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Set No.1

III B.Tech. I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February -2007 KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY (Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) What is meant by inversion of a mechanism? Describe with the help of suitable sketches the inversions of a single slider crank chain. (b) In a Whitworth quick return motion mechanism, as shown in ﬁgure 1, the distance between the ﬁxed centres is 50mm and the length of the driving crank is 75mm. The length of the slotted lever is 150mm and the length of connecting rod is 135mm. Find the ratio of the time of cutting stroke to the time of return stroke and also the eﬀective stroke. [16]

Figure 1: 2. (a) With the help of neat sketch, explain peaucellier straight line mechanism and prove that tracing point describes a straight line path. (b) Two points P and Q, 4cm apart are to be conneced by a pantograph. The motion of P to the motion of Q is 13:7. Find the distance of Q from the ﬁxed point ‘O’ of the pantograph such that the point of P moves at least 12.7 cm in either direction of line OQP when it is horizontal. Find also the main dimensions of the pantograph. [16] 3. In the mechanism, as shown in ﬁgure 2, the crank OA rotates at 20 rpm anticlockwise and gives motion to the sliding blocks B and D. The dimensions of the various links are OA=300mm, AB=1200mm; BC=450mm; CD=450mm. For the given conﬁguration, determine: (a) velocities of sliding at B and D (b) angular velocity of CD (c) linear acceleration of D and 1 of 3

Code No: RR312403

Set No.1

Figure 2: (d) angular acceleration of CD [16]

4. (a) Sketch the Davis gear show that it satisﬁes the condition for correct steering. In spite of this, explain why, in actual practice, Ackermann steering gear, which doesn’t satisfy the above condition in all positions is preferred to the former? (b) A Hooke’s joint connects a shaft running at a uniform speed of 900 rpm to a second shaft. The angle between thier axes being 200 . Find the velocity and acceleration of the driven shaft at the instant when the fork of the driving shaft has turned through an angle of 150 from the plane of containing the shaft axes. [16] 5. Draw a cam proﬁle to drive an oscillating roller follower to the speciﬁcations given below: (a) follower to move outwards through an angular displacement of 200 during the ﬁrst 1200 rotation of cam. (b) follower to return to its initial position of during next 1200 rotation of cam. (c) follower to dwell during the next 1200 of cam rotation The distance between pivot centre and roller centre : 120mm distance between pivot centre and cam axis = 130mm. minimum radius of cam: 40mm; radius of roller : 10mm Inward and outwards strokes takes place with SHM. [16]

6. (a) Derive an expression for minimum number of teeth on the gear wheel in order to avoid the interference.

2 of 3

Code No: RR312403

Set No.1

(b) Two gear wheels mesh externally are used to give a velocity ratio of 3:1. The teeth are of involute form; module=6mm, addendum= one module and pressure angle=200 . The pinion rotates at 250 rpm. Find: i. the no. of teeth on pinion to avoid interference on it and corresponding number on the gear wheel ii. the number of pairs in contact iii. the maximum velocity of sliding. [16] 7. (a) What is meant by slip? Derive the expression for velocity ratio in a compound belt drive by considering slip at all the pulleys. (b) In an open ﬂat belt drive, the diameters of driver and follower pulleys are 0.3m and 0.45m respectively. The width of the belt is 120mm, and the centre distance of the drive is 2m. The maximum tension in the belt is limited to 15 N/mm width. The coe. of friction is 0.35. If the driver pulley rotates at 120 rpm, determine the maximum power that can be transmitted by the drive. Take the density of belt material as 1000 kg/m3 . [16] 8. (a) State how you will determine the torques and the tooth loads on epicyclic gear train. (b) A compound epicyclic gear train is shown in the ﬁgure3. The gear A, D and E are free to rotate on the axis P. The compound gear B and C rotate together on the axis Q at the end of arm F. All the gears have equal module. The no. of teeth on the gears A, B and C are 18, 45 and 21 respectively. The gears D and E are annular gears. The gear A rotates at 120 rpm CCW and the gear D rotates at 450 rpm CW. Find the speed and direction of the arm and the gear E. [16]

3 of 3

Code No: RR312403

Set No.1

Figure 3:

4 of 3

Code No: RR312403

Set No.2

III B.Tech. I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February -2007 KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY (Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) In a quick-return motion mechanism of crank and slotted lever type, the ratio of maximum velocities is 2. If the length of stroke is 25cm, ﬁnd i. the length of slotted lever ii. the ratio of times of cutting and retrun strokes iii. the maximum cutting velocity per second if the crank rotates at 30 rpm. (b) Extend Grubler’s criterion for planar mechanism to obtain the ‘degree of freedom’ of a space mechanism as F= 6(L-1)-5g-4C-4S where g=Total no. of sliding pairs C= Total no. of cylindrical pairs S=Total no. of spherical pairs L=Total no. of links [16]

2. (a) Under what conditions Scott-Russel mechanism traces out a straight line and an ellipse? State the limitations of Scott Russel mechanism. (b) A Grass-Hopper straight line mechanism get its motion from a crank OA. The end A of the crank is joined to a long rod PQ such that QA is 6cm. The end Q is further joined to a long vertical link O1 Q 24cm long moving with centre O1 . The length of rod PQ is also 24cm and its end P describes an approximate vertical straight line. Determine the radius of crank OA. Find also the maximum deviation of P from the vertical straight line in a travel of 6 cm on each side of its mean position. [16] 3. A double slider-crank mechanism is shown in ﬁgure 4 Crank‘2’ rotates at constant angular velocity w2 =10 rad/sec. Determine the velocity and acceleration of each slider. O2 A=100mm, AB=200mm, AC=200mm

4. (a) State precisely what an automobile steering is expected to achieve. Establish the relationship among the parameters of the mechanism necessary for this purpose. (b) The driving shaft of a Hooke’s joint runs at a uniform speed of 240 rpm and the angle ‘α’ between the shaft is 200 . The driven shaft with attached masses has a mass of 55kg at a radius of gyration of 150mm.

1 of 3

Code No: RR312403

Set No.2

Figure 4: i. If a steady torque of 200 N-m resists rotation of the driven shaft, ﬁnd the torque required at the driving shaft when θ = 450 ii. At what value of ‘α’ will the toal ﬂuctuation of the driven shaft be limited to 24 rpm? [16] 5. Derive expressions for displacement, velocity and acceleration for ﬂat-faced follower of a circular cam when (a) the contact is on circular ﬂank, and (b) the contact is on circulat nose Illustrate by graphs how displacement, velocity and acceleration vary from instant to instant during ascent and descent. [16] 6. The following data relate to pair of 200 involute gears in mesh: Module: 6mm; No. of teeth on pinion:17; No. of teeth on gear:49; Addendum on pinion and gear wheel:1 module. Find: (a) the no. of pairs of teeth in contact (b) the angle turned through by the pinion and the gear wheel when one pair of teeth is in contact and (c) the ratio of sliding to rolling motion when the tip of a tooth on the larger wheel i. is just making contact ii. is just leaving contact, with its mating tooth iii. is at the pitch point

[16]

7. (a) Deﬁne creep with respect to belt drives and derive the expression for velocity ratio in belt drive, in presence of creep.

2 of 3

Code No: RR312403

Set No.2

(b) An open belt drive is used to connect two parallel shafts 4m apart. The diameter of bigger pulley is 1.5m and that of smaller pulley is 0.5m. The mass of belt is 1 kg/m length. the maximum tension is not to exceed 1500N. The coe. of friction is 0.25. The bigger pulley, which is the driver, runs at 250 rpm. Due to slip, the speed of driven pulley is 725 rpm. Calculate the power transmitted, Power lost in friction and eﬃciency of the drive. [16] 8. (a) What is an epicyclic Gear Train? In what manner does it diﬀer from a simple or compound Gear train? (b) A compound train consists of six gears. The no. of teeth on the gears are as follows: Gear: A B C D E F No. of teeth: 60 40 50 25 30 24 The gears B and C are on one shaft while gears D and E are on another shaft. The gear A drives gear B, gear C drives gear D and E drives gear F. If the gear A transmits 1.5kw at 100 rpm and the gear train has an eﬃciency of 80%, ﬁnd the torque on gear F. [16]

3 of 3

Code No: RR312403

Set No.3

III B.Tech. I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February -2007 KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY (Automobile Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain diﬀerent kinds of kinematic pairs giving examples for each one of them. (b) Find the equivalent mechanisms with turning pairs for the mechanisms shown in ﬁgure 5.

Figure 5: 2. (a) Figure 6 shows an arrangement for a pantograph. What are the conditions to be satisﬁed for reducing diagram and give the scale of reduction. What are the limitations of this mechanism for the given dimensions. (b) Explain with the help of neat sketch any one approximate straight line mechanism and discuss its limitations. [16] 3. In the mechanism shown in ﬁgure 7 the link O1 A rotates at 24 rad/s. Find the velocity and acceleration of point B, O1 A=75mm; AB=200mm, O2 B=200mm [16] 4. (a) For two shafts connected by a Hooke’s joint show that if shaft ‘1’ has uniform angular velocity w1 , the angular acceleration of shaft ‘2’ is given by (1−sin2 α cos2 θ) where θ is angle of rotation of shaft ‘1’ from the position where its forked end in the plane containing shaft, and α is the angle of deviation of the drive. 1 of 3

∂w2 ∂t

=

2 w1 cos α sin2 α sin 2θ 2

Code No: RR312403

Set No.3

Figure 6:

Figure 7:

2 of 3

Code No: RR312403

Set No.3

(b) Two shafts are to be connected by a Hooke’s joint. The driving shaft is rotated at a uniform speed of 500 rpm and the speed of the driven shaft must be 475 and 525 rpm. Determine the maximum permissible angle between the shafts. [16] 5. A cam, with minimum radius of 25mm, rotating clockwise at a uniform speed is to be designed to give a roller follower, at the end of a valve rod, motion described below: (a) to raise the valve through 50mm during 1200 rotation of the cam (b) to keep the valve fully raised during next 300 (c) to lower the valve during next 600 and (d) to keep the valve closed during rest of the revolution The daimeter of the roller is 20mm and the diameter of the cam shaft is 25mm. Draw the proﬁle of the cam when the line of stroke of the valve rod passes through the axis of the cam shaft. [16] 6. (a) Derive the expressions for path of contact and arc of contact for involute gears, when the points at which engagement commences and terminates are within the points of tangency. (b) The following data relate to two involute spur gears on mesh: Pressure angle= 160 Gear ratio = 1.75 No. of teeth on pinion=61 Pinion speed = 240 rpm module = 6mm In order that the interference does not take place ﬁnd i. the maximum working depth ii. the length of path of contact iii. the maximum velocity of sliding on either side of pitch point.

[16]

7. In an open ﬂat belt drive; the pulley diameters are 300mm and 450mm and the corresponding angles of lap are 1600 and 2000 . The smaller pulley runs at 240 rpm. The coeﬃcient of friction between the pulleys and the belt is 0.3. It is found that the belt is on the point of slipping when 5 kW power is transmitted. To increase the power transmitted; three alternatives are suggested viz; (a) incrreasing the initial tension by 10% (b) increasing the coeﬃcient of friction by 10% (c) decreasing the initial tension by 10% Which of the above three methods would be more eﬀective? [16]

3 of 3

Code No: RR312403

Set No.3

8. (a) Prove that irrespective of whichever wheel is ﬁxed, velocity ratio obtained from a sun and planet gear is less than unity. (b) An epicyclic geartrain, as shown in ﬁgure 8 is composed of a ﬁxed annular wheel A having 150 teeth. The wheel A is meshing with wheel B which drives wheel D through an idle wheel C,D being concentric with A. The wheels B and C are carried on an arm which revolves clockwise at 100 rpm about the axis of A and D. If the wheels B and D have 25 teeth and 40 teeth respectively, ﬁnd the number of teeth on C and the speed and sense of rotation of C. [16]

Figure 8:

4 of 3

Code No: RR312403

Set No.4

1. (a) What is meant by inversion of a mechanism? Describe with the help of suitable sketches the inversions of a Quadric cycle chain. (b) Determine the mobility of the mechanisms in ﬁgure 9. [16]

Figure 9: 2. (a) With the help of a neat sketch explain a pantograph and its principle of working. (b) With the help of a neat sketch explain Hart-straight line motion mechanism and prove that tracing point describes a straight line path. [16] 3. Determine the acceleration of slider C when crank 2 is rotating at 600 rpm clockwise with a retarding angular acceleration of 40 rad/sec2 . (ﬁgure 10) [16] 4. (a) Derive an expression for the ratio of shafts velocities for Hooke’s joint and draw the polar diagram depicting the salient features of driven shaft speed. (b) Angle between axes of two shafts connected by a hooke’s joint is 180 . Determine the angle turned through by the driving shaft 1 of 3

Code No: RR312403

Set No.4

Figure 10: i. when velocity ratio is maximum, minimum and unity and ii. when acceleration of driven shaft is maximum

[16]

5. A cam has straight working faces (tangent) which are tangential to a base circle of diameter 90mm. The follower is a roller of diameter 40mm and the centre of roller moves along a straight line passing through the centre line of the cam shaft. The angle between the tangential faces of the cam is 900 and the faces joined by a nose circle of 10mm radius. The speed of rotation of the cam is 120rpm. Find the acceleration of the roller centre. (a) when during the lift, the roller is just about to leave the straight ﬂank and (b) when the roller is at the outer end of its lift [16]

6. (a) Derive an expression for the lengths of arc of contact for two involute proﬁle gears in mesh. (b) Two mating involute gears of 200 pressure angle have a gear ratio of 2. The no. of teeth on the pinion is 20 and its speed is 300 rpm. The module is 12mm. The addendum on each wheel is such that the path of approach and path of recess on each side are half the maximum possible length each. Determine: i. the addendum for pinion and gear wheel ii. the Length of arc of contact iii. the maximum velocity of sliding during approach and recess 2 of 3

[16]

Code No: RR312403

Set No.4

7. Determine the width of the ﬂat belt required, to transmit power from an electric motor to an air compressor with the following data: Power=15kW Centre distance between pulleys = 1.5m Diameter of motor pulley = 250 mm Speed of motor pulley = 720 rpm Speed of compressor pulley = 180 rpm Permissible tensile stress in the belt material = 1.8 MPa belt slip = 2% coeﬃcient of friction between the belt and pulleys = 0.3 mass density of the belt material = 1000 kg/m3 thickness of the belt = 10mm. [16] 8. (a) Describe a diﬀerential with the help of a sketch. Prove that the two rear wheels will rotate at diﬀerent speeds with its help when rounding a curve. (b) In an epicyclic gear train, as shown in ﬁgure 11 the number of teeth on wheels A, B and C are 50, 25 and 52 respectively. If the arm rotates at 420 rpm CW, ﬁnd i. speed of wheel C when A is ﬁxed, and ii. speed of wheel A when C is ﬁxed [16]

Figure 11:

3 of 3

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