Code No: RR311302

Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (Electronics & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain with a neat circuit diagram, balanced modulator method of generating an AM-DSC signal. (b) Explain the working principle of square law detector method of AM demodulation. [8+8] 2. (a) Find the carrier and modulating frequencies, the modulating index and the maximum deviation of the FM wave represented by the equation u(t) = 15 sin(6π109 t + 6 sin 1350t) .What power will this FM wave dissipate in a 20-ohm resistor? (b) Derive the expression for the instantaneous value of an FM voltage and define modulation index and also expression for bandwidth. [8+8] 3. (a) How will you avoid side bands of one station overlapping with other radio station? (b) Write short notes on the following:i. Peak limiters ii. Peak clippers iii. Volume compressors in radio transmitters. [6+10] 4. (a) Define and explain four specifications of receiver characteristics. (b) Explain the necessity for AGC in a radio communication system. What is meant by delayed AGC? Explain with a neat circuit diagram. [6+10] 5. Explain the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) Partition noise Noise in diode Low frequency noise What is meant by atmospheric noise and how it is avoided.

[16]

6. (a) What is the fundamental difference between Pulse modulation schemes hand and frequency and amplitude modulation schemes. (b) Explain the generation and demodulation of pulse width modulation. [8+8] 7. Discuss the various encoding procedures in PCM. 8. Write about the routing and signaling strategies in packet switching? ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1 [16] [16]

Code No: RR311302

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (Electronics & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) An AM transmitter has antenna current of 2A with modulation index of 60 percent. What will be the total antenna current if one more identical antenna is connected in parallel with the previous one, keeping the transmitter output same? Will it affect the modulation index? (b) An audio frequency signal 10 sin(2π × 500t) is used to amplitude modulate a carrier of 50 sin 2π105 t to Calculate i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Modulation index Side band frequencies Amplitude of each side band frequencies Bandwidth required Total power delivered to the load of 600 ohms Transmission efficiency.

[8+8]

2. (a) Distinguish between phase and frequency modulation. Show that FM can be derived using PM and vice versa with the help of differentiator or integrator networks. (b) Compute the bandwidth requirement for the transmission of FM signal having a frequency deviation 75 KHz and an audio bandwidth of 10KHz. (c) In a FM system the frequency deviation constant is 1KHz/v. A sinusoidal modulating signal of amplitude 15 V and frequency 3 MHz is applied Calculate i. Peak frequency deviation ii. Modulating index. [6+4+6]

3. (a) Draw the block diagram of Armstrong FM transmitter & explain the operation. (b) Explain the frequency modulated transmitter using reactance tube modulator. [8+8] 4. (a) Briefly explain the function of each of the block in the superheterodyne receiver. (b) Calculate the image rejection of a receiver having an RF amplifier and an IF of 450 Hz, if the Q’s of the relevant coils are 65 at an incoming frequency of i. 1200 Hz ii. 20 MHz [8+8]

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Code No: RR311302

Set No. 2

5. (a) Find the expression for noise figure of cascaded amplifier stages. (b) An antenna with temperature of 300K is fed into a receiver with total gain of 80db. Te=1500 K and a bandwidth of 3 MHz i. Find the available noise power at the output of the receiver. ii. Find the necessary signal at antenna terminus also such that SNR is 50 db. [8+8] 6. (a) A narrow band signal has a bandwidth of 10kHz centered on a carrier frequency of 100kHz. It is proposed to represent this signal in discrete time form by sampling its inphase and quadrature components individually. What is the minimum sampling rate can be used for this representation? (b) Explain the working of PAM modulator. [8+8]

7. (a) Draw the block diagram of binary PSK receiver and explain the working principle. (b) Write the difference between coherent and non coherent systems. Give example. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain mechanical, electrical, functional specification of E1A - 232 interface standard. (b) What is the purpose of a null modem? ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [10+6]

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Code No: RR311302

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (Electronics & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) An AM transmitter has antenna current of 2A with modulation index of 60 percent. What will be the total antenna current if one more identical antenna is connected in parallel with the previous one, keeping the transmitter output same? Will it affect the modulation index? (b) An audio frequency signal 10 sin(2π × 500t) is used to amplitude modulate a carrier of 50 sin 2π105 t to Calculate i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Modulation index Side band frequencies Amplitude of each side band frequencies Bandwidth required Total power delivered to the load of 600 ohms Transmission efficiency.

[8+8]

2. (a) A sinusoidal modulating wave of amplitude 5V, and frequency 1KHZ is applied to a frequency modulator. The frequency sensitivity of the modulator is 45Hz/V. the carrier frequency is 100KHz. Calculate its frequency deviation and modulation index. (b) Explain analytically how do the AM and narrow-band FM differ each other. Show that the average power of FM is constant. [6+10] 3. (a) How will you avoid side bands of one station overlapping with other radio station? (b) Write short notes on the following:i. Peak limiters ii. Peak clippers iii. Volume compressors in radio transmitters.

[6+10]

4. Draw the block diagram of a communications receiver and explain the functions of those blocks which are generally not found in an ordinary superhet broadcast receiver. [16] 5. (a) With suitable diagram explain how noise figure is measured. (b) The equivalent noise resistance for an amplifier is 300 ohms and the equivalent shot noise current is 5 micro amps. The amplifier is fed from a 150 ohms, 10 micro volts rms sinusoidal signal source. Calculate the individual noise voltages at the input and the input signal to noise ratio in decibels. The noise bandwidth is 10 MHz. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR311302

Set No. 3
[8+8]

6. (a) Define the term Multiplexing. Explain TDM with the help of block diagram. (b) Compare TDM and FDM.

7. Draw the block diagram of QPSK transmitter and receiver and explain the operation. [16] 8. Assuming a synchronous transmission control scheme, explain how character and frame synchronization are achieved (a) with character oriented transmission. (b) With bit oriented transmission. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: RR311302

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (Electronics & Control Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the principle of Balanced modulator using transistors to generated AM wave. (b) Explain AM detection using linear rectifiers. [8+8]

2. (a) Find the carrier and modulating frequencies, the modulating index and the maximum deviation of the FM wave represented by the equation u(t) = 15 sin(6π109 t + 6 sin 1350t) .What power will this FM wave dissipate in a 20-ohm resistor? (b) Derive the expression for the instantaneous value of an FM voltage and define modulation index and also expression for bandwidth. [8+8]

3. (a) Explain the operation of ISB transmitter with block diagram. Where it is used? (b) What is the function of crystal filters in SSB transmitter? (c) State and explain with respect to ‘Q’, various types of filters used to separate side bands? [4+6+6] 4. (a) Discuss the factors influencing the choice of Intermediate frequency for a radio receiver. (b) Explain the operation of a self-excited transistor mixer by 3-frequency approach, with a neat diagram. (c) Write about double spotting. [6+6+4]

5. (a) Calculate the shot noise component of current present on a direct current of 1 mA flowing across a semiconductor junction, given that the effective noise band width of 1 MHz. (b) Explain how thermal noise power varies i. with temperature and ii. with frequency bandwidth. 6. (a) What is Pulse Modulation? Classify pulse modulation systems. (b) State and explain Sampling Theorem. [8+8] [8+8]

7. (a) What is companding? Why is it used? Why is it preferable to quantizing with tapered steps? Illustrate your answer with a sketch of typical companding curves. 1 of 2

Code No: RR311302

Set No. 4

(b) What are the advantages and applications of Pulse-code Modulation? [8+8] 8. Assuming a synchronous transmission control scheme, explain how character and frame synchronization are achieved (a) with character oriented transmission. (b) With bit oriented transmission. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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