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Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING ( Common to Bio-Medical Engineering and Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. By explicitly evaluating the convolution sum, evaluate the convolution y(n)=(n)*h(n) of the sequences αn 0 ≤ n < N h(n) = 0 elsewhere n−n0 β , n0 ≤ n X(n) = [16] 0 , n ≤ n0 2. (a) Discuss the frequency-domain representation of discrete-time systems and signals. By deriving the necessary relation. (b) Draw the frequency response of LSI system with impulse response h(n) = an u(−n) (|a| < 1) [8+8]

3. (a) Compute the discrete Fourier transform of each of the following ﬁnite length sequences considered to be of length N. i. x(n) = δ(n) ii. x(n) = δ(n − n0 )where0 < n0 < N iii. x(n) = an 0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1 (b) Let x2 (n) be a ﬁnite duration sequence of length N and x1 (n) = δ(n − n0 ) where n0 < N. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences. [8+8] 4. (a) Implement the Decimation in frequency FFT algorithm of N-point DFT where N-8. Also explain the steps involved in this algorithm. (b) Compute the FFT for the sequence x(n) = { 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 } [8+8]

5. (a) How will you test the stability of a digital ﬁlter? Discuss the stability of the −1 system described by H(Z) = 1−ZZ −Z −2 −1 (b) Determine the frequency, magnitude and phase responses and time delay for the system [8+8] y(n) + 1 y(n − 1) = x(n) − x(n − 1) 4 6. Design a low pass digital ﬁlter with the following speciﬁcations; Maximum pass band attenuation αmax = −3db, f or0 ≤ w ≤ 2π/10 Minimum stop band attenuation αmax = −15db, f or3π/10 ≤ w ≤ π Use following two methods: (a) Impulse invariance method 1 of 2

Code No: RR311102 (b) Bilinear transformation method. Assume T = 0.2 msec.

Set No. 1

[16]

7. (a) Design a low pass ﬁlter using rectangular window by taking samples of ω(n) and with a cut-oﬀ frequency of 1.2 radians/sec. (b) Compare the various window functions. [8+8]

8. (a) Explain the diﬀerent structures for realisation of IIR system. and explain how conversion can be made from direct form I structure to direct form II structure. (b) Realize the given system in cascade and parallel form 1+ 1 Z −1 H(Z) = 1−Z −1 + 1 Z −22 1−Z −1 + 1 Z −2 ][ ] [ 4 2 ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

2 of 2

Code No: RR311102

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING ( Common to Bio-Medical Engineering and Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Let e(n) be an exponential sequence, i.e., e(n)=xn , for all n and let x(n) and y(n) denote two arbitrary sequences, Show that [e(n)x(n)]*[e(n)y(n)] = e(n)[x(n)*y(n)] (b) Consider a discrete-time linear shift-invariant system with unit-sample response h(n). If the input x(n) is a periodic sequence with period N. Show that the output y(n) is also a periodic sequence with period N. [8+8] 2. (a) Discuss the frequency-domain representation of discrete-time systems and signals. By deriving the necessary relation. (b) Draw the frequency response of LSI system with impulse response h(n) = an u(−n) (|a| < 1) 3. (a) Distinguish between DFT and DTFT . (b) Consider a sequence x(n) of length L. Consider its DTFT Xd (w) is sampled and N is the number of frequency samples. Discuss the relation between L and N for inverse DTFT = inverse DFT comment on the aliasing problem. (c) Compute the DFT of x(n) = {1, 0, 0, 0} and compare with Xd (w). [4+6+6] [8+8]

4. (a) Let x(n) be a real valued sequence with N-points and Let X(K) represent its DFT , with real and imaginary parts denoted by XR (K) and X1 (K) respectively. So that X(K) = XR (K) + JX1 (K). Now show that if x(n) is real, XR (K) is even and X1 (K) is odd. (b) Compute the FFT of the sequence x(n) = { 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 } [8+8]

5. (a) How will you test the stability of a digital ﬁlter? Discuss the stability of the −1 system described by H(Z) = 1−ZZ −Z −2 −1 (b) Determine the frequency, magnitude and phase responses and time delay for the system [8+8] y(n) + 1 y(n − 1) = x(n) − x(n − 1) 4 6. (a) Derive a relationship between complex variable S used in Laplace Transform (for analog ﬁlters) and complex variation Z used in Z-transform (for digital ﬁlters) (b) Discuss the various properties of Bilinear transformation method. 7. (a) Describe the principle of designing FIR ﬁlter using DFT method. 1 of 2 [8+8]

Code No: RR311102

Set No. 2

(b) Using frequency sampling method, design a band pass ﬁlter with the following speciﬁcations. Sampling frequency F =8000Hz Cut-oﬀ frequency fc1 = 1000Hz fc2 = 3000Hz Determine the ﬁlter coeﬃcients for N=7. [6+10] 8. (a) Explain the factors that inﬂuence the choice of structure for realisation of a LTI system. (b) An LTI system is described by the diﬀerence equation y (n) = a1 y (n − 1) + x (n) + b1 x (n − 1) Realize it in direct form I structure and convert it to direct form II structure. [4+12] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR311102

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING ( Common to Bio-Medical Engineering and Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) The unit-sample response of a linear-shift-invariant system is known to be zero. Except in the interval N0 ≤ n ≤ N1 . The input x(n) is known to be zero except in the interval N2 ≤ n ≤ N3 . As a result, the output is constrained to be zero except in some interval N4 ≤ n ≤ N5 . Determine N4 andN5 in terms of N0 , N1 , N2 andN3 . (b) By direct evaluation of the convolution sum, determine the step response of a Linear shift-invariant system whose unit-sample response h(n) is given by h(n) = a−n u(−n), 0 < a < 1. [8+8] 2. (a) A discrete system is given by following diﬀerence equation y(n)-5y(n-1) = x(n) + 4x(n-1) where x(n) is the input and y(n) is the out put. Determine its magnitude and phase response as a function of frequency. (b) State and prove convolution theorem. [8+8]

3. (a) Compute the discrete Fourier transform of each of the following ﬁnite length sequences considered to be of length N. i. x(n) = δ(n) ii. x(n) = δ(n − n0 )where0 < n0 < N iii. x(n) = an 0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1 (b) Let x2 (n) be a ﬁnite duration sequence of length N and x1 (n) = δ(n − n0 ) where n0 < N. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences. [8+8] 4. (a) Explain the inverse FFT algorithm to compute inverse DFT of a N=8. Draw the ﬂow graph for the same. (b) Compute the FFT for the sequence { 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 } [8+8]

5. (a) How will you test the stability of a digital ﬁlter? Discuss the stability of the −1 system described by H(Z) = 1−ZZ −Z −2 −1 (b) Determine the frequency, magnitude and phase responses and time delay for the system [8+8] y(n) + 1 y(n − 1) = x(n) − x(n − 1) 4 6. (a) Discuss Bilinear transformation method of deriving IIR digital ﬁlter from corresponding analog ﬁlter. (b) Convert the following analog ﬁlter with transfer function. HA (S) = S + 0.2/(S + 0.2)2 + 16 using Bilinear transformation method. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR311102

Set No. 3

7. (a) Describe the principle of designing FIR ﬁlter using DFT method. (b) Using frequency sampling method, design a band pass ﬁlter with the following speciﬁcations. Sampling frequency F =8000Hz Cut-oﬀ frequency fc1 = 1000Hz fc2 = 3000Hz Determine the ﬁlter coeﬃcients for N=7. [6+10] 8. (a) Realize the following systems with minimum number of multipliers. 3 1 H(Z) = 1 + 1 Z −1 + 4 Z −2 + 2 Z −3 + 1 Z −4 4 2 4 1 H(Z) = 1 + 1 Z −1 + Z −2 1 + 4 Z −1 + Z −2 2 (b) Explain the principles of VOCODERS. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [10+6]

2 of 2

Code No: RR311102

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING ( Common to Bio-Medical Engineering and Electronics & Computer Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Check the following systems for linearity, causality, time invariance and stability using appropriate tests. i. y(n) = n e|x(n)| ii. y(n) = an cos (2πn/N ) (b) The unit-sample response of a linear-shift-invariant system is known to be zero. Except in the interval N0 ≤ n ≤ N1 . The input x(n) is known to be zero except in the interval N2 ≤ n ≤ N3 . As a result, the output is constrained to be zero except in some interval N4 ≤ n ≤ N5 . Determine N4 and N5 in terms of N0 , N1 , N2 and N3 . [8+8] 2. (a) An LTI system has unit sample response h(n) = u(n)-u(n-N) Find the amplitude and phase spectra (b) If x(n) and X(ejw ) represent any general sequence and its transform. Determine the transform of the following sequence in terms of X(ejw ). x(n/2) n even [8+8] g(n) = 0 n odd 3. (a) Compute the discrete Fourier transform of each of the following ﬁnite length sequences considered to be of length N. i. x(n) = δ(n) ii. x(n) = δ(n − n0 )where0 < n0 < N iii. x(n) = an 0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1 (b) Let x2 (n) be a ﬁnite duration sequence of length N and x1 (n) = δ(n − n0 ) where n0 < N. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences. [8+8] 4. (a) Explain the inverse FFT algorithm to compute inverse DFT of a N=8. Draw the ﬂow graph for the same. (b) Compute the FFT for the sequence { 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 } [8+8]

5. (a) How will you test the stability of a digital ﬁlter? Discuss the stability of the −1 system described by H(Z) = 1−ZZ −Z −2 −1 (b) Determine the frequency, magnitude and phase responses and time delay for the system y(n) + 1 y(n − 1) = x(n) − x(n − 1) [8+8] 4 1 of 2

Code No: RR311102

Set No. 4

6. Design a Digital IIR low pass ﬁlter with pass band edge at 1000 Hz and stop band edge at 1500 Hz for a sampling frequency of 5000 Hz. The ﬁlter is to have a pass band ripple of 0.5 db and stop band ripple below 30 db. Design Butter worth ﬁller using both impulse invariant and Bilinear transformations. [16] 7. (a) Design a low pass ﬁlter using rectangular window by taking samples of ω(n) and with a cut-oﬀ frequency of 1.2 radians/sec. (b) Compare the various window functions. [8+8]

8. (a) Explain the diﬀerent structures for realisation of IIR system. and explain how conversion can be made from direct form I structure to direct form II structure. (b) Realize the given system in cascade and parallel form H(Z) = [

1+ 1 Z −1 2 −1 + 1 Z −2 1−Z −1 + 1 Z −2 1−Z 4 2

][

]

[8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

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