# Code No: RR311202

Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMMUNICATION THEORY (Information Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Draw the transfer characteristics of an idealized low pass ﬁlter and an idealized band pass ﬁlter with pass band from f1 to f2 . Explain why these ﬁlters cannot be realized physically. [16] 2. A periodic square wave m(t) is shown in ﬁgure 1. Determine the following (a) The auto correlation function R(τ ) for this waveform. (b) The power spectral density G(w). [16]

Figure 1: 3. (a) Explain with a circuit diagram the principle of square-law detector. (b) Explain the principle of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis with a circuit. [8+8] 4. (a) What are the advantages and disadvantages of FM over AM. (b) Explain the working of Fooster-seely discriminator for FM demodulation.[8+8] 5. (a) Give the block diagram of Adaptive delta Modulation and explain the procedure for ADM generation? (b) Discuss clearly the necessity for Linear predictor in DM and hence the improvements of it in case of ADM. [10+6] 6. (a) Deﬁne nyquist rate of sampling and derive the expression for it. (b) A bandpass signal has a center frequency fo and extends from (fo -5) KHz to (fo +5) KHz. If the sampling rate 25 KHz, ﬁnd the range of center frequency for which the sampling satisﬁes nyquist rate. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR311202

Set No. 1

7. (a) A discrete memoryless source outputs 3 messages with probabilities of p1 , p2 , p3 respectively. Find its entropy function H, and establish the condition for H to be maximum. Also calculate the maximum value of H. (b) Explain the signiﬁcance and need for coding for information transmission on noisy channels. [10+6] 8. (a) Distinguish between block codes and convolutional codes, and compare their performance characteristics. (b) Give G(P) = p3 + 0+ P + 1, obtain the parity sub matrix p of 74 Hammingcode. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR311202

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMMUNICATION THEORY (Information Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain how a periodic function of time v(t) having a fundamental period To can be represented as an inﬁnite sum of sinusoidal waveforms. as shown in Figure 1 (b) Find the complex fourier series expansion for the given periodic wave form. [10+6]

Figure 1: 2. (a) What is meant by ‘coherence’and ‘non-coherence’ ? Give an example of non coherent system. (b) Deﬁne cross correlation. Obtain a relation between coherence and crosscorrelation of two signals. [8+8] 3. (a) What is the need for modulation? Derive the relation between the ouput power of an AM transmitter and depth of modulation. Give output power in case of critical modulation. (b) The ouput RMS current of 60% modulated AM generator is 1.5 A. To what values will this current rise if the generator is modulated additionally, by another audio wave whose modulation index is 0.7? What will be the percentage power saving if the carrier and one of the side bands are now suppressed?[8+8] 4. (a) Explain the working of Foster-Seely discriminator for FM demodulation. (b) Explain with the help of block diagram, the working of Armstrong method for FM generation. [8+8] 5. (a) Give the block diagram of DM and explain clearly the procedure for generation and demodulation of delta modulated signals. (b) What are the various types of errors occur in delta modulation? Explain how they can be minimized. [10+6] 6. (a) Distinguish clearly between natural sampling, ﬂat top sampling and give the schematic diagrams to generate them. 1 of 2

Code No: RR311202

Set No. 2

(b) A signal ν(t) = cos 2Π fo (t) + cos 4Π fo (t) + cos 6Π fo t is sampled with a sampling frequency of 5 fo . Give the expression for sampled signal fs (t) and obtain the output of an ideal low pass ﬁlter with cut oﬀ frequency 2fo . What should be the sampling frequency, low pass ﬁlter cut oﬀ frequency to restore the signal completely? [8+8] 7. (a) A discrete memoryless source outputs 3 symbols x1, x2, x3 at a rate of 20 symbols/sec., with probabilities of 1/4, 1/4, 1/2 respectively. Find the entropy and information rate. Derive the required relation. (b) Show that the channel capacity of an ideal additive white Gaussian noise channel with inﬁnite bandwidth is given by C = 1.44 S/ η, where S is the average signal power, and η/2 is the noise power spectral density. [8+8] 8. Consider (7,4) cyclic cde. (a) Derive the generator matrix and parity check matrix. (b) Design an encoder and decoder for the code. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: RR311202

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMMUNICATION THEORY (Information Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) What is meant by power spectral density? Explain the features. (b) Explain the eﬀect of transfer function on power spectral density of the output of a system. [8+8] 2. (a) Certain random variable has cumulative distribution function as F (x) = 0 ,x <0 kx2 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 10 100k, x >10 Find k, evaluate p (x ≤ 5 ) and p (5 < x ≤ 7) and plot pdf. (b) If X1 , X2 , . . ., Xn are Poisson variants with parameter λ = 2, use the central Limit theorem to estimate P (120 ≤ Sn ≤ 160) where Sn = X1 + X2 + . . . +Xn and n=75. [8+8] 3. (a) Explain the envelope detector with a circuit diagram and waveforms. (b) Explain the principle of VSB transmission. What are its applications? [8+8] 4. (a) Explain with a diagram the operation of limiter circuit for FM demodulation. (b) Explain analytically how do the AM and narrow-band FM diﬀer from each other. Show that the average power of FM is constant. [8+8] 5. (a) Discuss the terms slope over load error and Granular noise in DM and explain clearly how they can be reduced. (b) A signal m(t) = m sinwot is to be encoded using Delta modulator. If the step ∆ [8+8] size s and sampling frequency fs ≥ 3 fo. 6. (a) State and prove sampling theorem for B and pass signals. (b) The signal ν(t) = cose wot + cos 8 wot is sampled by natural sampling. Determine the minimum sampling rate fs and required bandwidth for rube duration of 1/32fo and 1/320fo. [8+8] 7. (a) Derive an expression for source entropy. Obtain the condition for maximum entropy. (b) A discrete source emits one of 5 symbols once every milli second. The symbol probabilities are 0.4, 0.2, 0.15,0.15, 0.1 respectively. Determine the source entropy and information rate. [12+4] 8. (a) Construct a single error correcting (7,4) linear block code and the corresponding decoding table and the syndrome matrix. 1 of 2

Code No: RR311202

Set No. 3
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(b) Explain brieﬂy the various methods of decoding the convolutional codes. [8+8]

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Code No: RR311202

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMMUNICATION THEORY (Information Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) State and prove the symmetry theorem. (b) Prove that F[f(at)]= 1/ |a f(ω/a) ,i.e. The time scaling property where F[f(t)]= f(ω) (c) Prove the attenuation property of Fourier Transform Φ {f(x)eax } = f (k-ai) where f (k) = Φ {f(x)}

[5+5+6]

2. (a) What is meant by ‘coherence’and ‘non-coherence’ ? Give an example of non coherent system. (b) Deﬁne cross correlation. Obtain a relation between coherence and crosscorrelation of two signals. [8+8] 3. (a) Explain with a circuit diagram the principle of square-law detector. (b) Explain the principle of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis with a circuit. [8+8] 4. (a) Explain with a diagram the operation of limiter circuit for FM demodulation. (b) Explain analytically how do the AM and narrow-band FM diﬀer from each other. Show that the average power of FM is constant. [8+8] 5. (a) Discuss the terms slope over load error and Granular noise in DM and explain clearly how they can be reduced. (b) A signal m(t) = m sinwot is to be encoded using Delta modulator. If the step ∆ size s and sampling frequency fs ≥ 3 fo. [8+8] 6. (a) Explain the concept of Flat top sampling and obtain expression for the spectral density function Fs (w). Hence discuss clearly the eﬀect of ‘z’ pube width on the Bandwidth. (b) Explain clearly the procedure for signal recovery through holding. [8+8] 7. The output of a discrete source [X] = [a,b,c,d,e,f], P[X] = [1/2,1/4,1/16,1/16,1/16,1/16] is encoded in the following six ways. Symbol A B C D E F Code-1 Code-2 Code-3 Code-4 Code-5 Code-6 0 1 0 111 1 0 10 011 10 110 01 01 110 010 110 101 0011 011 1110 001 1110 100 0010 0111 1011 000 11110 011 0001 01111 1101 110 111110 010 0000 011111 1 of 2

Code No: RR311202

Set No. 4

(a) Determine which of the above codes are preﬁx codes and not uniquely decodable codes. [4] (b) Of the preﬁx codes, determine which is having minimum average code length. [8] (c) Draw the code tree of the preﬁx codes. 8. (a) The generator  1 0  0 1 G =   0 0 0 0 matrix for a (7,4) code is  0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0   1 0 1 0 1  0 1 0 1 1 [4]

i. ﬁnd the parity check matrix for the given code ii. At the receiver, the code word is 1001001 is received over the channel. If any errors are present, it is unlikely that more than one exists. With this assumption is the received code word in error? If so ﬁnd the location and given correct word. (b) Write short on BCH codes. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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