# Code No: RR311804

Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 METALLURGICAL THERMO DYNAMICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) How diﬀusion is inﬂuenced by thermal energy? Enumerate processes which are diﬀusion controlled. [9] (b) The diﬀusion coeﬃcient for Cr in Cr2 O3 is 6 × 10−19 m2 /sec at 727o C and is 1 × 10−13 m2 /sec at 1400oC. Calculate [7] 2. (a) Which mechanism of diﬀusion takes place in Nickle-FCC Iron system? How can you determine the number of eﬀective jumps per unit item. [8] (b) Explain the following: i. lattice diﬀusion ii. pipe diﬀusion. 3. (a) What is the importance of equilibrium constant & how this can be calculated from standard free energy changes? [8] (b) Deﬁne equilibrium constant & how this can be inﬂuenced on the extraction process. [8] 4. (a) Give an account of Einstein’s theory of speciﬁc heats of solids. How does this theory overcome the limitations of classical theory. [8] (b) The variation of resistivity with temperature in conductors is opposite to that in semiconductors. Explain this diﬀerence. [8] 5. (a) State and explain Sievert’s law. [6] [4+4]

(b) Deﬁne activity of a substance. Indicate the relationship between activity and mole fraction for an ideal solution. [10] 6. (a) Explain the diﬀerence of crystal imperfect as on the stability of crystal disorders. [8] (b) What is the importance of Gibbs Duhem equation on Metallurgical processes? [8] 7. (a) What is the importance of chemical potential? (b) Derive the Gibb’s phase rule & explain its importance. 8. (a) How thermodynamics is useful to electrochemical cells? (b) Discuss in detail about the following: i. Concentration cells 1 of 2 [4] [12] [6] [5+5=10]

Code No: RR311804 ii. Galvanic cells. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

Set No. 1

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Code No: RR311804

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 METALLURGICAL THERMO DYNAMICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain under what conditions can Fick’s ﬁrst law be used to solve diﬀusion problem. [8] (b) In a diﬀusion anneal, to what level should the initial temperature of 900o C be increased to double the depth of penetration? Do = 0.4m2 /sec and ε = 100 KJ/mol. [8] 2. (a) Compare interstecial and vacancy atomic mechanisms for diﬀusion. [8]

(b) Cite 2 reasons why interstecial diﬀusion is normally more rapid than vacancy diﬀusion. [8] 3. (a) What is the importance of equilibrium constant & how this can be calculated from standard free energy changes? [8] (b) Deﬁne equilibrium constant & how this can be inﬂuenced on the extraction process. [8] 4. (a) Explain what is the diﬀerence in heat capacities (Cp −Cv ) of a solid crystalline material in thermal equilibrium at absolute zero temperature. [8] (b) Calculate the expected speciﬁc heat of Aluminium, Copper; Iron and silicon based on classical model if the atomic weights are 26.98, 63.54, 55.85 and 28 respectively. [8] 5. (a) State and explain Sievert’s law. [6]

(b) Deﬁne activity of a substance. Indicate the relationship between activity and mole fraction for an ideal solution. [10] 6. (a) What are the properties of solution that can be studied with the help of Gibbs Duhem equation? Explain them in detail. [8] (b) Write a short notes on Sievert’s law 7. (a) What is the importance of chemical potential? (b) Derive the Gibb’s phase rule & explain its importance. 8. (a) Explain about the Galvanic cell & its sign convention & representation. (b) What are the reversible and irreversible cells, Explain any one cell. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8] [4] [12] [8] [8]

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Code No: RR311804

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 METALLURGICAL THERMO DYNAMICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the mechanisms of diﬀusion. (b) Explain how does the diﬀusion constant vary with temperature? (c) Find the value of ﬂux as given by Fick’s ﬁrst law of diﬀusion. 2. (a) Compare interstecial and vacancy atomic mechanisms for diﬀusion. [5] [6] [5] [8]

(b) Cite 2 reasons why interstecial diﬀusion is normally more rapid than vacancy diﬀusion. [8] 3. (a) Discus the derivation & uses of the oxygen nomographic scale in Richardsons diagram. [8] (b) Discuss in detail about the properties of a single standard free energy change/temperature line. [8] 4. (a) Discuss how the phenomenon of thermal expansion is explained in terms of the lattice vibrations in crystals. [8] (b) What are the diﬀerent types of thermal conductivity in materials? How does each vary with temperature? [8] 5. (a) State and explain Sievert’s law. [6]

(b) Deﬁne activity of a substance. Indicate the relationship between activity and mole fraction for an ideal solution. [10] 6. (a) What are the properties of solution that can be studied with the help of Gibbs Duhem equation? Explain them in detail. [8] (b) Write a short notes on Sievert’s law 7. (a) What is the importance of chemical potential? (b) Derive the Gibb’s phase rule & explain its importance. 8. (a) Diﬀerentiate between electrochemical cells & electrolytic cells. (b) Explain in detail about the concentration cells. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8] [4] [12] [8] [8]

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Code No: RR311804

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 METALLURGICAL THERMO DYNAMICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Derive Fick’s second law of diﬀusion from ﬁrst principle. How will you solve such equation. [8] (b) Brieﬂy explain the diﬀerence between self diﬀusion and inter diﬀusion. [8]

2. (a) What is kirkendall eﬀect? How will you explain the mass ﬂow of metal or gases with this eﬀect? [8] (b) The activation energy for the diﬀusion of carbon in alpha iron is 20.1kcal/mol. If Do is 2 × 10−6m2 /sec, calculate the diﬀusion constant at 27oC and at 527o C and show that at the elevated temperature the rate of diﬀusion is much higher than at the room temperature. [8] 3. (a) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction NiO + H2 = Ni + H2 Oat750o C from the following data: Ni + 1/2 O2 = NiO ∆Go = −58, 450 + 2355T cal H2 + 1/2O2 = H2 O ∆Go = −58900 + 13.1T cal [8]

(b) Calculate the CO/CO2 ratio in equilibrium with Carbon at 727o C assuming that the total pressure to be 2 atm. 2C + O2 = 2CO ∆ Go 1000 = -95.3 kcal C + O2 = CO2 ∆ Go 1000 = -94.0 kcal [8] 4. (a) Explain Einstein’s theory of speciﬁc heat and the Debye correction. [8]

(b) Explain the phenomenon of thermal expansion that occurs when a metal is heated. [8] 5. (a) State and explain Sievert’s law. [6]

(b) Deﬁne activity of a substance. Indicate the relationship between activity and mole fraction for an ideal solution. [10] 6. (a) Explain the diﬀerence of crystal imperfect as on the stability of crystal disorders. [8] (b) What is the importance of Gibbs Duhem equation on Metallurgical processes? [8] 7. (a) What is the importance of chemical potential? (b) Derive the Gibb’s phase rule & explain its importance. [4] [12]

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Code No: RR311804 8. Deﬁne the following: (a) Half cell potential (b) Decomposition potential (c) Standard electrode potential (d) Sign convention of electrode potentials (e) Nernst equation. (f) Electrical energy (g) Electrolysis (h) Cell representation ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

Set No. 4
[2+8=16]

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