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Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain the term normal pressure drag. Explain its occurrence. Now consider a ﬂat plate at α = 0 and 90 .Compare normal pressure drag in these two cases along with respective ﬂow patterns around these two conﬁgurations. Does the Reynolds number bear an inﬂuence on this component of drag? [16] 2. Explain the formation of horse shoe vortex system over a wing ﬂying in an air stream of velocity V. Illustrate the ﬂow ﬁeld with sketches and diagrams. What are its consequences? [16] 3. An airplane weighing 2,45,000 N has a gross wing area of 80 sq. m. and its drag polar is given by CD = 0.016 + 0.042 CL 2 , Calculate its Velocity for minimum speed and minimum power at sea level and at an altitude of 10,000 m ( σ = 0.3367). [16] 4. Develop an expression for rate of descent of an airplane in a power oﬀ ﬂight.A glider weighing 2600 N, S= 8.50 sq. m ,AR = 17 , e = 0.95 and CDO =0.015 is launched from a height of 300 m. Determine the maximum range,corresponding glide angle,forward velocity and lift coeﬃcient at sea level. [16] 5. What should be the condition for maximum rate of climb of a jet driven airplane at shallow angles of attack? An airplane has following data; W = 160,000 N, S= 42 sq.m , CD = 0.014 + 0.05 CL 2 .The jet engine develops a thrust of T = 29,000 N at a ﬂight speed of 120 m/s. Estimate the maximum rate of climb for this airplane. [16] 6. Obtain the condition for maximum range of a jet driven airplane. A jet plane has its maximum all up weight of 555,000 N and gross wing area of 320 sq. m. The drag polar is given by CD = 0.015 + 0.055 CL 2 .The weight fraction of usable fuel is 31% for a long range version. The speciﬁc fuel consumption of the jet engines is 0.07 kg /N-hr. Determine the maximum range and endurance for this airplane. [16] 7. Explain the basic principles underlying the aerodynamics of High lift devices. Hence describe in details the functioning of a double slotted ﬂap with sketches and plots. [16] 8. Consider an airplane in a vertical loop. Describe forces and their balancing when the airplane is in a. vertically upwards and downwards and b. in the pull-up and pull down maneuvers , points on the vertical loop under considerations with sketches and physics of the situation. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR312102 ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

Set No. 1

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Code No: RR312102

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain the term normal pressure drag. Explain its occurrence. Now consider a ﬂat plate at α = 0 and 90 .Compare normal pressure drag in these two cases along with respective ﬂow patterns around these two conﬁgurations. Does the Reynolds number bear an inﬂuence on this component of drag? [16] 2. Consider a rectangular plan form wing ﬂying with a velocity V. What is the variation of its lift curve slope from that for the airfoil section of the wing for two aspect ratios of the wing namely AR = 8 and 10.Explain the aerodynamics involved. [16] 3. Establish the condition for minimum thrust in level ﬂight from the drag polar of an airplane. A turbojet airplane weighing 50,000 N has a wing loading of 1450 N / sq.m ,its drag polar is CD =0.014 + 0.038 CL2 and has its max. CL =1.5.The engine delivers a max. thrust of 25,000 N at sea level. Determine its minimum and maximum level speeds at sea level. [16] 4. Develop an expression for rate of descent of an airplane in a power oﬀ ﬂight.A glider weighing 2800 N, S= 9.0 sq. m ,AR = 18 , e = 0.95 and CDO =0.015 is launched from a height of 300 m. Determine the maximum range,corresponding glide angle,forward velocity and lift coeﬃcient at sea level. [16] 5. Deﬁne service ceiling and absolute ceiling of an airplane. An airplane weighing 165,000 N and a wing area of 42 sq.m has the drag polar as CD = 0.014 + 0.05 CL 2 .If the thrust developed by the engine at a ﬂight speed of 110 m/s is 28,000 N, determine the rate of climb and angle of climb and the load factor at the ﬂight speed. [16] 6. Derive expressions for range and endurance of a propeller driven airplane. A pistonprop airplane has the following data; W = 13,500 N, S = 16.8 sq.m, b = 11.5 m, CDO = 0.025, e = 0.8. The single engine supplies a maximum of 240 HP at the propeller eﬃciency of 0.85. It carries a weight fraction of usable fuel as 13% in one version. The engine consumes 0.274 kg mass of fuel per kW per hr. Determine its maximum range and endurance. [16] 7. Show with a schematic plot, the variation of forces acting on a propeller driven airplane in the process of take- oﬀ. An airplane weighing 250,000 N with a wing area of 100 sq. m. has its ﬂaps down deﬂected for a max. CL of 2.2.The airplane takes oﬀ in this conﬁguration at a speed , 18% higher than that at stalling. The drag polar is given by CD = 0.024 + 0.04 CL 2 the ground friction coeﬃcient is 0.025. The total shaft power produced by two engines is 3.8 MW, and the total thrust 1 of 2

Code No: RR312102

Set No. 2

produced by the engine and airscrew is 60,000 N. Taking the propeller eﬃciency as 0.75, calculate the minimum ground run in standard conditions [16] 8. Deﬁne the terms load factor, the loading and forces occurring on an airplane during the vertical loop of an airplane. Develop relations between load factor and the radius of turns for a pull-up maneuver. What is the expression for its rate of turn? [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR312102

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain the term skin friction drag and develop an expression for the same. Now consider a ﬂat plate at α = 0o and 90o .Compare skin friction drag in these two cases along with respective ﬂow patterns around these two conﬁgurations. Does the Reynolds number bear an inﬂuence on skin friction drag? [16] 2. Consider ﬂow over an airfoil placed in an air stream. Explain the generation of lift force with appropriate sketches and plots. What if the airfoil were replaced by a ﬁnite wing? Comment upon the resulting ﬂow ﬁeld. [16] 3. Explain the signiﬁcance of stalling speed, stalling angle and indicated airspeed. An airplane has a wing loading of 2640 N / sq. m and has drag polar given by CD = 0.016 + 0.055CL2 Calculate its maximum L / D ratio, V for minimum drag and L / D at a speed of 110 m/s. [16] 4. Develop an expression for rate of descent of an airplane in a power oﬀ ﬂight.A glider weighing 2900 N, S= 9.25 sq. m ,AR = 18.5 , e = 0.95 and CDO =0.015 is launched from a height of 300 m. Determine the maximum range,corresponding glide angle,forward velocity and lift coeﬃcient at sea level. [16] 5. Deﬁne service ceiling and absolute ceiling of an airplane. An airplane weighing 160,000 N and a wing area of 42 sq.m has the drag polar as CD = 0.014 + 0.05 CL 2 .If the thrust developed by the engine at a ﬂight speed of 100 m/s is 27,000 N, determine the rate of climb and angle of climb and the load factor at the ﬂight speed. [16] 6. Obtain the condition for maximum range of a jet driven airplane. A jet plane has its maximum all up weight of 555,000 N and gross wing area of 320 sq. m. The drag polar is given by CD = 0.015 + 0.055 CL 2 .The weight fraction of usable fuel is 31% for a long range version. The speciﬁc fuel consumption of the jet engines is 0.07 kg /N-hr. Determine the maximum range and endurance for this airplane. [16] 7. Show the schematics of the variation of forces acting on a jet driven airplane in the process of landing. A jet executive airplane weighing 90,000 N (of which 33000 N weight is of fuel), has wing area of 30 sq.m and wing span of 16.5 m. Its CDO is 0.02 and e = 0.81. The ground friction coeﬃcient is 0.02.The wings are just 1.85 m above the ground .The two jet engines deliver a total of 35,000 N of thrust. With the deployment of spoilers at touch down ( L = 0), the parasite drag coeﬃcient 1 of 2

Code No: RR312102

Set No. 3

increases by 10% and full ﬂaps down make the CL = 2.5. If 9% of the fuel still remains at the touch down, estimate the landing ground roll distance. [16] 8. Plot a V-n diagram for a tactical ﬁghter. Explain the signiﬁcance of the corner points. Is it possible to locate the maneuver point on this plot? If so, what is the criterion? Hence discuss the pull up and associated load factor from the plot. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR312102

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Deﬁne skin friction drag as applicable in aerodynamics. Compare it over an airfoil and a circular cylinder. Make use of ﬂow patterns to illustrate the eﬀect of Reynolds number in this case. [16] 2. Consider an airfoil and plot the CL - α curve for it. Now take a wing of swept forward plan form and plot the CL - α curve for this wing. What are your observations and on what basis? [16] 3. An airplane weighing 2,50,000 N has a gross wing area of 84 sq. m. It has a maximum level speed of 120 m/s, a max. CL of 2.2 with ﬂaps down and CL max. without ﬂaps is 1.5. Plot the variation of CL with V , and hence estimate the speed below which ﬂaps must be lowered at sea level and at an altitude of 4,000 m ( σ = 0.6685).Further explain the signiﬁcance of equivalent air speed. [16] 4. Develop a condition for minimum sinking speed of an airplane in power oﬀ ﬂight. A glider weighing 5250 N with elliptic wing has a gross area of 11 sq. m. It is required to maintain a glide angle of 3 degrees at a fwd. speed of 50 m / s.If the glider has CDO = 0.015, determine its aspect ratio. [16] 5. What should be the condition for maximum rate of climb of a jet driven airplane at shallow angles of attack? An airplane has following data; W = 160,000 N, S= 42 sq.m , CD = 0.014 + 0.05 CL 2 .The jet engine develops a thrust of T = 29,000 N at a ﬂight speed of 120 m/s. Estimate the maximum rate of climb for this airplane. [16] 6. Obtain the condition for maximum range of a jet driven airplane. A jet plane has its maximum all up weight of 555,000 N and gross wing area of 320 sq. m. The drag polar is given by CD = 0.015 + 0.055 CL 2 .The weight fraction of usable fuel is 33% for a long range version. The speciﬁc fuel consumption of the jet engines is 0.07 kg /N-hr. Determine the maximum range and endurance for this airplane. [16] 7. Show with a schematic plot, the variation of forces acting on a propeller driven airplane in the process of take- oﬀ. An airplane weighing 250,000 N with a wing area of 100 sq. m. has its ﬂaps down deﬂected for a max. CL of 2.2.The airplane takes oﬀ in this conﬁguration at a speed , 15% higher than that at stalling. The drag polar is given by CD = 0.024 + 0.04 CL 2 The ground friction coeﬃcient is 0.025. The total shaft power produced by two engines is 3.6MW, and the total thrust produced by the engine and airscrew is 58,000 N. Taking the propeller eﬃciency as 0.75, calculate the minimum ground run in standard conditions [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR312102

Set No. 4

8. Consider an airplane in level turning ﬂight. Explain the forces and their balance during this process. Develop an expression for the radius of turn and the angular velocity. Are there limits on the turning and time to turn for a level turning ﬂight? [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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