# Code No: RR410102

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FOUNDATION ENGINEERING (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Describe open excavation methods of exploration. What are their advantages and disadvantages? (b) What is a bore log? Give a typical example. [8+8]

2. (a) Discuss the various factors of safety used in the stability analysis of slopes. Show that the factor of safety with respect to cohesion gives the same concept as that of factor of safety with respect to height. (b) Find the critical height of a slope of inﬁnite extent having a slope of 300 . The slope is made of stiﬀ clay having cohesion of 20kN/m2 , angle of internal friction of 200 , void ratio of 0.7 and speciﬁc gravity of 2.7. Consider the following cases for the analysis. [8+8] i. the soil is dry ii. the water seeps parallel to the surface of slope iii. the slope is submerged 3. (a) Compare Rankine’s and Coulomb’s theory of earth pressure. (b) A 5m high rigid retaining wall has to retain a backﬁll of dry, cohesionless soil having the following properties:φ= 300 , void ratio, e= 0.74, G= 2.68 Plot the distribution of Rankine lateral earth pressure on the wall and determine the magnitude and point of application of the resultant thrust. [8+8] 4. (a) Explain how you will determine active pressure by Culmann’s graphical method for cohesionless soil without surcharge line load. (b) What are the stability requirements of a retaining wall? 5. (a) How is a deep foundation diﬀerent from a shallow foundation? (b) Discuss ﬁve important factors aﬀecting bearing capacity of sands. [8+8] [4] [6]

(c) Compute the safe bearing capacity of a continuous footing 2.0 m wide and resting on a clayey sand at a depth of 1.5 m if c = 16 kN/m2 , φ = 250 , γsat = 19 kN/m3 , Nc = 25, Nq = 12.5, Nγ = 10 and F.S.=3.0. [6] 6. (a) The results of a plate load test on a sandy stratum are shown in Table. The size of the plate used is 30 cm 30 cm. determine the size of a square footing for

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Code No: RR410102

Set No. 1
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 4 5.5 9 12.5 19 28 63 [10] [8]

a column carrying a load of 1800 kN with a maximum permissible settlement of 50mm. [6] Load intensity (kN/m2 ) 0 Settlement (mm) 0

(b) Discuss the tolerable settlements of various structures. 7. (a) Discuss diﬀerent methods for the installation of piles.

(b) A timber pile is being driven with a drop hammer weighing 20kN and having a free fall of 1m. The total penetration of the pile in the last ﬁve blows is 30mm. Determine the load carrying capacity of the pile using Engineering News Record formula. [4] (c) What are the diﬀerent circumstances under which a pile foundation is used? [4] 8. (a) Discuss about pile load tests. (b) A group of 12 piles each having a diameter of 500mm and 30 metres long supports a column. The piles are arranged in 3 rows and spaced at 1.25 metres c/c. The properties of the foundation soil (clay) are as follows:-Unit weight = 11 kN/m3 , Unconﬁned compressive strength = 100 kN/m2 .Determine the capacity of the pile group. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410102

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FOUNDATION ENGINEERING (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Discuss with neat sketches any two boring methods used in soil exploration. [10] (b) What is a bore log? Give a typical example. [6]

2. (a) Deﬁne the various factors of safety used in the analysis of stability of slopes. (b) An inﬁnite slope in a sandy soil (with angle of friction of 400 ) has a slope of 300. What is the factor of safety? If there is seepage what will happen to the above factors of safety? [8+8] 3. (a) What are the various types of earth pressures? Give ﬁeld example for each type. [8] (b) A 10m high retaining wall with smooth vertical back supports a horizontal backﬁll (φ= 330 , c= 25kPa, Density above water table 15kN/m3 and below water table 18kN/m3 ). The water table is at a depth of 3m below the surface of the backﬁll. The backﬁll supports a surcharge of 10kPa. Determine the magnitude and line of action of passive earth pressure. [8]

4. Describe Culmann’s graphical method of ﬁnding earth pressure and explain the classical theory of earth pressure on which this procedure is based. Explain how surcharge will aﬀect earth pressure in active and passive states. [16] 5. (a) Explain what is meant by ‘safe bearing capacity’ of soil. Indicate how the bearing capacity shallow footing in a given soil can be calculated from the strength characteristics of the soil. [6] (b) Distinguish clearly between ‘local shear failure’ and ‘general shear failure’ in relation to design of foundations in sands. Where would you expect each of them to occur? What corrections you would incorporate in Terzaghi’s bearing capacity equation to workout bearing capacity when foundation does not fail by general shear but fails by local shear? [10] 6. (a) Describe the procedure of determining the safe bearing capacity based on the standard penetration test. (b) A 1.8 m square column is founded at a depth of 1.8 m in sand, for which the corrected N- value is 24. The water table is at a depth of 2.7 m. Determine the net allowable bearing pressure for a permissible settlement of 40mm and a factor of safety of 3 against shear failure. [8+8] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410102

Set No. 2

7. (a) State the situations where pile foundations are preferred to over other types. [4] (b) State the advantages and disadvantages between cast-in-situ piles and pre-cast pile. [6] (c) Using a drop hammer of 20 kN capacity and the height of drop being 4m. The average penetration over the last 5 blows was 10mm. Determine the allowable load on the pile using Engineering News formula. [6] 8. (a) Discuss about pile load tests. (b) A group of 12 piles each having a diameter of 500mm and 30 metres long supports a column. The piles are arranged in 3 rows and spaced at 1.25 metres c/c. The properties of the foundation soil (clay) are as follows:-Unit weight = 11 kN/m3 , Unconﬁned compressive strength = 100 kN/m2 .Determine the capacity of the pile group. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410102

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FOUNDATION ENGINEERING (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Describe, in brief, various geophysical methods. Discuss their limitations and uses. [16] 2. (a) Discuss the method for checking the stability of an inﬁnite slope in a cohesive soil. What is critical height? [10] (b) A vertical height is to be made in clayey soil for which test gave c= 35 kN/m2 , density= 16 kN/m3 and φ=0. Find the maximum height for which the cut may be temporarily unsupported. Stability number is equal to 0.261. [6] 3. (a) What is meant by critical depth for vertical cut in clays? How is it altered? [6 ] (b) A retaining wall 10.0m high with a smooth vertical back retains horizontal backﬁll. The properties of backﬁll are c=10kPa, φ= 300 , γ= 16kN/m3 , γsat = 20kN/m3 . The backﬁll carries a surcharge of 25kN/m2 . The water table is at a depth of 3.0m below the surface of backﬁll. Sketch the active earth pressure distribution on the back of the wall and determine the magnitude and line of action of resultant active earth pressure. [10] 4. A masonry retaining wall has overall height of 2.4 m, width at top = 0.4 m. If the earth face is vertical, determine minimum width of the wall for the following data: Unit weight of earth retained = 16 kN/m3 ; Angle of shearing resistance, φ=300. Coeﬃcient of friction between the masonry and ground = 0.7.Unit weight of masonry = 22 kN/m3 ; Maximum allowable base pressure = 120 kN/m2 .The top surface of the backﬁll is level. Assume no cohesion between particles of backﬁll. [16] 5. (a) Diﬀerentiate between i. Shallow foundation and deep foundation, ii. Gross and net bearing capacity, iii. Safe bearing capacity and soil pressure. (b) Explain clearly ‘General shear failure’ and ‘Local shear failure’ and indicate the ﬁeld situations under which each type of failure occurs. [10] 6. (a) What is meant by presumptive bearing capacity? Write the presumptive bearing capacity values for diﬀerent soils. (b) The following data is obtained from a plate load test on 60 60 cm plate: [6]

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Code No: RR410102

Set No. 3
0.0 240 480 720 960 1200 1440 1680 0.0 2.0 5.0 7.5 12.0 16.0 23.0 28.0

Pressure (kPa) Settlement(mm)

Plot a log-log graph and estimate the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil. [8+8] 7. (a) Write brief critical note on Engineering News formula. [6]

(b) A reinforced cement concrete pile weighing 35 kN (including helmet and dolly) is driven by a drop hammer weighing 35 kN with an eﬀective fall of 1.0m. The average penetration per blow is 15mm. The total temporary elastic compression of the pile, pile cap and soil may be taken as 18 mm. Coeﬃcient of restitution 0.36. What is allowable load on the pile with a factor of safety of 2? Use Hiley’s formula. [6] (c) What are the limitations of Dynamic pile formulae? [4]

8. (a) In a pile group, what are the geometrical properties that are to be considered in bringing out a proper spacing of piles to ensure or progressively from one side to the other? Explain. (b) A group of 16 piles (diameter= 500cm, length= 14m, centre to centre spacing = 1m) arranged in a square pattern passes through a recent ﬁll (thickness= 3m) overlying a soft clay deposit (thickness= 5m) which is considering under the ﬁll load and rests in a stiﬀ clay. All the strata are saturated. The soil properties of diﬀerent strata are as follows.

Type of soil Fill Soft clay Stiﬀ clay

Unit weight (γ), kN/m3 16 17 21

Strength parameters Cu (kPa) φu 50 0 20 0 70 0

Adhesion parameter(α) 0.60 0.40 0.45 [8+8]

Estimate the ultimate load capacity of the pile group. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR410102

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 FOUNDATION ENGINEERING (Civil Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. What are the phases in a complete subsurface exploration and explain them in detail. [16] 2. (a) How a slope is analyzed using Swedish circle method? Derive an expression for the factor of safety. (b) Calculate the factor of safety of the slice shown in ﬁgure 1 using the given therein. [8+8]

Figure 1: 3. (a) Compare Rankine’s and Coulomb’s theory of earth pressure. (b) A 5m high rigid retaining wall has to retain a backﬁll of dry, cohesionless soil having the following properties:φ= 300 , void ratio, e= 0.74, G= 2.68 Plot the distribution of Rankine lateral earth pressure on the wall and determine the magnitude and point of application of the resultant thrust. [8+8] 4. (a) Explain how you will determine active pressure by Culmann’s graphical method for cohesionless soil without surcharge line load. (b) What are the stability requirements of a retaining wall? [8+8]

5. (a) Diﬀerentiate between diﬀerent shear failure of soils. How the ultimate bearing of local shear is determined. [10] 1 of 2

Code No: RR410102

Set No. 4

(b) A strip footing is required to carry a net load of 1200 kN at a depth of 1 m. Taking a factor of safety of 3, determine the width of the footing. Take φ = 300 , γ = 20 kN/m3 , c = 20 kN/m2 . Use Terzaghi’s theory. Assume general shear failure (Nc = 37, Nq = 22, Nγ ) [6] 6. (a) Explain why bearing capacity equations for clay usually employ the undrained shear strength? (b) A standard penetration test conducted at a 2 m depth and subsequent laboratory tests revealed the soil at a location as medium dense sand with a blow count of 29 blows and a moist unit weight of 18 kN/m3 . It is planned to design a square footing on this sand to carry a load of 3500 kN. As per the design requirement the footing has to be designed for settlement criterion and the maximum total settlement should be limited to 25 mm. The water table is at 6 m from the ground surface. Find the size of the footing. [8+8] 7. (a) Explain the assumptions made in the development of Hiley’s dynamic pile formula. Write down the formula and explain the symbols used. Discus the validity of these formulae in general. [8+8] (b) Write brief notes on i. Timber piles ii. Concrete piles and iii. Steel piles. 8. (a) What are the various approaches available to estimate the load carrying capacity of a pile? (b) Deﬁne group eﬃciency of piles. What is Feld’s rule? How the eﬃciency of pile is reduced in diﬀerent arrangements of piles as per Feld’s rule. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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