# Code No: RR312103

Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 AERODYNAMICS-I (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. What is the physical principle behind the continuity equation? Consider an unsteady viscous 3D ﬂow, apply the above physical principle to a ﬁxed control volume in space and derive the continuity equation? What is the form of this equation? [16] 2. Show that for incompressible ﬂow over a 2D body drag can be estimated by b D′ =ρa u2 (u1 −u2 )dy [16] 3. (a) Velocity ﬁeld of a ﬂuid ﬂow is given as u = x/T, v= -y/T, w=0 (T=const), is the ﬂow is incompressible? (b) The ﬂow properties at the mid chord of an airfoil are given as V= L/t i, ρ = Kte[−x/L] Here K and L are constant and having the dimensions of length. Is this ﬂow is incompressible or compressible? [16] 4. A 2D source of volume ﬂow rate of 2.5 m2 is located in a uniform ﬂow of 2 m/s. Determine the stagnation point and the maximum thickness of resulting half body? [16] 5. By considering the potential ﬂow over a rotating circular cylinder, derive the equation of Cp in terms of radius of the cylinder R, Circulation around the cylinder Γ , and free stream velocity V∞ ? Show that this expression reduces to Cp = 1−4sin2 θ. [16] 6. A NACA 0012 airfoil is kept in a free stream of velocity 100 m/s at the sea level. Can we apply thin airfoil theory to this airfoil? Justify you answer with appropriate answers. What are the assumptions in thin airfoil theory? What is lift generated by the airfoil if the chord of the airfoil is 2m. [16] 7. When a ﬁnite wing is replaced with a single horseshoe vortex, it is known that downwash becomes at the tips become inﬁnite. As we know this is unrealistic. Suggest and explain the remedy for this problem? Also get the expression for downwash? [16] 8. Discuss and prove the statement that minimum induced drag of wing is associated with the elliptical loading? Plot the curve showing the induced drag coeﬁcient against lift coeﬁcient for wing of aspect ratio 7.63 [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR312103

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 AERODYNAMICS-I (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. What is the physical principle behind the energy equation? Derive the energy equation by applying this principle to a ﬁxed control volume in space? What is the form of this equation? [16] 2. Show that integral conservation form of the momentum equation can be used to estimate the drag over a 2D body? [16] 3. Derive the Bernoulli’s equation from the Euler’s equation? What are the assumptions involved? Mention the applications of Bernoulli’s equation? [16] 4. Derive the stream function and velocity potential function for a double ﬂow? Sketch the stream line pattern? [16] 5. Consider the lifting ﬂow over a circular cylinder of given radius R and with a given circulation Γ. If the free stream velocity is doubled V∞ keeping the circulation same, does the shape of the stream lines change? Explain? [16] 6. Explain the thin airfoil theory and its application to a symmetrical airfoil? [16]

7. Consider the potential ﬂow over a ﬁnite wing. Explain how we can calculate this ﬂow theoretically? [16] 8. A monoplane weighing 83.6 KN has elliptic wings of 15.23 m in span. For a speed of 90 m/s in steady and level ﬂight at low altitudes ﬁnd (a) Induced drag (b) Circulation at the section of a distance of 5 m from the tips ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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Code No: RR312103

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 AERODYNAMICS-I (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A gas is ﬂowing at relatively low speeds (so that its density may be assumed constant) where u =[−2xyz/(x2 +y2 )2 ]V∞ L w = [y/(x2 +y2 )2 ]V∞ L v = [(x2 −y2 )z/(x2 +y2 )2 ]V∞ L Verify weather the above ﬂow is physically possible or not? (HINT: satisfy the continuity equation) Here V? and L are characteristic velocity and length respectively? [16] 2. Show that in a velocity ﬁeld, the curl of velocity ﬁeld is equal to vorticity? ξ=∆XV [16] 3. The velocity ﬁeld for the fully developed viscous ﬂow is given below u = [1/2µ]dp/dx{y2 −h2 /4} v =0 w = 0 Is the ﬂow is irrotational or rotational why? [16]

4. Consider the potential ﬂow over a non-rotating circular cylinder, show that pressure distribution is symmetrical on top, bottom surfaces and front, rear surfaces of the cylinder. [16] 5. Show that rotating circular cylinder in potential ﬂow produces lift? [16]

6. It is a well known result from the thin airfoil theory that, the coeﬃcient of lift (Cl ) for a symmetrical airfoil kept in the potential ﬂow at angle α is Cl = 2πα. Derive this result by transforming the lifting ﬂow over a circular cylinder into ﬂow over a symmetrical airfoil using the Kutta-Joukouski transformation. [16] 7. State the Helmholtz’s theorems? Explain the philosophy of the Prandtl’s lifting line theory? [16] 8. A monoplane weighing 83.6 KN has elliptic wings of 15.23 m in span. For a speed of 90 m/s in steady and level ﬂight at low altitudes ﬁnd (a) Induced drag (b) Circulation at the section of a distance of 5 m from the tips ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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Code No: RR312103

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 AERODYNAMICS-I (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. What are the non-dimensional numbers used in Aerodynamics. Explain their importance? [16] 2. Deﬁne path lines, stream lines, and skteaklines? When all these coincides? Derive the equation for stream lines for a 2D ﬂow in xy- coordinate systems? [16] 3. The velocity ﬁeld for the fully developed viscous ﬂow is given below u = [1/2µ]dp/dx{y2 −h2 /4} v =0 w = 0 Is the ﬂow is irrotational or rotational why? [16]

4. What is a potential ﬂow? What is the governing equation of potential ﬂow? Discuss the properties of this equation? [16] 5. (a) Derive the expression for velocity induced by a vortex sheet at a point P located at a distance R from it? (b) Show that jump in tangential velocity across a vortex sheet is equal to the local sheet strength. [16] 6. It is a well known result from the thin airfoil theory that, the coeﬃcient of lift (Cl ) for a symmetrical airfoil kept in the potential ﬂow at angle α is Cl = 2πα. Derive this result by transforming the lifting ﬂow over a circular cylinder into ﬂow over a symmetrical airfoil using the Kutta-Joukouski transformation. [16] 7. Show that for an elliptical wing, downwash is constant along its span? [16]

8. A monoplane weighing 83.6 KN has elliptic wings of 15.23 m in span. For a speed of 90 m/s in steady and level ﬂight at low altitudes ﬁnd (a) Induced drag (b) Circulation at the section of a distance of 5 m from the tips ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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