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Arabic Grammar

for the Holy Quran

Al-Qaem Institute

Imam Mahdi Association of Marjaeya (I.M.A.M.)

Table of Contents:

Part I: LETTERS
1. The Arabic Aphabet 4

2. Vowels 5

3. Other Accents 8

Part II: NOUNS
4. The Word 9

5. Prepositions 10.

6. The Nouns 12

7. Nouns: Singular Form 15

8. Nouns: Dual Form 16

9. Nouns: Plural Form: Unbroken 18

10. Nouns: Plural Form: Broken 20

11. Detached Pronouns I 22

12. Detached Pronouns II 24

13. Attached Pronouns 26

14. Demonstrative Nouns 28

15. Relative Nouns 30

17. Foreign Nouns & Verbal Nouns 31

18. Phrases 33

19. I’raab & Binaa’ 38

20. Nouns within Sentences 39

APPENDICES
1. Appendix A: Chart of the Word 43

2. Appendix B: Flow Chart of Nouns 44

Part III: VERBS

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PART I: LETTERS

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‪LESSON 1‬‬

‪THE ARABIC ALPHABET‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺔﺔ‬
‫ﺱ ﺵ ﺹ ﺽ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺫ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺕ ﺙ ﺝ ﺡ ﺥ ﺩ‬ ‫ﺃ‬
‫‪Daad‬‬ ‫‪Saad Sheen‬‬ ‫‪Seen‬‬ ‫‪Zaa‬‬ ‫‪Raa Dhaal‬‬ ‫‪Daal Khaa‬‬ ‫‪Haa Jeem‬‬ ‫‪Tha‬‬ ‫‪Ta‬‬ ‫‪Ba‬‬ ‫
‪Alif‬‬

‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﻫـ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻙ ﻝ‬ ‫ﻁ ﻅ ﻉ ﻍ ﻑ ﻕ‬
‫‪Yaa Wow‬‬ ‫‪Haa Noon Meem‬‬ ‫‪Lam‬‬ ‫‪Kaaf‬‬ ‫‪Qaaf‬‬ ‫‪Faa Ghayn‬‬ ‫‪Ayn Dhaa‬‬ ‫‪Taa‬‬


‪How the letters look within at the beginning, middle & end of a word:‬‬
‫ﺃ ﺎﺎ‬
‫ﺑـ ـﺒـ ـﺐ ‪ /‬ﺗـ ـﺘـ ـﺖ ‪ /‬ﺛـ ـﺜـ ﺚﺚ‬
‫ﺟـ ـﺠـ ـﺞ ‪ /‬ﺣـ ـﺤـ ـﺢ ‪ /‬ﺧـ ـﺨـ ﺦﺦ‬
‫ﺩ ـﺪ ‪ /‬ﺫ ﺬﺬ‬
‫ﺭ ـﺮ ‪ /‬ﺯ ﺰﺰ‬
‫ﺳـ ـﺴـ ـﺲ ‪ /‬ﺷـ ـﺸـ ﺶﺶ‬
‫ﺻـ ـﺼـ ـﺺ ‪ /‬ﺿـ ـﻀـ ـﺾ‬
‫ﻋـ ـﻌـ ـﻊ ‪ /‬ﻏـ ـﻐـ ـﻎ‬
‫ﻓـ ـﻔـ ـﻒ ‪ /‬ﻗـ ـﻘـ ـﻖ‬
‫ﻛـ ـﻜـ ـﻚ ‪ /‬ﻟـ ـﻠـ ـﻞ‬
‫ﻣـ ـﻤـ ﻢﻢ‬
‫ﻧـ ـﻨـ ﻦﻦ‬
‫ﻫـ ـﻬـ ﻪﻪ‬
‫ﻭ ﻮﻮ‬
‫ﻳـ ـﻴـ ﻲﻲ‬

‫‪4‬‬
LESSON 2

VOWELS

1. SHORT VOWELS (accents)

i. Fat-ha ii. Damma iii. Kasra


ﹶ‬ ‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﹺ‬

a u e


ﹶﺏ‬ ‫ﹸﺏ‬ ‫ﹺﺏ‬

Ba Bu Be

2. LONG VOWELS (actual letters)

i. Alif ii. Wow iii.Yaa’:

‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻱ‬

aa uu/oo ee

‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﻲ‬

Baa Buu/Boo Bee

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‫ﻱﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺁ‬ ‫ﺃﹺ‬ ‫ﺃﹸ‬ ‫ﺃﹰ‬
ee uu/oo aa e u a

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﺒﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ـﺐ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﺒـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﺑﹶـ‬
bee boo baa
be bu ba

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ـﺖ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﺘـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﺗ ﹶـ‬
tee too taa te tu ta

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﺜﻮ‬ ‫ﺛﺎ‬ ‫ـﺚ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﹸ‬
‫ـﺜـ‬ ‫ﺛﹶـ‬
thee thoo thaa the thu tha

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﺠﻮ‬ ‫ﺟﺎ‬ ‫ـﺞ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﺠـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﹶﺟـ‬
jee joo jaa
je ju ja

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﺎ‬ ‫ـﺢ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﺤـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﺣـﹶ‬
hee hoo haa
he hu ha

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﺨﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎ‬ ‫ـﺦ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﺨـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﹶﺧـ‬
khee khoo khaa
khe
khu kha

‫ﻱﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍ‬ ‫ـﺪ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﺪ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﺩﹶ‬
dee doo daa de du da

‫ﻱﻱ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﺫﺍ‬ ‫ـﺬ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﹸ‬
‫ـﺬ‬ ‫ﺫﹶ‬
dhee dhoo dhaa dhe dhu dha

‫ﻱﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ـﺮﹺ‬ ‫ـﺮ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﺭﹶ‬
ree roo raa re ru ra

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‫ﻱﻱ‬ ‫ﺯﻭ‬ ‫ﺯﺍ‬ ‫ـﺰﹺ‬ ‫ـﺰ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﺯﹶ‬
zee zoo zaa ze zu za

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﺴﻮ‬ ‫ﺳﺎ‬ ‫ـﺲ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﺴـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﺳـ‬‫ﹶ‬
see soo saa se su sa

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﺸﻮ‬ ‫ﺷﺎ‬ ‫ـﺶ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﹸ‬
‫ـﺸـ‬ ‫ﺷـ‬‫ﹶ‬
shee shoo shaa
she shu sha

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﺼﻮ‬ ‫ﺻﺎ‬ ‫ـﺺ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﺼـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﺻـ‬‫ﹶ‬
see suu saa se su sa

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﻀﻮ‬ ‫ﺿﺎ‬ ‫ـﺾ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﻀـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﺿـ‬
‫ﹶ‬
dhee dhoo dhaa
dhe dhu dha

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﻄﻮ‬ ‫ﻃﺎ‬ ‫ـﻂ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﹸ‬
‫ـﻄـ‬ ‫ﹶﻃـ‬
tee too taa te tu ta

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﻈﻮ‬ ‫ﻇﺎ‬ ‫ـﻆ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﹸ‬
‫ـﻈـ‬ ‫ﹶﻇـ‬
dhee dhoo dhaa dhe dhu dha

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﻌﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﺎ‬ ‫ـﻊ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﻌـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﻋـﹶ‬
ee uu aa e u a

‫ﻏﻲ‬ ‫ـﻐﻮ‬ ‫ﻏﺎ‬ ‫ـﻎ‬ ‫ﹸ‬
‫ـﻐـ‬ ‫ﻏـﹶ‬
‫ﹺ‬
ghee ghuu ghaa
ghe ghu gha

‫ﻲﻲ‬ ‫ـﻔﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ‬ ‫ـﻒ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﹸ‬
‫ـﻔـ‬ ‫ﹶﻓـ‬
fee foo faa fe fu fa

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‫ﻗﻲ‬ ‫ـﻘﻮ‬ ‫ﻗﺎ‬ ‫ـﻖ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﻘـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﹶﻗـ‬
‫‪qee‬‬ ‫‪qoo‬‬ ‫‪qaa‬‬ ‫‪qe‬‬ ‫‪qu‬‬ ‫‪qa‬‬

‫ﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﺎ‬ ‫ـﻚ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﻜـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﻛـ‬
‫ﹶ‬
‫‪kee‬‬ ‫‪koo‬‬ ‫‪kaa‬‬ ‫‪ke‬‬ ‫‪ku‬‬ ‫‪ka‬‬

‫ﻟﻲ‬ ‫ـﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ـﻞ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﻠـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﻟـ‬
‫ﹶ‬
‫‪lee‬‬ ‫‪loo‬‬ ‫‪laa‬‬ ‫‪le‬‬ ‫‪lu‬‬ ‫‪la‬‬

‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ـﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ـﻢ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﻤـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﻣـ‬
‫ﹶ‬
‫‪mee‬‬ ‫‪moo‬‬ ‫‪maa‬‬ ‫‪me‬‬ ‫‪mu‬‬ ‫‪ma‬‬

‫ﻧﻲ‬ ‫ـﻨﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﺎ‬ ‫ـﻦ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ـﻨـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﹶﻧـ‬
‫‪nee‬‬ ‫‪noo‬‬ ‫‪naa‬‬ ‫‪ne‬‬ ‫‪nu‬‬ ‫‪na‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ـﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ـ ﹺﻪ‬ ‫ـﻬـ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﻫـ‬
‫ﹶ‬
‫‪hee‬‬ ‫‪hoo‬‬ ‫‪haa‬‬ ‫‪he‬‬ ‫‪hu‬‬ ‫‪ha‬‬

‫ﻭﻱ‬ ‫ـﻮﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﹺ‬ ‫ـ ﹸﻮ‬ ‫ﹶﻭ‬
‫‪wee‬‬ ‫‪woo‬‬ ‫‪waa‬‬ ‫‪we‬‬ ‫‪wu‬‬ ‫‪wa‬‬

‫ﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ـﻲ‬ ‫ـ ﹸﻴـ‬ ‫ﹶﻳـ‬
‫‪yee‬‬ ‫‪yoo‬‬ ‫‪yaa‬‬ ‫ﹺ‬
‫‪ye‬‬ ‫‪yu‬‬ ‫‪ya‬‬

‫‪8‬‬
LESSON 3

1. NUNATION /
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻦ‬
(Al-Tanween)
‫ ﹾﻥ = ﹶﻟﹾﻦ = ﹶ‬+ ‫ﹶﻝ‬
‫ـﻼ
ﹰ‬

‫ ﹾﻥ = ﹸﻟﹾﻦ =
ﹲ‬+ ‫ﹸﻝ‬
‫ـﻞ‬

‫ ﹾﻥ = ﹺﻟﹾﻦ = ﹺ‬+ ‫ﹺﻝ‬
‫ـﻠ
ﹾﻦ‬

2. LETTER EMPHASIS /
‫ﺸﺸﺪﺓ‬
‫ﱠ‬
(Ashadda)
‫ ﹺﺕ = ﱢ‬+ ‫
ﹺﺕ‬
‫ﺕ‬ ‫
ﹸﻝ = ﱡﻝ‬+ ‫ﹸﻝ‬ ‫ﺱ =
ﱠ‬
‫ﺱ‬ ‫
ﹶ‬+ ‫ﺱ‬
‫ﹶ‬

Tte Llu Ssa

3. SOLAR & LUNAR LETTERS / ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮﻳﺔ‬
(Al-Ahruf Ashamsiya wa Al-Qamariya)
‫ﺱ ﺵ ﺹ ﺽ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺫ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺕ ﺙ ﺝ ﺡ ﺥ ﺩ‬ ‫ﺃ‬

‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﻫـ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻙ ﻝ‬ ‫ﻁ ﻅ ﻉ ﻍ ﻑ ﻕ‬
In the definitive noun, in Arabic, 2 types of letters follow the “alif lam”:
i. The Solar Letters (uncircled) = “lam” of alif lam of definitive is silent.
For example:

‫ﺲ‬ ‫ﺲ = ﺍ
ﹶ ﱠ‬
‫ﺷﹾﻤ
ﹸ‬ ‫ ﺍ
ﹶ ﱠ‬/ Ashamsu
‫ﻟﺸﹾﻤ ﹸ‬
ii. The Lunar Letter (circled) = “lam” is NOT silent.
For example:

‫ ﺍﹶﻟﹾ ﹶﻘﹶﻤﹸﺮ‬/ Al-qamaru
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LESSON 4

THE WORD

‫ﺔﺔ‬

1. Noun 2. Verb 3. Particle

‫ﻢﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻑ‬
Pronounced Ism Fi’l Harf

Meaning A word that indicates A word that indicates Indicates a meaning in
a meaning that is not a meaning that is other than itself.
associated with time. associated with one of
the 3 dimensions of time
(past, present & future).

Examples He He did... In
Muhammad He does... Who
A Book He will do... If
Standing When

Signs 1. It is a flag name 1. precursed by the jussive 1. The particles of inquisition
2. precursed by “the” the 2. can apply “yaa’ al under “hal”- These precurse
identifier mukhatab/of the spoken to” nouns and verbs.
3. precursed by the 3. precursed by “s” or “sow 2. The prepositional particles
preposition particles fa” (indicates the future tense. under “fee” - These precurse
4. Ends with Nunation/ 4. precursed by “qad” (means nouns only.
tanween “may”, e.g., Ahmad may go 3. The jussive particles under
to school. “lam” - These precurse verbs
5. The “noon” of emphasis in the future form only (al-fi’l
(“al-tawkeed”) al-mudaari’)
6. The “taa’” of the feminine
(“al-ta’neeth alsaakina”)
7. The “taa’” of the doer (al
faa’il)
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LESSON 5

THE PARTICLES: PREPOSITIONS

‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹾﺣﹸﺮﹶﻑ ﹶ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮ
ﱢ‬
(Ah-ruf Ajjarri)
1. Prepositions
These are 10:
1. min ‫ﹾ‬/
‫ﹺﻣﻦ‬ = from
2. elaa /
‫ﺇ ﹺﻟﻰ‬ = to
3. fee /
‫ﻓﻲ‬ = in
4. ‘alaa /
‫ =
ﹶﻋﻠﻰ‬on
5. ‘an / ‫ﹶﻋ
ﹾﻦ‬ = about

6. hattaa /
‫ =
ﹶﺣ
ﱠﺘﻰ‬until
7. le /

ﹺﻝ‬ = for/belonging to
8. ka /
‫ﻛـ
ﹶ‬ = like/as
9. wa /

ﹶﻭ‬ = used for oath

10. ta /
‫ﺗـ
ﹶ‬ = used for oath only with Allah’s name.

Role:
1. Form Prepositional Phrases
2. Only precede nouns.

Rules of I’raab:
- Make the noun/ism majroor with the: Kasra or yaa’

Example:

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬

ﹺ‬ ‫ﹺﻣﹾﻦ ﹶ‬
‫ﺷﺮﹺ‬
min sharri il-naasi
From the evil of men

‫ﺎﷲ‬
‫ﺗ

ﹺ‬
ta-Allahi
By the name of Allah

‫ﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﹺﻣﹶﻦ ﺍﳌ
ﹸ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴﻠﹺ
ﹶ‬
mim al-muslimeena
From the Muslims 11
PART II: NOUNS

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LESSON 6

THE NOUNS

‫ﻢﻢ‬
Overview:

Four main points:

A. All nouns are masculine unless they end with ‫ ﻯ‬, ‫ ﺍﺀ‬, ‫ ﺓ‬, or are body parts that are a
pair.

B. All nouns are either:
i. Masculine
ii. Feminine.

C. All nouns are either:
i. Singular: one only.
ii. Dual: two only.
iii. Plural: more than two.

D. All pronouns are either in the:
i. First Person: I, we and us.
ii. Second Person: you
iii. Third Person: they, them.

Keeping the above points in mind, let's look at nouns in more detail:
1. Simple Nouns:
A. Common Nouns
i. Definite (Al-Ma’rifa)

‫ﹶﺫﹺﻟﹶﻚ ﺍﹶﻟﹾ ﹺﻜ ﹸ‬
‫ﺘﺎﺏ ﻻ ﺭﹶﻳﹾ ﹶﺐ
ﹺ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬
Al-Kitab (the book) ~ the reference her is to the Holy Quran.

ii. Indefinite (Al-Nakirra)

‫ﹶﻭ ﹶﻛﺄﹾﺳﺎﹰ ﹺﺩﺎﺎ‬
Ka’san (a glass) ~ the reference here is a general one.

B. Proper Nouns (people’s names)/‫ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ‬
(Asmaa’ Al-A’laam)

ﹶﻋ
ﹺﻠ
ﱞﻲ‬، ‫ﹸﻣﹶﺤﹶﻤﹲﺪ‬
Ali, Muhammad 13
Now, lets start applying the preceding points, one by one:
I. All nouns are masculine, unless they end with:
i. End with ‫ﺓ‬
For example:


ﹶﺟ
ﱠﻨ
ﹲﺔ‬ ‫ﺑ
ﹶﹶﻘﺮﹶ
ﹲﺓ‬
(Jannatun) (Baqaratun)
Heaven Cow

ii. End with ‫ﺍﺀ‬
For example:

‫ﺀﺀ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺇﹺ ﹾ‬ ‫ﹶﺣﹾﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬
('Aashooraa') (Israa') (Hamraa')
Ashura Ascension
Red

iii. End with ‫ﻯ‬
For example:

‫ﺻﹾﻐﻯﻯ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﹸﻛﹾﺒﺮﻯ‬
(Sughraa) (Kubraa)
Lesser Greater

iv. Are body parts that are a pair
For example:

‫ﲔ‬

ﹶﻋ ﹾ
ﹲ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹶ ﹲﺪ‬ ‫ﺭ ﹺ ﹾﺟﹲﻞ‬
('Aynun) (Yadun) (Rijlun)
Eye Hand Foot

v. Others:
For example:

‫ﹶﺣﺮﹾ
ﹲﺏ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺭﹲ‬ ‫ﺲ‬ ‫ﹶ‬
‫ﺷ ﹼﻤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹶﺭ ﹾ ﹲ‬
‫ﺽ‬
(Harbun) (Naarun) (Shamssun) (Ardhun)
War Fire Sun Earth

II. All nouns are either:
i. Masculine
ii. Feminine.

For example:
Masculine Feminine

‫ﺭﹶ ﹸﺟ
ﹲﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﹺ ﹾﻣﹶﺮﺃ ﹶ ﹲﺓ‬ 14
(rajullun) (imra’attun)
Man Woman

‫ﺛﹶﻮﺭ
ﹲ‬ ‫ﺑﹶﹶﻘﹶﺮﹲﺓ‬
(thawrun) (baqaratun)
Bull Cow

Exercise:
1. Look into your copy of the holy Quran and find the masculine and feminine words. Collect
10 of each and write them on a sheet of paper and submit them to your teacher.

2. Find 10 word that are in the definite form and write them down.

3. Find 10 more words that are in their indefinite forms.

4. Vocabulary: memorize the words from this lesson with their meanings.

15
LESSON 7

Nouns: Singular Forms

‫ﺍﻹﺳﻢ ﺩﺩ‬
(Al-Ism Al-Mufrad)
C. All nouns are either:
i. Singular: one only.
ii. Dual: two only.
iii. Plural: more than two.

In this lesson, we will be concentrating on the singular forms:
Rules of I’raab:
Subject: takes a Damma
Object: Fat-ha
Prepositional/Possessor Phrase: Kasra

Masculine Feminine

Singular
‫ﺭﹶ ﹸﺟ
ﹲﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﹺ ﹾﻣﹶﺮﺃ ﹶ ﹲﺓ‬
(rajullun) (imra’atun)
A Man A woman

Singular
‫ﹺﻛ
ﹲ‬
‫ﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫
ﹶﺟ
ﱠﻨﹲﺔ‬
(kitaabun) (jannatun)
A Book A Heaven

Exercise:
1. Let’s open up the holy Quran and write down 10 singular masculine and feminine word (10
of each).

2. Vocabulary: memorize the words from this lesson with their meanings.

16
LESSON 8

Nouns: Dual Forms

‫ﻨﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻢ ﳌﳌ ﹸ ﹶﺜ‬
(Al-Ism Al-Muthannaa)
In this lesson, we will be concentrating on the dual forms (two only) of nouns.
To turn a singular form of a noun to it dual form:
i. If its the Subject: add ‫ ﺍﻥ‬to the end of the singular form
ii. If its the Object/prepositional/possessive phrase: add ‫ ﻳﹾ ﹺﻦ‬to the end of the singular
form.
Rules of I’raab:
Subject: Alif
Object: Yaa’
Prepositional/Possessor Phrase: Yaa
For example:
‫ ﺍﻥ‬+ Singular form
‫ﺍﻥ = ﹶﺟﹶﻤ ﹺ‬
‫ ﹺ‬+ ‫ﹶﺟﹶﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﹲ‬
(jamaalaani = jamallun + aanin)
Camel --> Two Camels

‫ﹶ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶ ﹶ ﹲ‬
‫ ﻳﹾ ﹺﻦ = ﻓﺮﺍﺷ ﹾ
ﹺ‬+ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺘﲔ‬
(faraashatayni = faraashattun + ayni)
Butterfly --> Two butterflies

Exercise:
1. Fill in the blanks:

Masculine Feminine

Singular
‫ﺭﹶﺟﹸ ﹲﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﹺ ﹾﻣ ﹶﺮﺃ ﹶ ﹲﺓ‬

A Man A woman

Dual Subject:
‫ﺭﹶﺟﹸ ﹺ‬
‫ﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﹺ ﹾﻣ ﹶﺮﺋﹶﺘـ‬

Dual Object/:
‫ـــــــــــــ‬ ‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬ 17
Prepositional/

Possessive Two men Two women

Masculine Feminine

Singular
‫ﹺﻛ
ﹲ‬
‫ﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫
ﹶﺟ
ﱠﻨﹲﺔ‬
A Book A Heaven

Dual Subject:
‫ﹺﻛــ‬ ‫
ﹶﺟ ﱠﻨﺘـ‬

Dual Object/:

Prepositional/

Possessive Two books Two heavens

2. Find 5 nouns in there dual forms of both masculine and feminine. And mark which is in the
object and subject forms.

3. Find 5 nouns that are in their singular form that are masculine and feminine. Take these
nouns and turn them into the dual forms for the subject, object, prepositional and possessive
phrases (as in the charts above).

4. Vocabulary: memorize the words from this lesson with their meanings.

18
LESSON 9

Nouns: Plural Forms I

‫ﺳﹸﻢ ﹶ‬
‫ﺍﳉﹾﻤ
ﹺﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﹺ ﹾ‬
(Ism Al-Jam'i)

In this lesson, we will be concentrating on the plural forms (three or more) of nouns. There are
two forms of the plural that we must look at:

1. The Unbroken/Sound Plural:
Here the original form of the singular noun:
i. stays intact, or unchanged
ii. with the addition of the:
a.‫ ﻭﻥ ﹶ‬if its the subject, or‫ ﻳﻦ ﹺ‬if its an object masculine noun within a sentence.
b. ‫ﺍﺕ‬
‫ ﹴﹺ‬if its the subject, or ‫ﺍﺕ‬‫ ﹲ‬if its an object feminine noun within a sentence.

Rules of I’raab:
Subject: Wow
Object: Yaa’
Prepositional/Possessor Phrase: Yaa

Object /Prepos./Possessive Subject
Masculine:
‫ ﻳﻦ‬+ Singular form ‫ ﻭﻥ‬+ Singular form

‫ ﻳﻦ = ﹸﻣﹾﺆﹺﻣ
ﹶ‬+ ‫ﹸﻣﹾﺆﹺﻣﹲﻦ‬
‫ﻨﲔ‬ ‫ ﻭﻥ = ﹸﻣﹾﺆﹺﻣ ﹶ‬+ ‫ﹸﻣﹾﺆﹺﻣﹲﻦ‬
‫ﻨﻮﻥ‬
(mu'mineena) (mu'minoona)

Feminine:
‫ ﹲ‬+
‫ﺍﺕ‬ Singular form ‫ﺍﺕ‬
‫ ﹴ‬+ Singular form

‫ﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ ﹲ‬+ ‫ﹸﻣﹾﺆﹺﻣﹶﻨﹲﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺕ = ﹸﻣﹾﺆﹺﻣ
ﹲ‬ ‫ ﹴ‬+ ‫ﹸﻣﹾﺆﹺﻣﹶﻨﹲﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺕ = ﹸﻣﹾﺆﹺﻣ ﹴ‬
‫ﻨﺎﺕ‬
(mu'minaatun) (mu'minaatin)

Exercise:
1. Fill in the blanks:
Masculine Feminine
Singular
‫ﺘﺎﺑ
ﱞﻲ‬
‫ﹺﻛ
ﹺ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓ
ﹶﺮ
ﹲﺓ‬
‫ﹺ‬

A man of the Book(Christian or Jewish) A woman 19
Dual Subject:
‫ﺘﺎﺑ
ﱠﻴـ‬
‫ﹺﻛ
ﹺ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺮـــــ‬
‫ﹺ‬

Dual Object/: ‫ـــــــــــــ‬ ‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬
Prepositional/ Three or more men Three or more women

Possessive

Plural Subject:
‫ﺘﺎﺑ
ﱡﻴـ‬
‫ﹺﻛ
ﹺ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺮـــــ‬
‫ﹺ‬

Plural Object/: ‫ـــــــــــــ‬ ‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬
Prepositional/
Possessive Three or more men Three or more women

2. Now find 10 masculine and 10 feminine words in their plural forms (unbroken) and write
them down in their object and subject forms.

3. Identify 10 masculine and 10 other feminine singular nouns and write them in their plural
forms for subject, object, prepositional phrase and possessive phrase.

4. Vocabulary: memorize the words from this lesson with their meanings.

20
LESSON 10

Nouns: Plural Forms II

‫ﺳﹸﻢ ﹶ‬
‫ﺍﳉﹾﻤ
ﹺﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﹺ ﹾ‬
(Ism Al-Jam'i)

2. The Broken Plural
There is no set rule to turn a singular form to a broken plural. Only certain singular nouns
can become broken plurals.

‫< ﺃ
ﹶﺭ

ﹸﺟ
ﹲﻞ‬--- ‫ﹺﺭﹾﺟﹲﻞ‬ ‫< ﺃﹶﻧﹾ
ﹺﺒ ﹲ‬--- ‫
ﹶﻧ
ﹺﺒ
ﱞﻲ‬
‫ﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫<ﺃ ﹶ
ﹾﻗ
ﹲ‬---- ‫ﹶﻗﹶﻠﹲﻢ‬
‫ﻼﻡ‬
(Arjul) (Rijl) (Anbiyaa') (Nabiyy) (Aqlaam)(Qalam)

Foot --> FeetProphet ---> Prophets Pen--->Pens

‫< ﺃ
ﹶﺭ

ﹸﺟ
ﹲﻞ‬--- ‫ﹺﺭ
ﹾﺟﹲﻞ‬ ‫< ﺃ
ﹶﻳﱠ ﹲ‬--- ‫ﻳﹶﹾﻮﹲﻡ‬
‫ﺎﻡ‬ ‫< ﺇ ﹺ ﹲ‬--- ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻣﹲﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺀ‬
(A'yun) (Ayn) (Ayyaam) (Yowm) (Imaa')(Ama)
Eye---> Eyes Day ---> Days Servant--->Servants

Exercise:
1. Find 10 broken plurals in the holy Quran and write them down.
2. Find 10 singular nouns in their singular form in the holy Quran and write them down with
their broken plural form.
3. Vocabulary: memorize the words from this lesson with their meanings.

21
LESSON 11

DETACHED PRONOUNS I

‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺔﺔ‬
(Addamaa'ir Al-Munfassilla)

C. Pronouns:
i. Detached ii. Attached
General Rules:
i. Pronouns act to identify something. Therefore, they will turn something from being unidentified with
respect to its owner or doer of an action to defined and known.
ii. Pronouns are generally mabnee/unchangeable, except in the dual form.

i. Detached Pronouns:
a. As the subject: Singular Dual Plural
1st Person: Me Us Us
Masc. ‫ﺃﹶﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﹶﻧ ﹾ‬
‫ﺤ ﹸﻦ‬ ‫ﹶﻧ ﹾ‬
‫ﺤ ﹸﻦ‬
ana nahnu nahnu
Fem. " " "

2nd Person: You You two You all
‫ﺃﹶ‬
Masc. ‫ﺃﹶﻧﹾ ﹶﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﹾ ﹸﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﹶﻧﹾ ﹸﺘﻢﹾ‬
anta antumaa antum
Fem. ‫ﺃﹶﻧﹾ ﹺﺖ‬ " ‫ﺃﹶﻧﹾ ﹸ ﹾ‬
‫ﱳ‬
anti antumaa antun

3rd Person: He/She They two They all
Masc. ‫ﹸﻫﻮ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹸﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹸﻫﻢ ﹾ‬
huwa homaa hom
Fem. ‫ﹺﻫ ﹶﻲ‬ " ‫ﹸﻫ ﱠﻦ‬
heya homaa honna
22
For example:

a. As the subject: Singular Dual Plural
1st Person: I am Muslim We are Muslim We are Muslim
Masc. ‫ﺃ ﹶﻧﺎ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠﻢﹲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠ ﹺ‬ ‫ﹶﻧ ﹾ‬
‫ﺤ ﹸﻦ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬ ‫ﹶﻧ ﹾ‬
‫ﺤ ﹸﻦ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠﻤﻮ ﹶﻥ‬
ana muslimun nahnu muslimaani nahnu muslimoona

Fem. ‫ﺃ ﹶﻧﺎ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠﻤﹶ ﹲﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹶﻧ ﹾ‬
‫ﺤ ﹸﻦ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹺﻠ ﹲ‬
‫ﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹶﻧ ﹾ‬
‫ﺤ ﹸﻦ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
ana muslimatun nahnu muslimataani nahnu muslimaatun
2nd Person: You are Muslim You are Muslim You all are Muslim
‫ﺃﹶ‬
Masc. ‫ﺃﹶﻧﹾ ﹶﺖ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠﻢﹲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹾ‬ ‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﹸ‬
‫ﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻣﺴ ﹺﻠ ﹺ‬
‫ﹾ‬ ‫ﺃﹶﻧﹾ ﹸﺘﻢﹾ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠﻤﻮ ﹶﻥ‬
anta muslimun antumaa muslimaani antum muslimoona
‫ﺃﹶ‬
Fem. ‫ﺃﹶﻧﹾ ﹺﺖ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠﻤﹶ ﹲﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺎﻥ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﹸ‬
‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﹾ‬ ‫ﻧ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹺﻠ ﹲ‬
‫ﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﹶﻧﹾ ﹸ ﹾ‬
‫ﱳ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
anti muslimatun antumaa muslimataani antun muslimaatun

3rd Person: He/She is Muslim They are Muslim They all are Muslim
Masc. ‫ﹸﻫ ﹶﻮ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠﻢﹲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹸﻫﻤﺎ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠ ﹺ‬ ‫ﹸﻫﻢ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠﻤﻮ ﹶﻥ‬
huwa muslimunhomaa muslimaani hom muslimoona
Fem. ‫ﹺﻫ ﹶﻲ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠﻤﹶ ﹲﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹸﻫﻤﺎ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬ ‫ﺴ ﹺﻠ ﹲ‬
‫ﹸﻫ ﱠﻦ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴ ﹺﻠ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺕ‬
heya muslimatun homaa muslimataani honna muslimaatun

Exercise:
1. Using the words listed below, create a chart similar to the one above for each word.
.‫ﻲﻲ‬
‫ ﹺﻛ ﱞ‬، ‫ ﹸﻣﻠﹾﹺﺤﹲﺪ‬، ‫ﻛﺎﻓﹲﺮ‬
‫ ﹺ‬، ‫ﹸﻣﹾﺆﹺﻣﹲﻦ‬
2. Memorize the vocabulary from this lesson.

23
LESSON 12

DETACHED PRONOUNS II

‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺔﺔ‬
(Addamaa'ir Al-Munfassilla)
b. As the object/possessive:
Singular Dual Plural
1st Person: Me Us Us
Masc. ‫ﺇﹺﻳﱠ ﹶ‬
‫ﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺇﹺﻳﱠﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﹺﻳﱠﺎﻧﺎ‬
Eyyaaya Eyyaanaa Eyyaanaa
Fem. " " "

2nd Person: You You two You all
Masc. ‫ﺇﻳ ﱢ ﹶ‬
‫ﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﹺ‬
‫ﺇﻳ ﱢ ﹸ‬
‫ﺎﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﹺ‬
‫ﺇﻳ ﱢ ﹸ‬
‫ﺎﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﹺ‬
Eyyaaka Eyyaakumaa Eyyaakum
Fem. ‫ﺎﻙ‬
‫ﺇﹺﻳ ﱢ ﹺ‬ " ‫ﺇﻳ ﱢ ﹸ‬
‫ﺎﻛ ﹾﻦ‬ ‫ﹺ‬
Eyaakie Eyaakon
3rd Person: He/She They two They all
Masc. ‫ﺇﹺﻳﱢﺎ ﹸﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻳ ﱢ ﹸ‬
‫ﺎﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻳ ﱢ ﹸ‬
‫ﺎﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﹺ‬
Eyyaahu Eyaahomaa Eyaahom
Fem. ‫ﺇﹺﻳﱢﺎﻫﺎ‬ " ‫ﺇﻳ ﱢ ﹸ‬
‫ﺎﻫ ﹾﻦ‬ ‫ﹺ‬
Eyyaahaa Eyyaahon

The detached pronouns can be found either associated with:
1. Pronoun + Noun/Pronoun: in which case, it would be “mudhaaf illayh”
For example:
‫ﻫﺬ ﹺﻩ ﹶ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﹶﺠﹶﺮ
ﹸﺓ‬ ‫ﺇ ﹸ‬
‫ﻳﺎﻛﻤﺎ ﹶﻭ ﹺ‬‫ﹺ‬
24
2. Pronoun + Verb = in which case, it would be “maf’ool bihhi” or the object.
For Example: ‫ﺇ ﹶ‬
‫ﻳﺎﻙ ﹶﻧﹾﻌﹸﺒ
ﹸﺪ‬‫ﹺ‬

Exercise:
1. Memorize these pronouns.
2. a. Find 10 of these pronouns in the holy Quran and list them as they appear in a phrase or
sentence.
b. Write if it is an object or part of a possessive phrase.

25
LESSON 13

ii. THE ATTACHED PRONOUNS

‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺔﺔ‬
(Addamaa'ir Al-Muttassilla)
Pronouns:
i. Attached Pronouns:
Singular Dual Plural
1st Person: Me Us Us
Masc. ‫ ﻱ‬/‫ﹸﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺎ‬
ya / tu naa naa
Fem. " " "

2nd Person: You You two You all
Masc. ‫ ﹶﻙ‬/‫ﹶﺕ‬ ‫ ﹸﻛﻤﺎ‬/ ‫ﹸﲤﺎ‬ ‫ ﹸﻛﻢ‬/ ‫ﹸﰎ‬
ka / ta kumaa / tumaa tomm
Fem. ‫ ﹺﻙ‬/‫ﹺﺕ‬ " ‫ ﹸﻛ ﱠﻦ‬/ ‫ﺗﹸ ﱠﻦ‬
Eyaakie tun
3rd Person: He/She They two They all
Masc. ‫ﹸﻩ‬ /‫ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹸﻫﻤﺎ‬/ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ ﹸﻫﻢ‬/ ‫ﻭ‬
hu / a homaa / aa Eyaahom
Fem. ‫ﻫﺎ‬ / ‫ﹾﺕ‬ " ‫ ﹶﻥ‬/ ‫ﹸﻫ ﹾﻦ‬
haa / t na / hon
(Note: what is before the"/" is attached to a noun, what is after the"/" is attached to a verb.)

Exercise:
1. Complete the words in the chart on the following page.
‫ ﹶ‬، ‫ ﹶﻗﺮﹶﺃ ﹶ‬، ‫ﺁﻥ‬
‫ ﻟﹶ ﹺﺒ
ﹶ‬، ‫ﺷﺮﹶﹶﺏ‬
2. Make your own chart using the following words:
‫ﺚ‬ ‫ﹶ‬
‫ ﹸﻗﺮﹾ ﹲ‬، ‫ ﹶﻣﹶﺜﹲﻞ‬، ‫ﺷﺮﹺﹶﻛﹲﺔ‬
26
Singular Dual Plural
1st Person: Me Us Us
Masc. ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛ ﹾﻠـ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛ ﹾﻠـ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛ ﹾﻠـ‬
I ate We both ate. We ate.
Fem. ‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬ ‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬ ‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬
My book Our book Our book
2nd Person: You You two You all
Masc. ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛ ﹾﻠـ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛ ﹾﻠـ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛ ﹾﻠـ‬
You ate You two ate You all ate
‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬ ‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬ ‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬
Your book Your Book Your book

Fem. ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛ ﹾﻠـ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛ ﹾﻠـ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛ ﹾﻠـ‬
You ate You two ate You all ate
‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬ ‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬ ‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬
Your book Your book Your book

3rd Person: He/She They two They all
Masc. ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛﻠـ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛﻠـ‬
He ate They both ate They all ate
‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬ ‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬ ‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬
His book Their book Their book

Fem. ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻠـ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻠـ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻠـ‬
She ate They both ate They all ate
‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬ ‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬ ‫ﹺﻛﺘﺎﺑـ‬
Her book Their book Their book
27
LESSON 14

D. THE DEMONSTRATIVE NOUNS

‫ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺓﺓ‬
(Assmaa’ Al-Ishaara)
D. Demonstrative Nouns

A Place Masculine/‫ﹸﻣ ﹶﺬ ﹶﻛ ﹲﺮ‬ Feminine/ ‫ﺚ‬
‫ﹸﻣ ﹶﺆﻧﱠ ﹲ‬
‫ﻣﹶﻜﺎ ﹲﻥ‬ Object Subject/Poss./Prepo. Object S./P./P.

Singular ‫ﺛﹶ ﱠﻢ‬ ‫ ﹶﺫﺍ ﹺﻟﻚ ﹶ‬/ ‫ﹶﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ ﹺﺗ ﹾﻠ ﹶﻚ‬/ ‫ﹶﻫ ﹺﺬ ﹺﻩ‬
there
‫ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‬ thamma
mufrad ‫ ﹸﻫﻨﺎ ﹺﻟﻚ ﹶ‬/ ‫ﹸﻫﻨﺎ‬ that / this that / that
hunaallika / hunaa dhaallika / haadhaa tilka / haadhaa

Dual ‫ ﹶﻫﺎﺫﺍﻥ‬/ ‫ﺫﺍ ﹺﻧ ﹶﻚ‬ ‫ ﹶﺫﻳﹾ ﹺﻨ ﹶﻚ‬/ ‫ﹶﻫ ﹶﺬﻳﹾﻦ‬ ‫ ﺗﹶ ﹾﻴ ﹺﻨ ﹶﻚ‬/ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﹶ‬
‫ﹶﻫﺎﺗ ﹾ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﺗﺎ ﹺﻧ ﹶﻚ‬/‫ﺎﺗﺎﻥ‬
‫ﹶﻫ ﹺ‬
‫ﹸﻣ ﹶﺜ ﱠﻨﻰ‬ those two those two
muthannaa dhaynika dhaynika taynika taanikka
/ haadhaanie /haadhaynie / haataynie / haataanie
Plural ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻰ‬/‫ﻭﻻﺀ‬‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﹸ‬
‫ﺃ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ ﹺﺋﻚ‬/‫ﻻﺀ‬
‫ﻫﺆ ﹺ‬
‫ﺟﹶ ﻤﹾ ﹲﻊ‬ those more than two those more than two
jam'un uulaa / uulaa-ie uulaa-eka / haa-uulaa-ie

Important notes:
The demonstrative nouns show the use of "‫ ”ﹶﻫﺎ‬, the “‫ ”ﹶﻙ‬and the “‫ ”ﹺﻝ‬. Each one is used for a spe-
cific purpose:
i. the "‫”ﹶﻫﺎ‬: - is attached to the beginning of the demonstrative noun.
- is used to draw attention to something near.
- For example: ‫ﺴﹶﺘ
ﹲ‬
‫ﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺻ ﹲ‬
‫ﺮﺍﻁ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﹺ‬
haadhaa siraatun mustaqeem 28
That is the straight path

ii. the “
‫ ”ﹶﻙ‬: - is attached to the end of the demonstrative noun.
- is used to refer to the person with whom you are speaking.
- For example:
‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﺘﺎﺏ ﻻ ﺭﹶﻳﹾ ﹶﺐ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﹶﻚ ﹺ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜ ﹸ‬ ‫ﹺ‬
dhaallika al-kitaabu laa rayba feehi
In that book there is no doubt
iii. the “
‫”ﹺﻝ‬: - is attached to the end of the demonstrative noun.
- it must precede the “‫ ”ﹶﻙ‬.
- is used to refer to something far.
- For example:
‫ﻵﻳﺎﺕ ﹺﻟ
ﹶﻘ
ﹾﻮﹴﻡ ﻳﹶﹶﺘ
ﹶﻔ
ﱠﻜﻥﻥ‬
‫ﹴ‬ ‫ﺫﻟ
ﹶﻚ‬
‫ﺇ

ﱠﻥ ﻓﻲ
ﹺ‬
Inna fee dhaallika la-aayaatin li-qawmin yatafakkaroon
Surely, in that there are proofs to people that think/contemplate.
General Rules:
1. If both the “
‫ ”ﹶﻙ‬and the “‫ ”ﹺﻝ‬are part of the demonstrative noun, "‫ ”ﹶﻫﺎ‬will not be.
For example:

ﹶ‬ ‫ ﻙ‬+ ‫ ﹺﻝ‬+ ‫ﺫﻟ
ﹶﻚ
= ﺫﺍ‬
‫ﹺ‬
2. If "‫ ”ﹶﻫﺎ‬is part of the demonstrative noun, “‫ ”ﹺﻝ‬will not be.
For example: ‫ ﻫﺎ‬+ ‫ ﹶﻙ‬+ ‫ﺬﺍﻙ
= ﺫﺍ‬

ﹶﻫ
ﹶ‬

3. All demonstrative nouns are “mabnee”/unchangeable except he dual forms are
“mu’rab” or changeable (refers to end of word).

Exercise:
1. Refer to your holy Quran and extract 10 places where you see the use of such demonstrative
nouns and write them down.

2. Write one sentence as an example of each item in the demonstrative noun chart.

29
LESSON 15

E. THE RELATIVE NOUNS


ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﹶ ﹾ‬
‫ﺳﻤﺎﹸﺀ‬
(Al-Assmaa' Al-Mowsoola)

Singular Dual Plural
Subject Object/P./P. Subject/Object/P./P.

Masc. ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻠﺬﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﹶ‬
‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻠﺬ ﹺ‬
‫ﻳﻦ‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﹸﻭﻟﻰ‬/ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬
alladhee alladhaani alladhayni al-ulaa / alladheena
He who They two who They all who

Fem. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻠ ﹺ‬
‫ﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻠ ﹶﺘ ﹾ ﹺ‬
‫ﲔ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻼﺋﻲ‬/ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﻲ‬
‫ﱠ‬

allatee allataani allatayni al-laa-ee / al-lawaatee
She who They two who They all who

Rules of Binaa'/I'raab:
1. All are mabnee, except the dual form are:
a. marfoo bil alif
b. mansoob/majroor bil yaa'
2. The binaa' is with the sukoon.

Example:

‫ﻨﻮﻥ ﺑ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻟﻟﱠ ﹶ ﹾ‬
‫ﺎﻟﻐﹾﻴ
ﹺﺐ‬ ‫ﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﹸﺆﹺﻣ ﹶ ﹺ‬
alladheena yu’minoona bil-ghaybe
Those who believe in the unseen.

Exercise:
Find 10 occurences of such relative nouns in the holy Quran. 30
LESSON 16

2. FOREIGN NOUNS

‫ﺔﺔ‬
(Addamaa'ir Al-Munfassilla)

2. Foreign Nouns/
‫ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻋﺠﻤﻴﺔ‬
(Al-Asmaa’ Al-A’jamiya)

Rule of I’raab:
Subject : takes a Damma
Object: Fat-ha
Prepositional/Possessor Phrase: Fat-ha


ﹶ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺒﺎﻭﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺳ ﹶ‬
،‫ﻒ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬، ‫ﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬
‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﺇﹺﺑﹾ‬
Seebaawayha, Yousuffa, Ibraaheema ,

3. THE VERBAL NOUNS

‫ﺭﺭ‬
(Al-Masdar)

3.Verbal Nouns/
‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‬
(Al-Massdar)
‫< ﹶ‬-- ‫ﺳﹶﻤﹶﻊ‬
‫ﺳﹾﻤ ﹸ
ﹲﻊ‬ ‫ﹶ‬
sama’a --> sam’un

He heard --> Hearing
،

‫< ﹸ‬-- ‫ﺷﹶﺮﹶﺏ‬
‫ﺷﺮﹾ
ﹲﺏ‬ ‫ﹶ‬
sharaba --> shurbun

He drank --> Drinking

31
NOUNS ENDING WITH LONG VOWELS

‫ﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌ ﹸﹾﻌ ﹶﺘ ﹶﻠﺔ ﹺ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺧ
ﹺﺮ‬ ‫ﺳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﹶ ﹾ‬
(Al-Asmaa’ Al-Mu’tallatil-aakhire)

‫ﻘﻮﺻﺔ‬

ﹺ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌ ﹶ ﹾﻨ‬
‫ﺳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﹶ ﹾ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌ ﹶ ﹾﻘﺼﻮﺭﹶ ﹺﺓ‬
‫ﺳ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﹶ ﹾ‬
al-asmaa al-manqoosa al-asmaa’ al-maqsoora
Those ending in Yaa’ /
‫ﻱ‬ Those ending in Alif / ‫ﺍ‬

Short vowel shows Does not show Does not show in all cases
because of heaviness

nasb/mansoob jar/majroor raf’/marfoo’ raf’, jar and nasb

‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶﺫﹶﻫﹾﺒﹸﺖ ﺇ ﹺﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﹶﻄﻔﻰ ﹶﻭﹶﻟﹲﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓ
ﹺﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﹶﺃﻳﹾ ﹸﺖ ﹺ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺿﹶﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﹺﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻃ ﹲﺮ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬

‫ﻋﺎﺩﹲﻝ‬ ‫ﹶ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻓﹺﺔ ﺭﹶ ﹸﺟﹲﻞ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﹶﻄﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﹶ‬
‫ﺿﹶﺮﺑﹾ ﹸﺖ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬

‫ﹶﺫﹶﻫﹾﺒﹸﺖ ﺇ ﹺﻟﻰ ﹸﻣ ﹾ‬
‫ﺼﹶﻄﻔﻰ‬

Exercise:
Find for each item covered in this lesson, find 10 instances in the holy Quran where it can be
found.

32
.LESSON 17

5. THE FIVE NOUNS

‫ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺔﺔ‬
(Al-Asmaa' Al-Khamsa)

5. Five Nouns/
‫ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ‬
(Al-Asmaa’ Al-Khamsa)

Rule of I’raab:
Object : takes a “Wow” / ‫ﻭ‬
Subject: takes an “Alif” /‫ﺍ‬
Prepositional/Possessor Phrase: takes a “Yaa’” / ‫ﻱ‬
‫ ﹶ‬، ‫ﻤﻮﻙ‬
‫ ﺫﻭ ﻣﺎﻝ‬، ‫ﻓﻮﻙ‬ ‫ ﺃ ﹶ ﹶ‬، ‫ﺑﻮﻙ‬
‫ ﹶﺣ ﹶ‬، ‫ﺧﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﹶ ﹶ‬
dhu maal, fooka, hamooka, akhooka, abooka

A person of wealth, your mouth, your in-law, your brother, your father

‫ﺃﹶﺑﻮ
ﹸﻣ
ﹶﺤ
ﱠﻤ
ﹴﺪ‬
abu muhammadin
Muhammad’s father.

‫ﺭ
ﹶﺃﹶﻳﹾ ﹸﺖ ﺃﹶﺑﺎ
ﹸﻣ
ﹶﺤ
ﱠﻤ
ﹴﺪ‬
ra-aytu abaa muhammadin
I saw Muhammad’s father.


ﹶ‬
‫ﺧﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﹶﺫﹶﻫﹾﺒﹸﺖ ﺇ ﹺﻟﻰ ﺃ
ﹶ‬
dhahabtu elaa akheeka
I went to your brother.

‫ﹶ ﹶ ﹶ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻠﹾﻤﹶﺖ ﹶﻣﹶﻊ ﺫﻱ
ﹴ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻝ‬
takalamta ma’a dhee maalin
You spoke with a person of wealth.

Exercise:
Find 10 instances in the holy Quran where these nouns have been used.
33
LESSON 18

THE VOCATIVE PHRASE

‫"ﻳﺎ" ﻨﻨﱢﺀ
ﹸﺀ‬
(Yaa' Al-Nidaa')
1. Preceding a Noun:
Causes no change.
For example:
‫ﻳﺎ ﹸﻣﹶﺤﹶﻤ
ﹸﺪ‬
yaa muhammad
Oh Muhammad

2. Preceding a Possessive Phrase:
Changes the vowel from a damma (raf') to a fat-ha. Therefore, causes nasb.
For example:

‫ﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﹶﺐ ﹶ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰ
ﹺ‬ ‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬
yaa saahibazzamaan
Oh savior of our time

THE EXCEPTIONAL PHRASE

‫ﻨﺎﻓﹶﻴ
ﹸﺔ‬ ‫"ﺇ ﹺ ﱠﻻ" ﺍﻹﹺ ﹾ‬
‫ﺳ ﹺﺘﹾﺌ ﹺ‬
(Ellaa Al-Isti'naafiya)
Preceding a Noun:
Changes the vowel from a damma (raf') to a fat-ha. Therefore, causes nasb.
For example:
‫ﺇ ﱠﻻ ﹶﺣﻤﻴﻤﺎ
ﹰ‬

ﹺ‬
ellaa hameeman
Except the hellfire

34
THE NEGATIVE PHRASE

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﹶﻴﺔ‬
‫ﹺ‬ "‫"ﻻ‬
(Laa Al-naafiyya)
1. Preceding a Noun:
Changes the vowel from a damma (raf') to a fat-ha. Therefore, causes nasb.

For example:

‫ﺱ ﻓﻲ ﹶ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐ
ﹺﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ ﹶﺩﺭﹾ ﹶ‬
laa darsa fil-ghadi
No class tomorrow

2. Preceding a Verb:
Causes no change.

For example:

‫ﻻ ﺗﹶﹾﻘﹸﺮﺑﹶﺎ‬
laa taqrubaa
Do not approach

THE DESCRIPTIVE PHRASE

‫ﺻﻮﻑ‬

ﹺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﹶﻔﹸﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﹶﻮ‬
‫ﹺ‬
(Assifa wal-mowsoof)
This refers to the noun and the description the proceeds it.

Rule of I’raab:
The description of the noun follows the noun in its i'raab.

For example:

‫ﺣﺎﻣﹶﻴ
ﹲﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺎﺭﹲ ﹺ‬
naarun haamiyatun
A blazing fire

35
THE CONJUNCTIVE PHRASE

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﹺﻃﻒ ﻭ ﺍﳌ ﹶ ﹾﻌﻑﻑ‬
(Al-'aatif wal-ma'toof)

The letters of Atf : ‫ ﺃ ﹶ ﹾﻭ‬/ ‫ﻭﹶ‬

The Purpose:
- To tie together two nouns, phrases, or ideas.

Rule of I’raab:
The noun after the letter of "atf" (otherwise known as the conjunctions "and"/"or" ‫ ﺃﹶﻭﹾ‬/ ‫ ) ﻭﹶ‬follow
the noun preceding the letter of atf in its i’raab.
For example:
‫ﺟﺎﺀ ﹸﻣﹶﺤﹶﻤﹲﺪ ﹶﻭ ﹶﻋﻠ
ﹺ ﱞﻲ‬
‫ﹶ‬
jaa’a muhammadun wa alleyyun
Muhammad and Ali came.

THE EXCHANGE PHRASE

‫ﺍﻟﺒﹶﺪﻝ‬
‫ﹶ‬
(Al-Badal)
The Purpose:
- To give another title to a noun.

Rule of I’raab:
The second noun follows the second noun in its i'raab.
For example:

‫ﺃﹶ ﹸ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺮ ﺍﳌ ﹸ ﹾﺆﹺﻣ ﹶ‬
‫ﻨﲔ
ﹶﻋ
ﹺﻠﱞﻲ‬
ameeru al-mu’mineena Aliyyun
The master of the faithful Ali (AS)

36
THE EXCHANGE PHRASE

‫ﹶ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﹾﻮ
ﹸ‬
‫ﻛﻴﺪ‬
(Al-Tawkeedu)
The Purpose:
- To emphasize a point.

Rule of I’raab:
The second noun follows the second noun in its i'raab.
For example:

‫ﺍﻟﺼ ﹶ‬
‫ﻼﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼ ﹶ‬
‫ﻼﺓ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶ‬
assalaata assalaata

Prayer! Prayer!

Exercise:
Take each item taught in this lesson and find where there are examples of them in the holy
Quran. Write 5 of each.

37
LESSON 19

E’RAAB & BINAA’

‫ﳌﳌ ﹸ ﹾﻌﹶﺮﹸﺏ ﹶﻭ ﺍﳌ

ﹾﺒ
ﱡ‬
‫ﻲﻲ‬
(Al-Mu'rab wal-Mabnee)

Nouns

Mu'rab Mabnee

‫ﺍﳌ

ﹾﺒ ﱡ‬
‫ﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﳌﳌ ﹸ ﹾﻌﹶﺮﹸﺏ‬
The noun does not change in look at all The noun's last vowels change
no matter where it is placed: depending on where it is placed in

a sentence or phrase

Pronouns All other nouns
Demonstrative Nouns i. Subject: Marfoo' bil-damma
Relative Nouns ii. Object: Mansoob bil-fat-ha
iii. Possesive/Prepositional Phrase:
Majroor bil-kasra
iv. News: Marfoo' bil-damma
Exercise:
Let's review some examples. Compile a chart that lists each type of noun and what it would
look like in terms of e'raab or binaa' for the:
1. Subject
2. Object
3. Prepositional Phrase
4. Possessive Phrase
5. Descriptive Phrase
6. Vocative Phrase
38
7. Interrogative Phrase
LESSON 20

THE SENTENCE

‫ﺍﳉﺔﺔ‬
(Al-Jumla)

Complete
Incomplete

‫ﺗﺎﻣ
ﹲﺔ‬

ﱠ‬ ‫ﺼ
ﹲﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺎﻗ
ﹶ‬

ﹺ‬
(Taamma) (Naaqissa)

Nominal Verbal

‫ﺳ
ﹺﻤ ﱠﻴ
ﹲﺔ‬
‫ﺇ

ﹾ‬ ‫
ﹺﻓ
ﹾﻌ
ﹺﻠ
ﱠﻴ
ﹲﺔ‬
(Ismiyya)
(Fi'liyya)

The noun is part of both nominal and verbal sentences.

‫ﺳ
ﹺﻤ ﱠﻴ
ﹲ‬
1. The Nominal Sentence /
‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻹ
ﹾ‬ (Al-Jumla Al-Ismiyya)

ﹺ‬
This is a sentence that begins with a noun. The nominal sentence is composed of:

ii. News
+ i. Subject


ﹶﺧﹶﺒ
ﹸﺮ‬+ ‫ﹸﻣﹾﺒﹶﺘﹶﺪﺃ ﹸ‬
(khabar) (mubtada’)


ﹸ‬
‫ﺼﺼﹶﻤ
ﹸﺪ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﱠ‬
(Allahhu Ssammad)
Allah the Eternal, the Absolute.

39
In the Nominal sentence, the noun can exist as:

A. Subject:

‫ﻴﻪ
ﹸﻫ
ﹰﺪﻯ ﻟ

ﹾﻠ
ﹸﻤ
ﱠﺘ
ﹺﻘ
ﹶ‬
‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﹶﺫﹺﻟ
ﹶﻚ ﻟﻟ

ﹺﻜ
ﹶﺘ
ﹸ‬
‫ﺎﺏ ﻻ
ﹶ ﺭ
ﹶﻳ

ﹶﺐ ﹺﻓ
ﹺ‬
(Dhaalikka al-kitaabu laa rayba feehi huddan lilmuttaqeen)
This Book, there is no doubt in it, is a guide to those who guard (against evil).

B. News :


ﹸ‬
‫ﺼﺼﹶﻤ
ﹸﺪ‬

ﱠ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ‬
(Allahhu Ssammad)
Allah the Eternal, the Absolute.

C. Part of a Possessive Phrase:

‫ﺎﻩ ﹺﻓﻲ ﹶﻟﹾﻴﹶﻠﹺﺔ ﺍﻟﹾ ﹶﻘﹾﺪ
ﹺﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻧ
ﱠﺎ ﺃ ﹶ ﹶ‬
‫ﻧﺰﻟﹾ ﹶﻨ ﹸ‬ ‫ﹺ‬
(Innaa anzalnaahu fee laylatil qadr)

Surely We revealed it on the grand night.

D. Preceded by a Preposition:

‫ﹶﻭﻳ

ﹲﻞ ﻟ ﱢ
ﹸﻜ ﱢﻞ ﹸﻫﹶﻤ
ﹶﺰ
ﹴﺓ ﱡ


ﹶﺰ
ﹴﺓ‬
(waylun likulli humazatin lumazza)

Wayl ( A valley in hell) to every slanderer, defamer

Exercise:

Look into your copy of the holy Quran and find 10 nominal sentences that contain at least one

of the elements listed above.

40
2. In the Verbal sentence:

‫ﹸ‬This is a sentence that begins with a verb. In this type of sentence, the noun can exist as:
A. Subject
B. Object

object + subject + verb
‫ﹶﺫﹶﻫﹶﺐ ﺃ ﹶ ﹾﺣﹶﻤﹸﺪ ﹶ‬
‫ﺻﺎﺎ
ﹰ‬
dhahaba ahmadun sabaahan
Ahmad went in the morning

Rules of I’raab:
The verb: Marfoo’ bil-damma
The subject: Marfoo’ bil-damma
The object: Mansoob bil-fat-ha (depends on form of noun).

Exercise:
1. Make a chart listing all of the places where the noun is in the state of raf'.
2. Make a chart listing all of the different places that the noun is in a state of nasb.
3. Write 10 nominal sentences from the holy Quran with the i'raab of each part of the sentence.
4. Write 10 verbal sentences from the holy Quran with the i'raab of each part of the sentence.

41
APPENDICES

42
APPENDIX A

THE NOUNS

‫ﻢﻢ‬

1. Simple 2. Five 3. Foreign 4. Verbal

Nouns Nouns Nouns Nouns

‫ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‬
(Al-Asmaa’ Al-Khamsa) (Al-Asmaa’ Al-Ajnabiya) (Al-Masdar)
‫ ﺃ ﹶ ﹶ‬/ Abooka
1. ‫ﺑﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﹸ‬
‫ﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺇ ﹺﺑﹾ‬ ‫ﺳﹾﻤ ﹲﻊ‬‫< ﹶ‬----- ‫ﺳﹶﻤ ﹶﻊ‬ ‫ﹶ‬
‫ ﺃ ﹶ ﹶ‬/ Akhooka
2.
‫ﺧﻮﻙ‬ Ibraaheem Sama’a - > Sam’un

3.
‫ﻤﻮﻙ‬‫ ﹶﺣ ﹶ‬/ Hamooka ‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺳ ﹶ‬
‫ﹸ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﹾﹲﺏ‬‫< ﹸ‬----- ‫ﺷﹶﺮﹶﺏ‬ ‫ﹶ‬
4.
‫ﻓﻮﻙ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬/ Fooka Yoosuf Sharaba -> Shurbun

5.
‫ﻣﺎﻝ‬
‫ ﺫﻭ ﹴ‬/ Dhu Maal

A. Common B. Proper C. Pronouns D. Demonstrative E. Relative

Nouns Nouns Nouns Nouns

‫ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻟﺔ‬
(Asmaa’ Al-A’laam) (Addamaa’ir) (Asmaa’ Al-Ishaara) (Al-Asmaa’ Al-Mawsoola)
‫ﹺﻛ ﹲ‬
‫ﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﹸﻣﹶﺤﱠﻤﹲﺪ‬
‫ ﹸﻫ ﹺ‬/ ‫ﹸﻫﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
hunaalika / hunaa al-ladhee

‫ ﹶﺫﹺﻟﻚ ﹶ‬/ ‫ﹶﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
dhaallika / haadhaa al-lattee
i. Attached ii. Detached ‫ﹶﻫﹺﺬﻩ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬ ‫ ﱠ ﹶ‬/ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺬﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺬ ﹺ‬ ‫ﱠ‬
(Al-Muttassilla) (Al-Munfassilla) haadhihi al-ladhayni / al-ladhaani
‫ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ ﹶﻫﹶﺬﻳﹾﻦ ﹺ‬/ ‫ﹶﻫﺬﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ ﱠ‬/ ‫ﺘﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﹶﺘ ﹾ ﹺ‬ ‫ﱠ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠ ﹺ‬
Obj./Prep./Pos Subject Object Subject haadhayni / haathaani al-latayni / al-lattaani
‫ ﹶﻙ‬- ‫ﻧﺎ‬ ‫ ﻧﺎ‬- ‫ﹸﺕ‬ ‫ ﺇﻳﺎﻧﺎ‬- ‫ﺇﻳﺎﻱ‬
‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﺤﹸﻦ‬ ‫ ﹶﻧ ﹾ‬- ‫ﺃﹶﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﹸﻫﺘﺎﻥ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﹸﻭﻟﻰ‬/ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬
ka - naa naa- tu eyaanaaa- eyaaya nahnu - annaa haattaani al-ullaa / al-ladheena
‫ﹺﻙ‬ ‫ ﹺﺕ‬- ‫ﹶﺕ‬ ‫ ﺇ ﹺ ﹸ‬- ‫ﻳﺎﻙ‬
‫ﻳﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﹸ ﹶ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ ﻫﻮ‬- ‫ﺃ ﹶﻧﹾﹶﺖ‬
ke te - ta
eyaahu - eyaaka huwa - annta
‫ ﹺﻩ‬- ‫ﹸﻩ‬ ‫ﺍ‬-‫ﻥ‬ ‫ ﺇ ﹺﻳﺎﻫﺎ‬-
‫ﻳﺎﻙ‬
‫ﺇﹺ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﹸﻫﹶﻲ‬- ‫ﺃ ﹶﻧﹲﹾﹺﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻰ‬/‫ﻻﺀ‬ ‫ﹸ‬
‫ﻫﺆ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻼﺋﻲ‬/ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﺋﻲ‬
‫ﱠ‬
he - ha aa - na
eyaahaa - eyaaki hiyya - annti
ullaa / haa-ullaa’i al-laa-ee / al-lawaa-ee
‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﻱ‬-‫ﻭ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬- ‫ﻳﺎﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺇﻳﺎﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺇ ﹸ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ ﻫﻤﺎ‬- ‫ﺃﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬
yee yee - oo eyaahumaa - eyaakumaa humaa - antumaa
‫ ﺇ ﹸ‬- ‫ﻳﺎﻛﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺎﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﹺ‬
‫ﺇ ﹸ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ ﻫﻢ‬- ‫ﺃﹶﻧﹾ ﹸﺘﹾﻢ‬
eyaahum - eyaakum humm - antum
‫ ﺇ ﹸ‬- ‫ﻳﺎﻛﹾﻦ‬
‫ﻳﺎﻫﹾﻦ‬ ‫ﺇ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺃﹶﻧﹾ ﹸ ﹾ‬
‫ ﹸﻫﻦ‬- ‫ﱳ‬ 43
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﹺ‬
eyaahunn - eyaakunn hunn - antunn
APPENDIX B

THE PARTICLES

‫ﺍﻷﻑﻑ‬

1. Prepositions 2. Jussive 3. Interrogative

‫ﺃ ﹶﹾﺣﹸﺮﻑ ﹶ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮ
ﹺ‬ ‫ﺃ ﹶﹾﺣﹸﺮﻑ ﹶ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺰﹾﻡ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺳﹺﺘ ﹾ‬
‫ﻔ‬ ‫ﹾ‬ ‫ﺍﻹ‬ ‫ﺳ‬ ‫ﺃﹶ‬
‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺀ ﹺ‬
‫ﹾ ﹸ‬
(Ah-ruf Ajjar) (Ahruf Ajjazm) (Asmaa’ Al-Istifhaam)

These are: These are: These are:
1. min/‫ﹺﻣﻦ ﹾ‬ 2. elaa/‫ﺇ ﹺﻟﻰ‬ 1. lam / ‫ﻟﹶ ﹾﻢ‬ 1. hal/‫ﹶﻫ ﹾﻞ‬ 2. lema/‫ﻟﹺ ﹶﻢ‬
3. fee/‫ﻓﻲ‬ 4. ‘alaa/‫ﹶﻋﻠﻰ‬ 2. lan / ‫ﻟﹶ ﹾﻦ‬ 3. ayna /‫ﺃﹶﻳ ﹾ ﹶﻦ‬ 4. maadhaa/‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ‬
5. ‘an/‫ﹶﻋﹾﻦ‬ 6. hattaa/‫ﹶﺣ ﱠﺘﻰ‬ 3. In / ‫ﺇ ﹺ ﹾﻥ‬ 5. man/‫ﹶﻣﹾﻦ‬ 6. kayfa/‫ﻒ‬ ‫ﹶﻛﹾﻴ ﹶ‬
7. le/
‫ﹺﻝ‬ 8. ke/
‫ﻛـﹶ‬ 7. mataa/‫ﹶﻣﹶﺘﻰ‬ 8. maa/‫ﻣﺎ‬
9. wa/‫ﻭﹶ‬ 10. ta/‫ﺗـﹶ‬ 9. leman/
‫ﹺﳌ ﹶ ﹾﻦ‬ 10. kam/‫ﹶﻛﹾﻢ‬
11. ayyu/ ‫ﺃ ﹶ ﱡﻱ‬ 12. ayyaana/‫ﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﹶﻳ ﱠ ﹶ‬
Role: Role:
1. Form Prepositional Phrases 1. Form jussive phrase Role:
2. Only precede nouns. 2. Only precede verbs. 1. Can precede nouns & verbs.
2. Can combine with some prepo
sitions.
3. Interrogative when at start of a
sentence.
Rules of I’raab: Rules of Binaa’: Rules of Binaa’:
- Make the noun/ism majroor 1. Present tense verb: - Depends on the noun itself.

with the: Sukun

Kasra or yaa’ 2. Present tense plural: Example:
hadhf/absence of noon. ‫ﺽ‬‫ﹶﻣﹾﻦ ﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﱠﺬﻱ ﻳﹸ ﹾﻘﺮﹺ ﹸ‬
Example: 3. Present tense ending man dhaa alladhee yuqridhu
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬

ﹺ‬ ‫ﹺﻣﹾﻦ ﹶ‬
‫ﺷﺮﹺ‬ with vowel:
min sharri il-naasi
i. wow --> damma ‫ﺍﻟﻮﹾﻋﹸﺪ‬
‫ﹶﻣ ﺘﻰ ﹶﻫ ﺬﺍ ﹶ‬
ii. alif --> fat-ha mataa haadhaa al-wa’du
‫ﺎﷲ‬
‫ﺗ
ﹶ ﹺ‬ iii. yaa’ --> kasra
ta-Allahi
‫ﺃﹶﻳ ﱠ ﹶ‬
‫ﺎﻥ ﹸﻣﺮﹾﺎﺎ‬
Example: ayyaana mursaahaa

‫ﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﹺﻣ ﹶﻦ ﺍﳌ ﹸ ﹾ‬
‫ﺴﻠﹺ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻟﹶ ﹾﻢ ﻳ ﹶ ﹸﻜ ﹾﻦ‬
mim al-muslimeena lam

‫ﻟﹶ ﹾﻦ ﻳ ﹶ ﹾﻔﹶﻘﻬﻮﺍ‬
lan yafqahoo

‫ﺮﺽ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻳ ﹶ ﹶ‬
‫ﹾ‬
lan yarda
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PART III: VERBS

45