Code No: RR311804

Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 METALLURGICAL THERMO DYNAMICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) How diffusion is influenced by thermal energy? Enumerate processes which are diffusion controlled. [9] (b) The diffusion coefficient for Cr in Cr2 O3 is 6 × 10−19 m2 /sec at 727o C and is 1 × 10−13 m2 /sec at 1400oC. Calculate [7] 2. (a) Which mechanism of diffusion takes place in Nickle-FCC Iron system? How can you determine the number of effective jumps per unit item. [8] (b) Explain the following: i. lattice diffusion ii. pipe diffusion. 3. (a) What is the importance of equilibrium constant & how this can be calculated from standard free energy changes? [8] (b) Define equilibrium constant & how this can be influenced on the extraction process. [8] 4. (a) Give an account of Einstein’s theory of specific heats of solids. How does this theory overcome the limitations of classical theory. [8] (b) The variation of resistivity with temperature in conductors is opposite to that in semiconductors. Explain this difference. [8] 5. (a) State and explain Sievert’s law. [6] [4+4]

(b) Define activity of a substance. Indicate the relationship between activity and mole fraction for an ideal solution. [10] 6. (a) Explain the difference of crystal imperfect as on the stability of crystal disorders. [8] (b) What is the importance of Gibbs Duhem equation on Metallurgical processes? [8] 7. (a) What is the importance of chemical potential? (b) Derive the Gibb’s phase rule & explain its importance. 8. (a) How thermodynamics is useful to electrochemical cells? (b) Discuss in detail about the following: i. Concentration cells 1 of 2 [4] [12] [6] [5+5=10]

Code No: RR311804 ii. Galvanic cells. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

Set No. 1

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Code No: RR311804

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 METALLURGICAL THERMO DYNAMICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain under what conditions can Fick’s first law be used to solve diffusion problem. [8] (b) In a diffusion anneal, to what level should the initial temperature of 900o C be increased to double the depth of penetration? Do = 0.4m2 /sec and ε = 100 KJ/mol. [8] 2. (a) Compare interstecial and vacancy atomic mechanisms for diffusion. [8]

(b) Cite 2 reasons why interstecial diffusion is normally more rapid than vacancy diffusion. [8] 3. (a) What is the importance of equilibrium constant & how this can be calculated from standard free energy changes? [8] (b) Define equilibrium constant & how this can be influenced on the extraction process. [8] 4. (a) Explain what is the difference in heat capacities (Cp −Cv ) of a solid crystalline material in thermal equilibrium at absolute zero temperature. [8] (b) Calculate the expected specific heat of Aluminium, Copper; Iron and silicon based on classical model if the atomic weights are 26.98, 63.54, 55.85 and 28 respectively. [8] 5. (a) State and explain Sievert’s law. [6]

(b) Define activity of a substance. Indicate the relationship between activity and mole fraction for an ideal solution. [10] 6. (a) What are the properties of solution that can be studied with the help of Gibbs Duhem equation? Explain them in detail. [8] (b) Write a short notes on Sievert’s law 7. (a) What is the importance of chemical potential? (b) Derive the Gibb’s phase rule & explain its importance. 8. (a) Explain about the Galvanic cell & its sign convention & representation. (b) What are the reversible and irreversible cells, Explain any one cell. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8] [4] [12] [8] [8]

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Code No: RR311804

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 METALLURGICAL THERMO DYNAMICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the mechanisms of diffusion. (b) Explain how does the diffusion constant vary with temperature? (c) Find the value of flux as given by Fick’s first law of diffusion. 2. (a) Compare interstecial and vacancy atomic mechanisms for diffusion. [5] [6] [5] [8]

(b) Cite 2 reasons why interstecial diffusion is normally more rapid than vacancy diffusion. [8] 3. (a) Discus the derivation & uses of the oxygen nomographic scale in Richardsons diagram. [8] (b) Discuss in detail about the properties of a single standard free energy change/temperature line. [8] 4. (a) Discuss how the phenomenon of thermal expansion is explained in terms of the lattice vibrations in crystals. [8] (b) What are the different types of thermal conductivity in materials? How does each vary with temperature? [8] 5. (a) State and explain Sievert’s law. [6]

(b) Define activity of a substance. Indicate the relationship between activity and mole fraction for an ideal solution. [10] 6. (a) What are the properties of solution that can be studied with the help of Gibbs Duhem equation? Explain them in detail. [8] (b) Write a short notes on Sievert’s law 7. (a) What is the importance of chemical potential? (b) Derive the Gibb’s phase rule & explain its importance. 8. (a) Differentiate between electrochemical cells & electrolytic cells. (b) Explain in detail about the concentration cells. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8] [4] [12] [8] [8]

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Code No: RR311804

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 METALLURGICAL THERMO DYNAMICS (Metallurgy & Material Technology) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Derive Fick’s second law of diffusion from first principle. How will you solve such equation. [8] (b) Briefly explain the difference between self diffusion and inter diffusion. [8]

2. (a) What is kirkendall effect? How will you explain the mass flow of metal or gases with this effect? [8] (b) The activation energy for the diffusion of carbon in alpha iron is 20.1kcal/mol. If Do is 2 × 10−6m2 /sec, calculate the diffusion constant at 27oC and at 527o C and show that at the elevated temperature the rate of diffusion is much higher than at the room temperature. [8] 3. (a) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction NiO + H2 = Ni + H2 Oat750o C from the following data: Ni + 1/2 O2 = NiO ∆Go = −58, 450 + 2355T cal H2 + 1/2O2 = H2 O ∆Go = −58900 + 13.1T cal [8]

(b) Calculate the CO/CO2 ratio in equilibrium with Carbon at 727o C assuming that the total pressure to be 2 atm. 2C + O2 = 2CO ∆ Go 1000 = -95.3 kcal C + O2 = CO2 ∆ Go 1000 = -94.0 kcal [8] 4. (a) Explain Einstein’s theory of specific heat and the Debye correction. [8]

(b) Explain the phenomenon of thermal expansion that occurs when a metal is heated. [8] 5. (a) State and explain Sievert’s law. [6]

(b) Define activity of a substance. Indicate the relationship between activity and mole fraction for an ideal solution. [10] 6. (a) Explain the difference of crystal imperfect as on the stability of crystal disorders. [8] (b) What is the importance of Gibbs Duhem equation on Metallurgical processes? [8] 7. (a) What is the importance of chemical potential? (b) Derive the Gibb’s phase rule & explain its importance. [4] [12]

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Code No: RR311804 8. Define the following: (a) Half cell potential (b) Decomposition potential (c) Standard electrode potential (d) Sign convention of electrode potentials (e) Nernst equation. (f) Electrical energy (g) Electrolysis (h) Cell representation ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

Set No. 4
[2+8=16]

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