LECTIA 23 CONJUNCTIILE

Conjunctiile sau cuvintele de legatura se folosesc pentru a lega propozitii Aceasta lectie se ocupa de perec!i de cuvinte de lagatura care ar putea provoca anu"ite confuzii pentru cei care studiaza engleza #entru si"plificare$ conjunctiile care ur"eaza au fost grupate in categorii A Conjunctii de ti"p % as, when, while se folosesc cu referire la o actiune care se petrece in acelasi ti"p cu o alta& As I 'as loo(ing out of t!e 'indo'$ I sa' !i" arriving When ") alar" cloc( rings at * o+cloc( I get up While )ou 'ere out s!opping$ Jonat!an rang 2 after, as soon as, before, when se folosesc cu referire la actiune care se petrece i"ediat dupa o alta& After I left universit)$ I 'ent to 'or( a,road As soon as I !eard !i" spea( on T-$ I c!anged t!e c!annel T!e client put t!e p!one do'n before I could give an e.planation When I finis!ed t)ping t!ose letters$ I posted t!e" 3 until/till se refera la durata de ti"p a unei situatii& I can+t go out until ") "ot!er co"es ,ac( I can+t c!ange ") car till I !ave finis!ed pa)ing for it NOTA& Just poate fi folosit in fata acestor conjunctii pentru a su,linia apropierea in ti"p a celor doua actiuni Just as !e noticed !e 'as ,eing 'atc!ed$ !e ran off / Conjunctii contrastive % although, even though, though se folosesc cu referire la afir"atii opuse sau contrastante$ inaintea su,iectului sau ver,ului& Although !e is a good 'riter$ !e !as never pu,lis!ed a ,oo( Even though t!ere+s a speed li"it$ !e al'a)s e.ceeds it Though 0att studied !ard$ !e didn+t "anage to pass t!e e.a" NOTA& Though este o alternative "ai putin for"ala pentru although si even though$ In engleza vor,ita apare de o,icei la sfarsitul propozitiei 0att studied !ard 1e didn+t "anage to pass t!e e.a" though 2 in spite of sau despite se folosesc cu referire la afir"atii opuse au contrastatnte$ in fata unui su,stantiv$ pronu"e sau gerunziu& In spite of t!e traffic$ !e still "anaged to get t!ere in ti"e Despite !er poor e)e2sig!t$ s!e continued driving

NOTA& In spite of si despite pot fi folosite si cu the fact that In spite of the fact that !e 'as ,us)$ !e too( ti"e off 'or( Despite the fact that !e !ad no past offences$ !e 'as found guilt) 3 while, whereas se folosesc cu referire la constrastul dintre doua afir"atii& /rian eats a lot$ while 1enr) !ardl) eats at all 0) old car 'as ver) slo'$ whereas ") ne' one is "uc! faster 3 however se foloseste cu referire la contradictia dintre doua propozitii& T!e secret agent 'as told to ,e at t!e "eeting point at 4 o+cloc( s!arp However$ '!en !e arrived$ !is contact 'asn+t t!ere C Conjunctii de cauza si efect % because, because of, as, since se folosesc cureferire la "otivele pentru a face o actiune& T!e ,a,) cried because it 'as !ungr) 5ad is not going to 'or( toda) because of t!e stri(e As it+s raining$ )ou+d ,etter ta(e an u",rella Since t!e president is a,road$ t!e vice2president 'ill ta(e !is place toda) at t!e presentation NOTA& Because, because of, as, since au acelasi sens dar folosesc constructii diferite Because 6 se foloseste inainte de su,iect si ver,7 Because of 6 se foloseste inainte de su,stantiv As si since 6 se folosesc a"andoua la inceputul propozitiei 2 so, therefore se refera la rezultatul unei actiuni& Joe !as e.a"s all ne.t 'ee($ so !e can+t go out in t!e evenings T!e 0a)or !as to attend an urgent "eeting Therefore !e+ll !ave to cancel t!e lunc! engage"ent

E8E9CITII
% Alegeti conjunctiile de ti"p corecte in propozitiile de "ai jos % 2 3 3 ; 4 * ? A %B As/Until I opened t!e door$ s!e rus!ed to (iss "e I p!oned t!e police as soon as/before I !eard t!e alar" As/Till I 'as s!outing for :eorge$ !e 'al(ed t!roug! t!e door I 'ent to t!e s!ops while/when I finis!ed ") ,oo( When/While t!e ,a,) cries$ give !i" !is "il( <!e 'on+t ,elieve it= after/until s!e !as seen it 'it! !er o'n e)es 5o )ou need an)t!ing after/before I go> @ou 'on+t forget to feed t!e cat as soon as/while I+" on !olida)$ 'ill )ou> T!e #ri"e 0inister 'ill sta) in office before/until !e is voted out 0) fat!er 'or(ed in factor) when/till !e retired

2 Alegeti conjunctiile contrastive potrivite in propozitiile de "ai jos % 0) daug!ter is Cuiet$ whereas/though ") son is nois) 2 Although/Despite !e tried !ard$ !e didn+t pass !is driving test 3 I did ever)t!ing ") ,oss as(ed "e to do Even though/However !e still didn+t give "e a pro"otion 3 In spite of/Even though t!e ,ad 'eat!er$ !e still 'ent out for !is dail) 'al( ; 1arr) visited t!e doctor although/whereas it 'asn+t necessar) 4 T!e for"er 1ead"aster 'as strict$ while/in spite of t!e ne' one is "ore lenient * Despite/Though t!e fact t!at s!e 'as a fa"ous actress$ no one recognised !er in t!e streets ? T!e old 'o"an ne.t2door is reputed to ,e unfriendl) While/However$ s!e al'a)s sends us a C!rist"as card A <a" 'ent s'i""ing in t!e river$ despite/although t!e danger 'arnings %B Although/In spite of t!e factor) 'or(ers t!reatened to stri(e$ t!e co"pan) still introduced t!eir ne' polic) 3 Alegeti conjunctiile de cauza di effect potrivite in propozitiile de "ai jos % 2 3 3 ; 4 * ? A %B I didn+t "arr) 1elen because/because of s!e 'as alread) "arried I too( a pain2(illing ta,let because of/as I !ad a !eadac!e Since/So I couldn+t afford to ,u) a ne' car$ I ,oug!t a second2!and one T!e :overn"ent couldn+t raise -AT Therefore/As t!e) raised interest rates T!e doctor 'asn+t a,le to reac! t!e patient in ti"e because/because of !e 'as !eld up in traffic So/As I+ve !urt ") el,o'$ I+" afraid I 'on+t ,e a,le to pla) ,as(et,all tonig!t 0aria! said s!e 'as on a diet$ so/since s!e can+t eat t!ose potatoes T!e victi"+s defence 'as 'ea( Therefore/ ecause judge found !i" guilt) ecause of/Since all t!e seats on t!e front ro' 'ere ta(en$ 'e decided to sit in t!e stalls 0rs 1ug!es 'as getting too old to drive$ as/so s!e decided to !ire a c!auffeur