of bellows, ﬂapper-nozzle etc. (b) Draw a three mode electronic controller and derive the expression for the output voltage. [8+8] 5. (a) What is meant by process tuning and list the various methods of tuning of PID parameters. 1 of 2

Code No: RR311004

Set No. 2
[8+8]

(b) Discuss process reaction method for control loop tuning. 6. (a) Explain all the characteristics of a control valve.

(b) A bypass arrangement is suggested for controlling a water stream between the limits of 600 and 800 gallons / minute. The available pressure drop is 10 psi, independent of ﬂow rate. Calculate the eﬀective value characteristics for a 5-in valve (Cv = 150), for a 3” valve (Cv = 100) in the bypass line. [8+8] 7. (a) Give the schematic of single seated and double seated valves. (b) What are the advantages and disadvantages of single seated and double seated valves. [8+8] 8. Write short notes on (a) Material balance in a distillation column (b) Quality control (top and bottom product) in a distillation column (c) Quantity control (top and bottom product) in a distillation column. [5+6+5] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR311004

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PROCESS CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION ( Common to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering and Instrumentation & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. In a jacketed tank, the temperature of process stream θ1 is preheated to a temperature θ2 by means of steam with temperature θs through the jacket. Assume that the capacity of the tank wall is negligible and that the temperature inside the jacket is uniform. (a) Derive the transfer function of this system to study the temperature response if the rate of ﬂow of process stream is constant. (b) Make correction in the transfer function if the rate of ﬂow of the process stream is also a variable. Also discuss about the time constants for a high ﬂow rate and a low ﬂow rate. [8+8] 2. (a) Is the Thermometer Bulb and well arrangement a non-interacting system? Justify your answer. (b) Write the diﬀerential equations and determine the transfer function for Thermometer bulb and well arrangement. [6+10] 3. (a) Discuss relative advantages and disadvantages of the proportional, integral and derivative control actions. (b) Discuss the characteristic eﬀects of a proportional controller on the closed loop response of a process. [8+8] 4. (a) What are the advantages of the force type pneumatic controllers? Describe with neat diagrams, the working of a force type pneumatic proportional controller. (b) Explain the working principle of a hydraulic proportional controller. How proportional gain can be adjusted in this controller? [8+8] 5. (a) Explain the following terms as applicable to system evaluation with necessary graphs. i. Stability ii. measure of quality . (b) Discuss the quarter - amplitude criterion to evaluate the response. [8+8]

6. (a) A motor to be driven by a digital signal, has a speed variation of 200 rpm/volt with a minimum rpm at 5 volts and maximum at 10 volts. Find the minimum speed word and maximum speed word, the speed change per LSB change. Use a 5 bit, 15V reference DAC. 1 of 2

Code No: RR311004 (b) Explain the principle of I/p converter.

Set No. 3
[10+6]

7. (a) Write about requirements of pressure drop across the valve for better control of ﬂow. (b) Write clearly existence of cavitations in control valves? [8+8]

8. (a) Explain clearly the split range control of the pressure in the steam header? (b) Determine the properties of the inner loop in a cascade control system and write the principle advantages of cascade control system? [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR311004

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 PROCESS CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION ( Common to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering and Instrumentation & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. In the following ﬁgure1, P1 ,P2 and P3 refer to changes in the pressures upstream, in the tank and downstream respectively and the ﬂows into and out of the tank are inﬂuenced by the tank pressure.

Figure 1: (a) Write the diﬀerential equation for the above system and get the transfer function. (b) What is the order of the above system? How will the order change if there are several inlets and outlets? [10+6] 2. (a) Give one example for Interacting ﬁrst order elements in series. (b) Write the diﬀerential equation for this combination and determine the transfer function. (c) Comment on the transfer function. [3+10+3]

3. (a) what is meant by diﬀerential gap and how it is related to the performance of the ﬁnal control element? (b) Deﬁne proportional band. Explain the relation between proportional gain, proportional band and oﬀset error. (c) With a neat sketch explain the integral controller mode action. Summarize the characteristics. [5+5+6] 4. (a) Explain in detail, the realization of proportional-integral action with the aid of bellows, ﬂapper-nozzle etc. (b) Draw a three mode electronic controller and derive the expression for the output voltage. [8+8] 5. (a) Explain the following terms as applicable to system evaluation with necessary graphs. 1 of 2

Code No: RR311004 i. Stability ii. measure of quality .

Set No. 4
[8+8] [16]

(b) Discuss the quarter - amplitude criterion to evaluate the response. 6. Explain the principle of a direct and reverse pneumatic actuator.

7. A heating furnace requires a control valve passing 10gpm preheated light fuel oil (SP.gr. = 0.8) at full load and only 2 gpm at the smallest heating load. The source pressure constant at 50psi gage, but there is 10psi drop in the oil pre heater and 20 psi drop at the furnace burner nozzles. Remaining pressure drop occurs only at control valve when it is fully opened. (a) Find out control valve size required for the above application. (b) Find out required rangeability of the valve (c) Find out characteristic coeﬃcient (α). 8. (a) Explain the method of boiler level control using cascade operation (b) Explain the control of boiler level using feed forward operation. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8] [6+4+6]

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