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Set No. 1

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 AERO SPACE PROPULSION-I (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Air enters a compressor at a pressure of 0.12 Mpa and temperature of 268K. It leaves the compressor at a pressure of 0.55 Mpa. The maximum temperature in cycle is 950o C. Assume the compressor eﬃciency of 80% and turbine eﬃciency of 85%.a pressure drop of 0.15Kpa takes place in the combustion chamber. Determine the compressor work, turbine work and cycle eﬃciency. [16] 2. A turbo-prop driven airplane is ﬂying at 600 Km / h at an altitude where the ambient conditions are 0.455 bar and -10oC. The compressor pressure ratio is 9.5 :1 and the turbine inlet temperature is 1250 K. The isentropic eﬃciencies of compressor and turbine are 0.85 and 0.90 respectively. Assuming that no thrust is generated by the jet exhaust from the engine; calculate the speciﬁc power input available to the propeller. [16] 3. Consider Ear type air intakes for a subsonic airplane as that for Gnat / Ajit ﬁghter plane. Show the internal layout for the swallowed air to reach the engine. Explain its aerodynamics and thermodynamics in details when the airplane climbs in its ﬂight at higher angles. [16] 4. Consider a conical spike type supersonic air inlet with ﬁxed geometry for optimum performance at one Mach number. Describe its aerodynamics and thermodynamics at the design Mach number. What happens when the operating mach number is higher than the design Mach number at a small angle of yaw β = 2o ? [16] 5. Enumerate the various factors aﬀecting the performance of a combustion chamber. How ‘combustion eﬃciency’ and ‘combustion intensity’ aﬀect the performance?[16] 6. A gas is isentropically expanded from p = 10 bar and T = 5250 C in a nozzle to a pressure of 7.6 bar. If the rate of ﬂow of gas is 1.5kg/s, determine: (a) pressure, temperature and velocity at nozzle throat and exit. (b) Maximum possible velocity attainable by the gas. (c) The type of the nozzle and its throat area. [16]

7. The following data refers to the eye of a single-sided impeller: Inner radius = 6.5cm Mass ﬂow = 8kg/s Outer radius = 15cm Speed = 270rev/s Ambient conditions = 1.0bar, 288K Assuming no pre-whirl and no losses in the intake duct, calculate the blade inlet angle at the root and tip of the eye and Mach number at the tip of the eye. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: RR312106

Set No. 1

8. Explain the three-dimensional ﬂow in axial ﬂow compressor and derive the free vortex condition. What does free vortex condition signify? [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR312106

Set No. 2

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 AERO SPACE PROPULSION-I (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Explain how the ideal gas turbine engine cycle diﬀers from the thermodynamic cycle of an actual gas turbine engine. Can you work out the eﬃciency of this engine? Show the variation of pressure , temperature and axial velocity across the engine. [16] 2. A turbo-prop driven airplane is ﬂying at 650 Km / h at an altitude where the ambient conditions are 0.458 bar and -10o C. The compressor pressure ratio is 9:1 and the turbine inlet temperature is 1200 K. The isentropic eﬃciencies of compressor and turbine are 0.85 and 0.90 respectively. Assuming that no thrust is generated by the jet exhaust from the engine; calculate the speciﬁc power input available to the propeller. [16] 3. Consider a front air intake for a subsonic turbojet airplane as that for He-178 or F-86 Saber jet. Show the internal layout for the air to be swallowed by the engine. Explain its aerodynamics and thermodynamics in details when the airplane is in its ﬂight at a velocity lesser than cruising. [16] 4. Consider a conical spike type supersonic air inlet with ﬁxed geometry for optimum performance at one Mach number. Describe its aerodynamics and thermodynamics at the design Mach number and at zero angle of attack. [16] 5. What are the basic requirements of a fuel injection system? Explain the working of a typical fuel injection system of a turbine engine with the help of a sketch. [16] 6. Air ﬂows through an isentropic nozzle with inlet conditions of Tt = 20000 R and Pt = 100 psia. The throat area is 2 ft2 and the exit area is 10.32 ft2 . If the ﬂow is choked at the throat, ﬁnd (a) Mass ﬂow rate through the nozzle. (b) Mach number, static temperature and static pressure at exit without a shock. (c) Mach number, static temperature and static pressure at exit with a shock in the divergent section where the ﬂow area is 4.06 ft2 . [16] 7. A single-sided centrifugal compressor has to be designed with the following given data: Power input factor = 1.04 Slip factor = 0.9 Rotational speed = 290rev/s Overall diameter of impeller = 0.5m 1 of 2

Code No: RR312106 Eye tip diameter = 0.3m Eye root diameter = 0.15m Inlet stagnation temperature = 295K Inlet stagnation pressure = 1.1bar Air mass ﬂow = 9kg/s Isentropic eﬃciency = 0.78

Set No. 2

(a) Determine the pressure ratio of the compressor and the power required to drive it assuming that the air at inlet is axial. (b) Calculate the inlet angle of the impeller vane at the root and tip radii of the eye assuming that the axial inlet velocity is constant across the eye annulus. [16] 8. Explain the following with respect to axial ﬂow compressors: (a) Annulus drag (b) Secondary losses (c) Symmetrical blading (d) Stalling of blades ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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Code No: RR312106

Set No. 3

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 AERO SPACE PROPULSION-I (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Air enters a compressor at a pressure of 0.1 Mpa and temperature of 248K. It leaves the compressor at a pressure of 0.65 Mpa. The maximum temperature in cycle is 900oC. Assume the compressor eﬃciency of 80% and turbine eﬃciency of 85%.a pressure drop of 0.15Kpa takes place in the combustion chamber. Determine the compressor work, turbine work and cycle eﬃciency. [16] 2. A turbo-prop driven airplane is ﬂying at 650 Km / h at an altitude where the ambient conditions are 0.458 bar and -15oC. The compressor pressure ratio is 9.5 :1 and the turbine inlet temperature is 1250 K. The isentropic eﬃciencies of compressor and turbine are 0.85 and 0.90 respectively. Assuming that no thrust is generated by the jet exhaust from the engine; calculate the speciﬁc power input available to the propeller. [16] 3. Consider a front air intake for a subsonic turbojet airplane as that for He-178 or F-86 Saber jet. Show the internal layout for the air to be swallowed by the engine. Explain its aerodynamics and thermodynamics in details when the airplane is in its cruising ﬂight. [16] 4. Illustrate with sketches and diagrams, various types of supersonic air inlets employed by aircraft industry. Explain salient features and aerodynamic performance of each of these. [16] 5. Explain the importance of following terms in deciding the performance of a combustion chamber: (a) Combustion Eﬃciency (b) Pressure Loss (c) Combustion Intensity (d) Stability Limits [16]

6. The pressure velocity and temperature of air (γ = 1.4, Cp = 1.0kJ/kg.K) at the entry of a nozzle are 2 bar, 145 m/s and 330K respectively. The exit pressure is 1.5 bar. (a) What is shape of the nozzle (b) Determine for isentropic ﬂow: i. Mach number at entry and exit. ii. The ﬂow rate and maximum possible ﬂow rate. 1 of 2 [16]

Code No: RR312106

Set No. 3

7. A 0.4m diameter rotor of a centrifugal compressor for air is needed to produce a pressure ratio of 3.8. Assuming a polytropic eﬃciency of 0.85, determine the angular speed, total temperature rise and adiabatic eﬃciency. Also determine the input power for a mass ﬂow rate of 2kg/s at 1atm and 288.2K. Assume a slip factor of 0.9. [16] 8. Write notes on the following with respect to axial ﬂow compressors: (a) Three-dimensional blade losses (b) Compressor stall and surge. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [16]

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Code No: RR312106

Set No. 4

III B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 AERO SPACE PROPULSION-I (Aeronautical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Air enters a compressor at a pressure of 0.1 Mpa and temperature of 248K. It leaves the compressor at a pressure of 0.5 Mpa. The maximum temperature in cycle is 900oC. Assume the compressor eﬃciency of 80% and turbine eﬃciency of 85% .a pressure drop of 0.15Kpa takes place in the combustion chamber. Determine the compressor work, turbine work and cycle eﬃciency. [16] 2. A turbo-prop driven airplane is ﬂying at 635 Km / h at an altitude where the ambient conditions are 0.5 bar and -8oC. The compressor pressure ratio is 9.5 :1 and the turbine inlet temperature is 1250 K. The isentropic eﬃciencies of compressor and turbine are 0.85 and 0.90 respectively. Assuming that no thrust is generated by the jet exhaust from the engine; calculate the speciﬁc power input available to the propeller. [16] 3. Consider Ear type air intakes for a subsonic airplane as that for Gnat / Ajit ﬁghter plane. Show the internal layout for the swallowed air to reach the engine. Explain its aerodynamics and thermodynamics in details when the airplane takes a turn of about 5 in its yaw plane. [16] 4. How does a supersonic air intake diﬀer from a subsonic air intake in its appearance and performance? Explain with sketches / diagrams their aerodynamics and thermodynamics. [16] 5. The overall pressure loss factor of a combustion chamber may be assumed to vary with the temperature ratio according to the law ∆p0 = K1 + K2 [(T02 /T01 ) − 1] m2 /2ρ1 A2

m

For a particular chamber having an inlet area of 0.0389m2 and a maximum crosssectional area Am of 0.0975m2, cold loss tests show that K1 has the value of 19. When tested under design conditions, the following readings were obtained: Air mass ﬂow, m = 9.0kg/s Inlet stagnation temperature, T01 = 475K Outlet stagnation temperature, T02 = 1023K Inlet static pressure, p1 = 4.47 bar Stagnation pressure loss = 0.27 bar Estimate the pressure loss at a part load condition for which m is 7.4kg/s, T01 is 439K, T02 is 900K and p1 is 3.52 bar. Also for these two operating conditions, compare the values of the velocity at inlet to the chamber and comment on the result. [16]

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Code No: RR312106

Set No. 4

6. A Froen-turbine has to use a maximum ﬂow rate of 5kg/s of froen employing a ring of convergent nozzle of total exit area of cross-section of 100cm2 . The pressure in the nozzle entry is 2x105 N/m2 . Take Cp = 0.845kJ/kg.K and γ =1.2. Stating the assumptions made, calculate: (a) stagnation temperature. (b) Static temperature and pressure at the nozzle exit. (c) Mach number at the nozzle exit. [16]

7. A single-sided straight vaned centrifugal compressor is required to deliver 10kg/s of air with a total pressure ratio of 4:1 when operating at a speed of 16500rpm. The air inlet pressure and temperature are 1.013bar and 300K respectively. Calculate: (a) Tip speed of the impeller. (b) Actual rise in stagnation temperature. (c) Tip diameter. (d) Inlet eye annulus area. (e) Theoretical power required to drive the compressor. The air enters the eye axially with a velocity of 150m/s. [16] 8. An axial ﬂow compressor takes in 1000 m3 /min of free air at 0.7kgf/cm2 and 50 C.The blades are of airfoil type having chord area and blade length of 19.25cm2 and 6.75cm respectively. Blade ring mean diameter is 60cm and rotational speed is 6000rpm. On each blade ring there are 50 blades and the blades occupy 10 % of the axial area of the ﬂow. The values of CL and CD are 0.6 and 0.05 respectively at zero angle of incidence. Assuming isentropic compression, calculate the pressure rise per blade ring and the theoretical horsepower per stage. Assume axial inlet. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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