Code No: RR312104

Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 WIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUIES (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. What is the signiﬁcance of non dimensional parameters in aerodynamic testing? Explain the importance and eﬀect of Prandtl number on aerodynamic characteristics of a model under testing in a wind tunnel. Hence state the PI theorem and work out dimensionless groups upon which depend the aerodynamic characteristics of a model under tests in a wind tunnel. [16] 2. What is understood by the term low speed wind tunnel in aerodynamic testing? Describe with brief details through sketches and plots, various types of low speed wind tunnels based upon the test section details. Hence explain a closed section, closed ckt wind tunnel with all details. [16] 3. What are the essential components of a supersonic tunnel not found in a subsonic wind tunnel? Make a good layout sketch to explain the functioning of each of these components for the design and operation of a supersonic wind tunnel. [16] 4. Consider a test section of a wind tunnel with height h and width w. A 2D wing spanning the test section has its front part made of a semi cylinder of radius r and the maximum dimension of 2*r varies linearly to zero over a distance d ,where d = 5*r. Estimate the additional drag occurring on the model due to horizontal buoyancy. [16] 5. Describe with sketches four diﬀerent types of pressure manometers commonly used in Aerodynamics laboratories for recording pressures from wind tunnel testing. [16] 6. Describe an automatic beam type balance; to be used for an airplane model for low speed wind tunnel testing. Explain all details with appropriate illustrations. [16] 7. Describe a smoke generating technique using kerosene for producing smoke in a smoke tunnel. Utilize this technique for observing ﬂow over a 2D wing at angles of attack up to stalling .Produce a realistic looking record for explaining the eﬀect of vortex generators in controlling the phenomenon of stalling to students in the laboratory; with good sketches. Is there any limitation of speed? [16] 8. An airplane model with straight wings was tested in a wind tunnel for a ﬂow visualization result without attaching the vortex generators in the model. The tests were repeated after installing the vortex generators and deploying ﬂaps for landing phase of the airplane. Compare the ﬂow patterns obtained in both the cases and give proper comments on the results as an expert on the improvements in results. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1

Code No: RR312104

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 WIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUIES (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. What is the importance of the terms Flow similarity on model studies in wind tunnel testing? State the PI theorem and explain the procedure for determining PI groups for a problem under planning for some testing. [16] 2. How does an open ckt low speed wind tunnel diﬀer from a closed ckt low speed wind tunnel? Describe advantages and convenience of the use of each type with an example. Illustrate with good diagrams. [16] 3. A supersonic wind tunnel is also termed as a compressed air tunnel; comment. Hence make classiﬁcation of supersonic tunnels in broad categories and explain their salient features with good sketches. [16] 4. What kind of necessity arises for the speed setting of a low speed wind tunnel? How is this testing useful for the users of the tunnel? Explain the theory and procedure in its details. [16] 5. Describe the basis for the measurement of pressure and instruments used for the purpose. What are its advantages and applications? Illustrate with theory and an example. It is desired to obtain pressure distribution over a circular cylinder. Explain the methodology and show a sample plot with good sketches. [16] 6. A wire type balance is to be prepared and used for measuring lift, drag and pitching moments on a model airplane. Propose a scheme such that the reliability of the arrangement is not spoiled. Make use of sketches and plots in this respect. [16] 7. A tuft grid is considered a supplementary ﬂow visualization technique and used in conjunction with smoke ﬂow visualization. Make use of this technique for explaining ﬂow over an airfoil and in its ﬁeld of inﬂuence by arranging tuft grid as deemed ﬁt. [16] 8. Explain the superiority of oil ﬂow visualization technique over some other surface ﬂow visualization techniques. What are the factors that contribute to realistic results from this technique? Apply this method for viewing ﬂow over a circular cylinder for ascertaining the location of separation point in laminar and turbulent ﬂows and present the results in the form of good sketches. How do you obtain turbulent ﬂow at the same speed setting on the same model? [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR312104

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 WIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUIES (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. The lift force on a 2-D wing model depends upon the relative velocity V, chord C, properties of the air medium like density and viscosity, apart from its angle of attack. Obtain a set of PI groups that can be used to correlate the experimental data. [16] 2. How does an open ckt low speed wind tunnel diﬀer from a closed ckt low speed wind tunnel? Describe advantages and convenience of the use of each type with an example. Illustrate with good diagrams. [16] 3. Show the internal aerodynamic details of the ﬂow through a supersonic wind tunnel. What is the role of the second throat in the process? What if there is no second throat? [16] 4. What are the advantages of testing an airplane model in a wind tunnel with open jet as compared with that from a closed jet? Hence show with plots and jet-spread the variation of pressure and velocity in a test section of a wind tunnel. [16] 5. Describe the basis for the measurement of pressure and instruments used for the purpose. What are its advantages and applications? Illustrate with theory and an example. It is desired to obtain pressure distribution aft of a rotating circular cylinder kept in the test section of a wind tunnel. Explain the methodology and show a sample plot with good sketches. [16] 6. The proﬁle drag over a 2 D wing model was estimated from Jones wake survey technique and by using a force model and a wind tunnel balance. Which one of the two gives better results? Hence describe one method of estimating drag force with a wind tunnel balance? [16] 7. A tuft grid is considered a supplementary ﬂow visualization technique and used in conjunction with smoke ﬂow visualization. Make use of this technique for explaining ﬂow over a ﬁnite span wing and in its ﬁeld of inﬂuence by arranging tuft grid as deemed ﬁt. [16] 8. It is well known that measurement or visualization of a supersonic ﬂow velocity is related to changes in the density of the medium. Describe the underlying principle of optical methods of ﬂow visualization. Hence illustrate the functioning and details of the schlieren system to visualize ﬂow in a supersonic stream and explain the function of the knife edge. Make use of good sketches to elaborate your answer. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1

Code No: RR312104

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 WIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUIES (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. The drag of a sonar transducer is to be predicted based on wind tunnel tests. The prototype is a 30 cm diameter sphere to be towed at 5 knots in a tow tank at 15 C. The wind tunnel model is 15 cm diameter sphere. Determine the test speed in wind tunnel. Take ρwater as 1000Kg / m3 and µwater as 1* 10−3 Pa s . The drag of the model was measured as 25 N. Estimate the drag of the prototype. [16] 2. A low turbulence wind tunnel is to be designed for laminar ﬂow in the test section. Suggest ways and means to achieve the desired ﬂow quality .How does the arrangement eﬀect the power requirements in the process. Provide a layout sketch in support of your proposal. [16] 3. It is proposed to make use of de-commissioned jet engines for creating a supersonic facility in your institute. Describe your plans with sketches and aerodynamics involved. [16] 4. Compare a Claw type probe with a 3-hole probe for the measurement of ﬂow angularity. Considering all factors to be common, detail out as to which one is superior option? [16] 5. Describe the basis for the measurement of pressure and instruments used for the purpose. What are its advantages and applications? Illustrate with theory and an example.Hence describes in details a Pitot-static tube of NPL type with a good illustration. What are the criteria for the location of static pressure taps in this case and what are the requirements for its calibration? [16] 6. Describe a Pyramidal type external balance with line diagrams and sketches for measuring all six components on airplane and missile models. Draw good sketches and plots in support of your answer. [16] 7. Describe a smoke generating technique using kerosene for producing smoke in a smoke tunnel. Utilize this technique for observing ﬂow over a circular cylinder spanning the test section. Produce a realistic looking record for explaining the phenomenon of separation of ﬂow to students in the laboratory; with good sketches. Is there any limitation of speed? [16] 8. Explain the Dye Injection technique of ﬂow visualization in wind tunnel testing. How far is this technique superior to any other ﬂow viewing method? Provide its application with one example and illustrate it with good sketches and plots. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1